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[重要]兰大Science: 农业帮助人类于3600年前开始在青藏高原上实现永久定居

发表于 2014-11-21 21:13 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Science, 20 November 2014; DOI:10.1126/science.1259172

Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 BP.
F. H. Chen, G. H. Dong, D. J. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, X. Jia, C. B. An, M. M. Ma, Y. W. Xie, L. Barton,X. Y. Ren, Z. J. Zhao, X. H. Wu, and M. K. Jones.

- Author Affiliations

1Key Laboratory of Western China’s Environmental Systems (Ministry of Education), Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.
2McDonald Institute of Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3ER, UK.
3Center for Comparative Archaeology, Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA 15260, USA.
4Qinghai Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Xining 810007, China.
5Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100710, China.
6School of Archaeology and Museology, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.
7The Interdisciplinary Program in Archaeology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis MO 63130-48, USA.
↵*Corresponding author. E-mail: (F.H.C.); (G.H.D.)

    Our understanding of when and how humans adapted to living at altitudes above 2000 to 3000 meters of the Tibetan Plateau has been constrained by a paucity of archaeological data. Here we report data sets from the northeastern Tibetan Plateau indicating that the first villages were established only by 5200 years ago. Since 3600 calendar years before the present, a novel agropastoral economy facilitated year-round living at higher altitudes. This successful subsistence strategy facilitated the adaptation of farmers-herders to the challenges of global temperature decline during the late Holocene.

发表: ... cience.1259172.full
附件: ... 172.DC1/Chen.SM.pdf

Chen et al 2014, Agriculture and human on the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 BP.rar

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 楼主| 发表于 2014-11-21 21:16 | 显示全部楼层

Science: 人类需要有大麦才能到达世界屋脊

       尽管有证据显示,人们在该地区的间歇性定居可追溯到至少2万年前,但Fahu Chen (陈发虎教授)和同事说,人们直到大约5200年前才在那里--即所谓的“世界屋脊”--站稳脚跟。而那些早期人类定居者只是在3600年前才知道如何在海拔3000英尺之上生存下来,因为他们说,当时一个跨越大陆的农作物移动给西藏高原带来了大麦、小麦及其它西方谷物。十分有趣的是,研究人员还提出,这一向上的迁徙发生在地球正在变冷的时候。



 楼主| 发表于 2014-11-21 21:21 | 显示全部楼层

来自兰州大学西部环境教育部重点实验室等处的研究人员发表了题为“Agriculture Facilitated Permanent Human Occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3,600 BP”的文章,通过对青藏高原东北地区各地的动物骨骼,植物遗骸及其它人工制品进行分析,指出大麦的出现是人类定居高海拔地区的一个环境条件,这将为更好的理解农作物演化,以及人类迁移提供重要的依据。





2012年Nature公布了大麦基因组测序图谱,构建了4.98 Gb的大麦基因组物理图谱,包括3.90 Gb高分辨率遗传图谱,研究人员用基因组鸟枪法装配和深度RNA测序等数据进行补充。研究确定了79,379个转录本,包括26,159个可信度高的基因。研究人员指出,大麦基因组中丰富的选择性剪切、提前终止密码子和新转录活性区域显示转录后剪切是重要的调控层面。








 楼主| 发表于 2014-11-21 21:26 | 显示全部楼层
报道所说的大麦,指的是青藏高原上的 青稞。 也就是说,青稞的培育是人类能够在 超过海拔2500米高度的地区实现长期定居的根本原因。

研究者所使用的证据极为丰富、过硬, 结果令人信服。
 楼主| 发表于 2014-11-21 21:28 | 显示全部楼层

 楼主| 发表于 2014-11-22 20:35 | 显示全部楼层

[size=0.875em]The introduction of cold-tolerant crops such as barley and wheat may have helped agriculture spread to the roof of the world.

By Lizzie Wade
20 November 2014 2:15 pm

Life above 3000 meters is tough. Not only can the thin air cause gasping and fatigue, but it can also swell brains and fill lungs with fluid, sometimes fatally. Yet people have been living at high altitudes for thousands of years in places like the Andes and the Tibetan Plateau. Now, a group of researchers believes it has identified a key tool that allowed Tibetans to settle at higher and higher elevations: barley.

The Tibetan Plateau, which encompasses the Himalaya Mountains and stretches across 2.5 million square kilometers, seems like a place that would have resisted human settlement. Yet archaeologists know that nomadic hunter-gatherers likely lived there seasonally and possibly year-round by at least 10,000 years ago. How and when agriculture—and the more settled lifestyle it requires—made its way to the higher reaches of the region remained mysterious. To begin to answer the question, a team of Chinese, American, and British researchers reviewed data from past excavations, some of which were conducted as far back as the 1970s. From 53 sites at various elevations and time periods, they managed to collect 63 samples of charred grains suitable for radiocarbon dating.

The new dates yielded an interesting pattern. Before 3600 years ago, farming appears to have been limited to 2500 meters and below. Far and away, the most abundant grain at these sites was millet, which had long been planted across northern China. Then, about 3600 years ago, farmers started climbing higher and higher up on the plateau, reaching as far as 3400 meters above sea level. So what changed?

The researchers think the plateau dwellers got their hands on some barley seeds. Compared with millet, barley is especially tolerant of cold and frost, making it ideal for high-elevation farming in Tibet, as Washington State University archaeologist Jade d’Alpoim Guedes pointed out in previous studies. And at right around 3600 years ago, barley starts showing up all over the Tibetan Plateau, sometimes accompanied by similarly cold-tolerant wheat. At lower elevations, plateau dwellers simply incorporated a bit of barley into their millet-heavy diet, but the high-altitude farmers appear to have abandoned millet altogether and relied almost completely on the new, hardier grain, the team reports online today inScience.

“Barley agriculture could provide people [with] sustained food supplies even during winter,” the three lead authors write in a joint e-mail. “Barley and wheat were first domesticated in [the Fertile Crescent] in West Asia around 10,500 years ago, where the environment is quite different from that in the Tibetan Plateau.” The fact that they thrived in the new, more extreme environment was “a lucky accident.” It’s unclear how and when barley moved from the Fertile Crescent to East Asia.

“It’s a fascinating example of a cultural strategy to tackle a challenging place,” says Kurt Rademaker, an archaeologist at the University of Tübingen in Germany who studies high-elevation settlements in the Andes. Interestingly, the expansion of farming to 3400-plus meters happened just as the climate in Tibet was getting colder—not optimal conditions for settling already chilly higher altitudes. But the barley seems to have made it so that “the climate was no longer a barrier,” Rademaker notes.

Still, agriculture may not have been required for year-round, permanent settlement of the Tibetan Plateau, says Mark Aldenderfer, an archaeologist at the University of California, Merced, who has excavated there for many years. “I think that the 3600-year-ago pulse [of human migration and settlement] is probably one of the very late migrations of people or ideas onto the plateau.” In fact, genetic studies suggest that Tibetans began to exhibit biological adaptions that helped them cope with high-altitude living at least 10,000 years ago, he notes.

But other genetic data suggests that at least one high-elevation gene appeared in Tibetans only between 2750 and 5500 years ago—more in line with the appearance of high-elevation agriculture on the plateau. “With disparate time estimates coming from the genetic studies, we need archaeological data to fix the chronology for when people are present in different places,” Rademaker says. High-elevation sites tend to be particularly difficult to study, so more information about them is “always valuable.”

Posted in Archaeology, Asia/Pacific, Biology, Plants & Animals

 楼主| 发表于 2014-11-22 20:55 | 显示全部楼层
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