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新的证据显示来自欧洲的石器时代猎人最先发现美洲

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发表于 2015-1-11 16:36 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/new-evidence-suggests-stone-age-hunters-from-europe-discovered-america-7447152.html

[size=1.3em]New archaeological evidence suggests that America was first discovered by Stone Age people from Europe – 10,000 years before the Siberian-originating ancestors of the American Indians set foot in the New World.

[size=1.3em]A remarkable series of several dozen European-style stone tools, dating back between 19,000 and 26,000 years, have been discovered at six locations along the US east coast. Three of the sites are on the Delmarva Peninsular in Maryland, discovered by archaeologist Dr Darrin Lowery of the University of Delaware. One is in Pennsylvania and another in Virginia. A sixth was discovered by scallop-dredging fishermen on the seabed 60 miles from the Virginian coast on what, in prehistoric times, would have been dry land.
The new discoveries are among the most important archaeological breakthroughs for several decades - and are set to add substantially to our understanding of humanity's spread around the globe.
The similarity between other later east coast US and European Stone Age stone tool technologies has been noted before. But all the US European-style tools, unearthed before the discovery or dating of the recently found or dated US east coast sites, were from around 15,000 years ago - long after Stone Age Europeans (the Solutrean cultures of France and Iberia) had ceased making such artefacts. Most archaeologists had therefore rejected any possibility of a connection. But the newly-discovered and recently-dated early Maryland and other US east coast Stone Age tools are from between 26,000 and 19,000 years ago - and are therefore contemporary with the virtually identical western European material.
What’s more, chemical analysis carried out last year on a European-style stone knife found in Virginia back in 1971 revealed that it was made of French-originating flint.
Professor Dennis Stanford, of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington DC, and Professor Bruce Bradley of the University of Exeter, the two leading archaeologists who have analysed all the evidence, are proposing that Stone Age people from Western Europe migrated to North America at the height of the Ice Age by travelling (over the ice surface and/or by boat) along the edge of the frozen northern part of the Atlantic. They are presenting their detailed evidence in a new book - Across Atlantic Ice – published this month.
At the peak of the Ice Age, around three million square miles of the North Atlantic was covered in thick ice for all or part of the year.
However, the seasonally shifting zone where the ice ended and the open ocean began would have been extremely rich in food resources – migrating seals, sea birds, fish and the now-extinct northern hemisphere penguin-like species, the great auk.
Stanford and Bradley have long argued that Stone Age humans were quite capable of making the 1500 mile journey across the Atlantic ice - but till now there was comparatively little evidence to support their thinking.
But the new Maryland, Virginia and other US east coast material, and the chemical tests on the Virginian flint knife, have begun to transform the situation. Now archaeologists are starting to investigate half a dozen new sites in Tennessee, Maryland and even Texas – and these locations are expected to produce more evidence.
Another key argument for Stanford and Bradley’s proposal is the complete absence of any human activity in north-east Siberia and Alaska prior to around 15,500 years ago. If the Maryland and other east coast people of 26,000 to 19,000 years ago had come from Asia, not Europe, early material, dating from before 19,000 years ago, should have turned up in those two northern areas, but none have been found.
Although Solutrean Europeans may well have been the first Americans, they had a major disadvantage compared to the Asian-originating Indians who entered the New World via the Bering Straits or along the Aleutian Islands chain after 15,500 years ago.
Whereas the Solutreans had only had a 4500 year long ‘Ice Age’ window to carry out their migratory activity, the Asian-originating Indians had some 15,000 years to do it. What’s more, the latter two-thirds of that 15 millennia long period was climatologically much more favourable and substantially larger numbers of Asians were therefore able to migrate.
As a result of these factors the Solutrean (European originating) Native Americans were either partly absorbed by the newcomers or were substantially obliterated by them either physically or through competition for resources.
Some genetic markers for Stone Age western Europeans simply don’t exist in north- east Asia – but they do in tiny quantities among some north American Indian groups. Scientific tests on ancient DNA extracted from 8000 year old skeletons from Florida have revealed a high level of a  key probable European-originating genetic marker. There are also a tiny number of  isolated Native American groups whose languages appear not to be related in any way to Asian-originating American  Indian peoples.
But the greatest amount of evidence is likely to come from under the ocean – for most of the areas where the Solutreans would have stepped off the Ice onto dry land are now up to 100 miles out to sea.
The one underwater site that has been identified - thanks to the scallop dredgers – is set to be examined in greater detail this summer – either by extreme-depth divers or by remotely operated mini submarines equipped with cameras and grab arms.

发表于 2015-1-22 07:00 | 显示全部楼层
抱歉,这大段英文看着吃力,楼主帮翻译一下
发表于 2015-8-31 18:29 | 显示全部楼层
俺的《龙华起信论》也就是《亚特兰蒂斯新解》。
发表于 2018-1-20 10:20 | 显示全部楼层
我原来用另一个小号翻译的该文已经被删除,呜呼!
看到一个新闻,或许对于远古曾有部分“(塞人+)岛夷”祖先经海路发现美洲之假设是一个实验性质的例证:

汕大女生横渡大西洋破世界纪录 李嘉诚为其打call
2018-01-19 07:31中国新闻网评论(499人参与)
[url=][/url]

A-A+
汕头大学女生划艇渡大西洋夺冠破世界纪录 李嘉诚基金会 摄
  中新网汕头1月18日电(李怡青 陈益纯)记者在汕头大学采访获悉,汕大4名“90后”女生组成“KungFuCha-Cha”队(“功夫茶茶”队)参加泰斯卡威士忌跨大西洋划艇挑战赛,于北京时间18日8时30分左右抵达北美安提瓜(Antigua)登岸,获女子队冠军并破4项世界纪录。

汕头大学女生划艇渡大西洋夺冠破世界纪录 李嘉诚基金会 摄
  功夫茶茶队是首支划渡大西洋的中国队伍,也是首支划渡大西洋的亚洲队伍。这支划渡大西洋史上最年轻的参赛队伍中,4人平均年龄23.5岁(参赛者平均年龄33.58岁)。她们夺得女子队冠军并以34天13小时13分的成绩,冲破两年前的世界纪录40天8小时。
汕头大学女生划艇渡大西洋夺冠破世界纪录 李嘉诚基金会 摄
  泰斯卡威士忌跨大西洋划艇挑战赛是世界上难度最大的海上挑战体能极限的赛事。划手们从西班牙拉戈梅拉岛的圣塞巴斯蒂安出发,划行约5000公里,最终到达北美安提瓜,有25支队伍参赛。
汕头大学女生划艇渡大西洋夺冠破世界纪录 李嘉诚基金会 摄
  在李嘉诚基金会的支持下,“功夫茶茶”以个人名义组队参加4人组别比赛。
汕头大学女生划艇渡大西洋夺冠破世界纪录 李嘉诚基金会 摄
  此次比赛划手们必须连续30多天在不足4平方米的艇上生活,并24小时不间断划行。据校方介绍,在赛事第8日,连续数天遇上35海里/小时强风,黑夜中雷电交加,海面翻起巨浪。赛事后期,还收到两次7.8级地震和海啸警报。在每个紧急关头,同学们无惧艰险,展现其能力和判断力,继续前进,当知道还有12小时可达终点时,斗志更为昂扬。
汕头大学女生划艇渡大西洋夺冠破世界纪录 李嘉诚基金会 摄

  李嘉诚每天用手机的卫星追踪程序看她们进度,为她们的勇气和努力感到骄傲。李嘉诚认为:“教育的意义和任务,除了传承,还要让下一代在更大的舞台上实践自己,任何办学者应该思考如何成就这目标。”(完)
责任编辑: GDN002



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几个女娃,花三十余天就能横渡大西洋!经纬坐标和饮食保障应该很可靠,所以容易而不色难,不同化身精卫了!由此联想到数万年前,是否也有过如此令人敬畏的壮举呢?假如冰河时期格陵兰和冰岛到北欧之间大部分为冰盖(或冬季冰盖),那也跟陆地差不多。冰盖边缘海鸟海兽以及一些鱼群会很多(鸟兽排泄物会让冰盖边缘变成渔场),原始人即使只像爱斯基摩人那样掌握小船驾驶和渔猎技能,吃冰雪(淡水),吃鱼虾鸟兽,即使没有目的性——窃以为有目的性更自然,毕竟高纬度更对太阳敏感,夸父追日那般西寻太阳也是很正常的心思,跨洋寻日,难怪美洲神话总是“水和太阳”的主题。后世哥伦布虽然是寻觅黄金,但是他为自己起的名字是“夸父——Columbus”,言与神同在,助他渡苦海。“一字千金起名社”诚盼第一桶金!

有些习语,即使中外结合,但是人们能习以为常、觉得习惯就好,也是言与神同在,悠久的文化基因在内里起崇高作用!
打call——达卡——打狗(高雄)——达喀尔——大衮——德干——朵甘
My God——麻姑——妈阁(妈祖)——马谷山——蒙古——莫高窟——吴哥窟——曼谷——芒高——湄公——麦加——玛格丽特
comfort——功夫(内练修心,外练防身;吃得苦中苦,为得大舒服)——工夫(共工,一起做事,虽费工夫,然而出工;若女字下工夫,能得好丈夫)
大型集体运动也真锻炼人,那几个女娃经历了跨洋航行后,明显更美了许多!修行大概也是如此,真正优秀的就是那些有修的,俊男靓女所谓积德的祖先,莫不是超越常人的努力探索的成功者!赞!
发表于 2018-1-20 15:14 | 显示全部楼层
这艇应该和美洲杯的帆船一样的材料做的,贵了去了。
发表于 2018-1-20 22:21 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-1-20 23:12 编辑

沿着冰盖边缘迁徙跟热带沿海差别只在于温度,甚至更不缺淡水。所以很可行的说!船,皮筏子或独木舟就行。估计美洲大陆2万年以前的遗址可能就是两个方向分别从科迪勒拉冰盖西缘海边和北大西洋-北冰洋冰盖迁徙的两拨人交汇的。等于塞人岛夷两个方向探索世界的结合,后来(不明何故)诞生了亚特兰蒂斯文明(举世闻名的巨石文明真的难以解释)。只是亚特兰蒂斯文明大部分被全新世之初的大灾变给破坏了。只有少部分逃难成功,传播文化,成为新的播火者——不花剌(活着——火者——和卓)——不花(类似不屠何——徒何,不花——华)——大夏(袋熊转引宋镇豪的观点认为,李学勤先生所言“亚形中画兕形”的族徽标识或应为“后癸”母族的标志。呵呵,为本人考证“亚洲——阿夏——大夏”增益语言证明,兕亚反切比较接近“夏”的发音)?“安次”、“厌次”、“阿提拉”、“阿尔赞”、“崦嵫”、“奄蔡”发音很接近“亚特兰蒂斯”的。

熵变是混乱度的表征!温度升高熵变增加,其实极端情况就多。就好像原子处于激化态,轨道活跃度增大,会更频繁跑到内层外层轨道做客!以此类推宏观宇宙,应该是也如此(熵增原理是量子与宏观世界普遍规律)。现在说全球变暖,其实极端炎热和极端严寒还有风火水地大事变就多了。所以感觉冰河最盛期可能是年度气候相对最稳定的时期,冷静,寒冷导致安宁,相对来说因为气候稳定,生物生存也比较安逸,各种巨兽种群庞大,所以人类在冰盖边缘生活也不困难,难怪冰河期北方还有那么多遗址。但是冰河末期要转为间冰期时候,气候变暖,那就是温度增加连带熵增,气候系统混乱度增大,所以极端天气就多了(很多冰河遗存其实正好是在冰河晚期发生冰冻、洪水等灾变才保留得比较完整,因为大灾情况下大群动物没法逃生,植物也容易被保存到冻土里)。

日前新闻说德国刮飓风了,阿拉斯加最近也刮了,还掩埋了几十头麝牛。看来全球变暖的确造成了全球气候体系的不稳定哟!

The terrifying 'ice tsunami' driven by 100mph winds that buried alive an ENTIRE herd of mysterious musk oxen in Alaska

  • The pack of 52 were were literally buried alive, leaving only a few tufts of hair
  • They died in a lagoon area at the northern coast of the Bering Land Bridge
  • During the violent storm, these hardy creatures descended to the water
  • However, they were quickly trapped and frozen by the rising tide
ByPhoebe Weston For Mailonline
Published: 15:32 GMT, 19 January 2018 | Updated: 16:16 GMT, 19 January 2018
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A savage 'ice tsunami' in Alaska buried alive a whole herd of musk oxen leaving all but one 'wholly submerged', researchers have found.
With blizzards raging at between 60 to 100mph (128 - 160km/h), the pack of more than 50 were buried alive, leaving only a few tufts of hair poking out.
During the violent storm, these hardy creatures - whose ancestors managed to survive the last Ice Age - descended to the water but were quickly trapped and frozen by the rising tide.
Scroll down for video

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During the dramatic event, the water rose rapidly and chunks of sea ice were driven up to a mile inland. The pack of more than 50 were were buried alive (pictured)


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A savage 'ice tsunami' in Alaska buried alive a whole herd of musk oxen (pictured) leaving all but one 'wholly submerged', researchers have found

WHAT HAPPENED?During the violent storm, these hardy creatures - which managed to survive the last Ice Age - descended to the water but were quickly trapped and frozen by the rising tide.
As the water rose, chunks of sea ice were driven up to a mile inland.
'Accompanied by a fusion of shattered shore ice with plates up to 50cm [1.6 feet] thick and 5m [15 feet] long, the tidal surge trapped at least 52 animals', researchers wrote in their paper published in Scientific Reports.
Historical records give details of sea ice trapping 150 narwhals, 170 belugas in southern Beringia and 100 in the eastern Artctic.

[url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url]

'We looked down out of the plane, and all there was was white,' biologist Marci Johnson who works at the US National Park Service told The Atlantic.
'It was just ice. There was normally a group of 50-plus black dots', she said, talking about a lagoon area at the northern coast of the Bering Land Bridge.
'We got a little closer and realised there were little tufts of hair sticking out or a horn sticking out. We were looking at 52 on the ground that had been trapped in the ice'.

During the dramatic event, the water rose rapidly and chunks of sea ice were driven up to a mile inland.
'Accompanied by a fusion of shattered shore ice with plates up to 50cm [1.6 feet] thick and 5m [15 feet] long, the tidal surge trapped at least 52 animals', researchers wrote in their paper published in Scientific Reports.
'All but one was wholly submerged', they said.


'Known as an ivu or ivuniq in Iñupiaq, the language of indigenous northern-coastal Alaskans, these wind-driven polar ice-override surges pile ice to 4m [13 feet] high'.
'It was in May when the ice thawed that the bodies could be seen better', Dr Berger told MailOnline, having happened three months previously.
Despite their name, these creatures are in fact more closely related to wild sheep and mountain goats than cattle.

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In this image, a female musk ox shelters in a snow hole. Despite their name, these creatures are in fact more closely related to wild sheep and mountain goats than cattle


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With blizzards raging at between 60 to 100mph (128 - 160km/h), the pack of more than 50 were were buried alive, leaving only a few tufts of hair poking out (pictured)


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Despite their name, these creatures are in fact more closely related to wild sheep and mountain goats than cattle. Pictured in the foreground is a bit of hair from one of the musk oxen buried below the snow

CLIMATE CHANGE AND MUSK OXEN YOUNGResearchers also believe climate change could be harming musk oxen young.
Their research has shown that babies born during rain-on-snow events gave birth to smaller and less healthy babies.
'When the mother is gestating, if she can't get food, then it has a long-term effect on the well-being of her growing fetus', one of the researchers, Joel Berger from Colorado State University, told the Atlantic.
In the Canadian arctic these rain-on-snow events have become three times more common in recent years.
The US government warned the Arctic showed 'no sign of returning to [the] reliably frozen region of recent past decades.'
In 2003 around 20,000 musk oxen died in the Canadian Arctic after a severe rain-on-snow event.


Weighing at around 800 pounds (360kg) they are the Arctic's largest land mammal and were extinct in Russia for centuries until 1975.
'Our results illustrate how once unusual, but increasingly frequent Arctic weather events affect some cold-adapted mammals', researchers wrote.
Historical records give details of sea ice trapping 150 narwhals, 170 belugas in southern Beringia and 100 in the eastern Arctic.
Researchers also believe climate change could be harming musk oxen young.
Their research has shown that babies born during rain-on-snow events gave birth to smaller and less healthy babies.
'When rain-on-snow events occur, then basically [a musk-ox mother] doesn't have access to her salad bowl for a long period of time because it's frozen,' Joel Berger from Colorado State University, told the Atlantic.
'When the mother is gestating, if she can't get food, then it has a long-term effect on the well-being of her growing fetus', he said.
'Think about an undernourished kid—if you're born small, then you may be impacted for most of your life.'
Their research showed these events reduced the size of the musk oxen head from birth to puberty at around the age of four.

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Pictured (a) is a herd of musk oxen in Bering Land Bridge, Alaska on February 14, 2011; (b) and (c) the two most visible carcasses after the 'ice tsunami'. Pictured (d) is a normal tidal flow at NOAA's Red Dog station, along with predicted and observed water levels before and after the wind-whipped tidal surge


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Weighing at around 800 pounds (360kg) they are the Arctic's largest land mammal and were extinct in Russia for centuries until 1975 (stock image)


In the Canadian arctic these rain-on-snow events have become three times more common in recent years.
The US government warned the Arctic showed 'no sign of returning to [the] reliably frozen region of recent past decades.'
Although the ice tsunami was not necessarily caused by climate change researchers believe it was an unusual event.
According to studies by Nasa and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 2016 was the third year in a row to set a new record for global average surface temperatures.
'Warming patterns are most extreme in the polar regions, particularly in the Arctic', said Dr Berger, writing for the Conversation.

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Researchers looked at extreme events in three study sites: Bering land Bridge (BLB), Cape Thompson (CT), and Wrangel Island (WI). Yellow circles and figurines denote locations and species/taxa affected by extreme icing events


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Climate change could also be harming musk oxen young. They found that babies born during rain-on-snow events gave birth to smaller and less healthy babies (pictured)


'In 2002 a winter rain-on-snow event on Canada’s Banks Island encased the ground in ice and prevented musk oxen from reaching their food supply. Some 20,000 animals died', he said.
Dr Berger notes that although we know a lot about enormous changes in the polar environments, we know less about how these changes are affecting individual populations.
Researchers measured the size of these creatures using a technique called photogrammetry, which involves making measurements from photos.
They take a number of photos at known distances and angles and use thse shots to develop algorithms and estimate their size.
'By comparing our estimates with data on the growth and size of captive animals, we can explore how factors like winter and summer temperatures, availability and health of vegetation, and rain-on-snow events affect wild musk oxen’s growth and size', Dr Berger said.
'Cold-adapted species have figured out how to survive across thousands of generations.
'To dampen climatic challenges, we humans need to modify our behaviour in a far shorter time frame'

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5288529/Horrific-aftermath-terrifying-ice-tsunami.html#ixzz54jbGu700
Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

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'Known as an ivu or ivuniq in Iñupiaq, the language of indigenous northern-coastal Alaskans, these wind-driven polar ice-override surges pile ice to 4m [13 feet] high'

“ivuniq ” 发音接近“尹余吾”、“医巫闾”、“鄂温克”、“夷吾”、“义乌”、“伊吾卢”、“伊万”,也挺奇怪!
发表于 2018-1-20 22:47 | 显示全部楼层
原来法国拍过一个科教片,叫做《冰河时代的哥伦布》,就是讲一些法国的旧石器猎人,因为冰川的不断南移,在一位酋长的带领下,穿越北大西洋冰盖,以海豹为食,到达北美。
发表于 2018-1-21 14:03 | 显示全部楼层
上帝莫非是瘟神?试想,生殖力竞争、瘟疫、战争、水旱冷热灾害、资源竞争、以及各种因素间接导致的饥荒,哪一个是消灭大量人口的神器?
有没可能尼安德特人、欧洲旧石器时代克罗马农人、欧洲新石器人还有世界上各地史前的人口,大部分都是被瘟疫消灭的(虽然传说从亚特兰蒂斯到大禹时代,是多次洪水灭世)?少部分才是生存竞争引发的战争消灭的?然后才是生殖力竞争?到了农业社会以后才主要以资源争夺为主(但是各种灾害尤其是瘟疫仍然常常发生)?
瘟疫——win?
可汗——寒?
瘟寒疾疫定人世呀!冥冥中,选择权,就是那个生物武器的制造者——上帝之手在操纵呀!上帝的色子,甩出五色瘟疫!!!

墨西哥阿兹特克文明快速覆灭 欧洲征服者5年害死8成中美洲人口


来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年1月20日 10:44







墨西哥阿兹特克文明快速覆灭,欧洲征服者5年害死8成中美洲人口

(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据ETtoday:位于现墨西哥的阿兹特克(Aztec)帝国曾是14至16世纪中美洲最大、最繁荣的帝国,但在西班牙殖民者入侵后,将近8成的人民就在短短5年内死于「大瘟疫」(huey cocoliztli),间接造成帝国崩解。墨西哥最新研究解开这500年前的谜团,从阿兹特克人遗骸口中所刮出的DNA判断,瘟疫源头就是欧洲征服者身上所带来的肠道沙门氏菌(Salmonella)。

德国一考古团队在《自然生态与演化》(Nature Ecology & Evolution)期刊上发表论文指出,他们从一座专门埋葬「大瘟疫」死者的公墓刮取了24具骸骨的DNA,与5具在西班牙殖民者到来前死去的遗体DNA进行分析,发现在那24具遗体中,就有10具带有疑似为肠道沙门氏菌的细菌DNA,而那5具遗体则没有。

研究共同作者维珍(Ashild Vagene)表示,大部分的DNA都无法保存太久,因此能在24具遗体中找到10具带有沙门氏菌的细菌DNA,已是非常不容易的事情,「这场瘟疫是欧洲人带给墨西哥最大的浩劫之一,历史学家们争论了百多年,现在终于可以从古老的DNA中直接判断。」

研究团队指出,虽然目前还无法直接证明沙门氏菌就是大瘟疫的真凶,但根据当年的医学记录显示,阿兹特克人发病的症状与该细菌感染后的症状相似,包括持续发烧、头痛、腹痛、红疹和肠道出血等,这与疟疾、麻疹的症状并不一样。

实际上,沙门氏菌早在中世纪就出现在欧洲,之后随着欧洲人入侵中美洲,也将身上的病毒一并带入,让从没接触、身上没有抗体的美洲土着毫无防御能力,导致大量人口死亡。

阿兹特克存是墨西哥古文明,曾是美洲最繁荣的帝国,拥有自己的精密历法,还拥有发达的灌溉和建筑技术,打造出令人惊叹的特诺奇蒂特兰古城(Tenochtitlan,阿兹特克帝国首都),他们崇拜太阳,会在每年的10月举行火神祭,将透过战争所俘虏到的临近部落居民作为人牲,投入火中并在断气之前拉出火堆,再将人牲仍跳动的心脏取出。

哥伦布(Christopher Columbus)在500年前发现美洲大陆,西班牙随即派遣军队前往今日的墨西哥一带,用武力进行征服及占领,但让阿兹特克人快速覆灭的元凶是在西元1545爆发的怪病,被感染的人会出现高烧、头痛,脸上出现红疹,甚至眼睛口鼻不断出血,几天之内就回天乏术,短短5年内,就有多达1500万人因此丧生。
发表于 2018-1-21 16:09 | 显示全部楼层
……
comfort——功夫(内练修心,外练防身;吃得苦中苦,为得大舒服)——工夫(共工,一起做事,虽费工夫,然而出工;若女子下工夫,能得好丈夫!——喂,谁稀罕我?诗人还没成家——)
大型集体运动也真锻炼人,那几个女娃经历了跨洋航行后,明显更美了许多!修行大概也是如此,真正优秀的就是那些有修的,俊男靓女所谓积德的祖先,莫不是超越常人的努力探索的成功者!赞!
癯鹤 发表于 2018-1-20 10:20

嗨,运动健身!“细胞核越小,动物的预期寿命越长。在果蝇和啮齿类动物中也发现了类似的规律。科学家发现,动物进行频繁体力活动会导致细胞核减小。”我们家族本来是武术传家,不过可惜我们基本都是资质平平,没能练成什么武功。我这人更是因为要学习,没能练出什么武功(至今顶多会一趟拳术)。不过家族中确实长寿者多,族长现在一百多岁了。可惜,因为内奸外贼作祟,现在我都没去看望过他!人生之恨,国族之仇,后方不安,何以德厚!?虽仁慈忠孝,礼让信义,都为狗官刁民侵害而瓦解!以文武传家,尚不足以致富,带不起乡民,却为奸细挑拨离间招贼作乱污染破坏,而至于让村集体离心离德!合村奇耻大辱,数姓无能为力,呜呼!

科学家发现预测寿命长短的简单方法


来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年1月21日 11:32






科学家发现预测寿命长短的简单方法

(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)来自德国、荷兰、美国和日本的科学家发现了一个确认寿命的简单方法。相关研究发布在《自然》子刊《自然·通讯》(Nature Communications)上。

专家们发现了自由生活线虫细胞核大小与它们的寿命之间的相互关系。细胞核越小,动物的预期寿命越长。在果蝇和啮齿类动物中也发现了类似的规律。科学家发现,动物进行频繁体力活动会导致细胞核减小。

对60岁以上人群的肌肉组织活检显示,这一规律对人同样适用。

研究人员还确定,细胞核越小,其中核仁纤维蛋白含量越少。科学家认为,细胞核大小可以作为预计寿命长度的指标。
发表于 2018-1-27 20:40 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-1-27 21:00 编辑

《列子·周穆王》:“西极之南隅有国焉,不知境界之所接,名古莽之国。阴阳之气所不交,故寒暑亡辨;日月之光所不照,故昼夜亡辨。其民不食不衣而多眠。五旬一觉,以梦中所为者实,觉之所见者妄。四海之齐谓中央之国,跨河南北,越岱东西,万有馀里。其阴阳之审度,故一寒一暑;昏明之分察,故一昼一夜。其民有智有愚。万物滋殖,才艺多方。有君臣相临,礼法相持。其所云为,不可称计。一觉一寐,以为觉之所为者实,梦之所见者妄。东极之北隅有国,曰阜落之国。其土气常燠,日月馀光之照其土,不生嘉苗。其民食草根水实,不知火食。性刚悍,强弱相藉,贵胜而不尚义;多驰步,少休息,常觉而不眠。”
这一段很有可思索的地方。古莽之国,阴阳之气所不交,说明气候接近常热或高寒,日月之光所不照,说明可能是地下穴居。我试着把该国推测为卡帕多西亚一带。中央之国明显说的是咱们中国,不需要多自夸,做我们的中国梦就好!阜落之国,很可能接近北极圈一带——日月馀光之照其土,不生嘉苗。其民食草根水实,不知火食。看着很像泛北极部落的生活呀!我忘了最近在哪个帖子说过,全球变暖温度升高熵增加,会增加气候系统不稳定因素,出现极端天气,而冰河期全球低温,系统熵较低,极端天气不多,甚至冰川附近气候可能也就类似接近现代北欧的气候也说不准,稳定,倒显得常温暖?会不会是对白令吉亚冰河期的写照呢?毕竟那时还有跟儒艮差不多的大海牛,海牛多是热带动物,大海牛在寒带生活,挺不容易的,还有寒带草原有很多大型动物,也确实需要有稳定的气候和植被才行。海生的大海牛种群和陆生的猛犸披毛犀等巨兽在冰河时代还能大量生活,在冰河结束时却走向灭绝或大量减少(大海牛明显不适应全新世,不然何以种群数量越来越少)——人类猎杀因素明显次要,因为大海牛这种动物并非北冰洋部落主要渔获对象,说明气候系统熵变确实是影响物种进化的重要外在因素。当然气候再温暖,北极也肯定不如温带温暖,寒暑温差也不会小于温带,“土气常燠”,或许就是一些火山附近有温泉之类罢了。这个在白令吉亚边缘倒是有的,比如勘察加和阿留申群岛还有阿拉斯加南部山地,都在板块边缘火山带(建议,重点搜索这些地方,看看有没有冰河期的庞贝城)。
“阜落”发音接近“帕劳”、“缚娄”、“肥如”、“弗罗伦萨”、“法兰西”、“弗洛伊德”、“福楼拜”、“福临”、“蒲牢”、“法老”,可能为岛夷古语。按本人推测古Y-P曾从东南亚沿海北上到达东北亚,然后在南西伯利亚分化出Y-R、Y-Q,Y-R就此向西,Y-Q主要向东,并跟东亚土著结合通婚,成了最早的黄种人并东进美洲(先在白令吉亚),当然也数次有部分西返的(塞人,有冰河期回返的,有亚特兰蒂斯时期回返的),也就是现在欧亚的Y-Q群体。
由此可见,我们古人对北方不是有记忆就是有科考。尤其是楚人,似乎跟鲜卑关系密切。越是楚人,越因为为国南乡,远离故土,对北方的怀念越深,在文学作品中各种提及。把楚科奇跟楚人联系,信有道理,楚科奇——楚人科考的地方,勘察加——华夏勘察过的地方!科里亚克——clear呀,亚克西,清楚,大清-楚人,呵呵,都是故土!亡秦必楚,亡清必楚,辛亥革命,欢喜冤家!阿拉斯加,压没理家!
汉代以前,中国人已经知道北极的情形了左右, 冰山, 中国人, 屈原, 北极

《尸子》:“北极左右有不释之冰”
《招魂》屈原记述: “北方不可以止些 ,层冰峨峨 ,飞鲜千里些” ,汉代王逸注 “言北方常寒,
其冰重累峨峨如山”


--------------------这是描述北极的冰原和冰山吧。

《神异经》载:北方有层冰万里,厚百丈 有溪鼠在冰下土中,其形如鼠,食冰草 肉重千斤

--------------------这是描述海象吗?


“北方之极,自九泽穷 (尽至) 夏晦之极” ,高诱注 “夏、大也。晦、暝(黑)也《淮南子 》时则又记述道 “北极,日光所不 照 ,旧月之光所不照,故昼夜亡无辨 ”《列子 》 洞冥记 》
---------------------这是描述北极的昼夜吧。

南粤高凉仔 发表于 2011-10-22 11:02 (——癯鹤备注:所引原贴红字部分似乎不确,所引《淮南子·时则训》为之前那句话,红字部分引文应为《列子·周穆王》的古莽之国“阴阳之气所不交,故寒暑亡辨;日月之光所不照,故昼夜亡辨。”本人专门查了一下,上面有详述
(自:http://www.ranhaer.org/thread-16892-1-1.html
九泽,具体是哪里,或许不太明确,可能泛指北方的大泽。而北狄尚九,“鲜卑”、“沃沮”等族名都跟水泽有关,或许指的是冰河期之后,北方大片沼泽湖泊,“夏晦”发音有点接近“萨哈”或“雅库特”,那里大概就俩季节,一是夏季,白天很长,一是晦季,也就是冬季,白天很短。故称“夏晦”,夏晦之极,就会有极昼极夜了。难怪楚人思念北方,而秦汉人物雕塑的样貌颇有一丝懒懒的北亚特征。
而Y-Q作为先征服中原的北方汉子,对于后来居上的鬼方、楚人、夏人(这个可以商榷,作为后世汉人追溯的正统,还是要争的)、戎狄、鲜卑、突厥、契丹、女真、蒙古、满洲难免不怀有怨气哟!放宽心即可,天下乃有德者之天下,长江后浪推前浪,后浪把前浪拍死在沙滩上,牢骚太盛防肠断,风物长宜放眼量,习以为常,习惯就好!
发表于 2018-1-27 22:17 | 显示全部楼层
原来法国拍过一个科教片,叫做《冰河时代的哥伦布》,就是讲一些法国的旧石器猎人,因为冰川的不断南移,在一位酋长的带领下,穿越北大西洋冰盖,以海豹为食,到达北美。
lindberg 发表于 2018-1-20 22:47

http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0886500/

记错了,英国加拿大合拍的。

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发表于 2018-1-27 23:56 | 显示全部楼层
新年以来,我们这里前几天下过两场极薄的雪,地皮都盖不满。今天终于下了场还像样子的小雪,雪比较细滑,不像规则六角花朵形状的。一个多钟头前积雪大概一厘米多了(只有食指指尖指甲长度那么深)。现在应该更深些了。不敢跟南方网友夸示,以免班门弄斧,特为话题引子:



……
能接近北极圈一带——日月馀光之照其土,不生嘉苗。其民食草根水实,不知火食。看着很像泛北极部落的生活呀!我忘了最近在哪个帖子说过,全球变暖温度升高熵增加,会增加气候系统不稳定因素,出现极端天气,而冰河期全球低温,系统熵较低,极端天气不多,甚至冰川附近气候可能也就类似接近现代北欧的气候也说不准,稳定,倒显得常温暖? ...
癯鹤 发表于 2018-1-27 20:40

冰河末期气候转暖时期及其他全球变暖时期,却往往是气候系统熵变增大极端天气增多的时期。无怪乎越是这种时候,越容易出现因极端天气及次生灾害导致的生物死亡甚至物种灭绝现象。


哈萨克斯坦遭受暴风雪侵袭气温降到-56℃ 野兔和狗惨遭原地冻死



来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年1月27日 16:58






哈萨克斯坦遭受暴风雪侵袭气温降到-56℃,野兔和狗惨遭原地冻死

(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据ETtoday:哈萨克斯坦日前遭受暴风雪侵袭,气温降到-56℃,动物们在户外活动一不小心就冻成「冰棒」!当地人就发现一只野兔和一只狗狗惨遭冻死,且姿势都还维持在生前那一刻,让人看了相当不忍心。

综合外媒报导,网路上近日留传2段影片,随着镜头可看到一名男子走近篱笆,将卡在上头的野兔拉起来。画面中,兔子长长的耳朵冻结在空中,两只前脚举到胸前,维持着正要跳跃的动作,没想到生命就此凝结。

另一段影片中,狗狗似乎正要穿越田野,但走到半路时,却被雪堆埋住四肢,困在原地动弹不得,维持着向前迈进的动作,就这样死去。对此,有些动保人士质疑,在这种天气下还让狗狗出门,会不会是有人故意恶整害死它。

当地动物保护组织表示,「在这可怕的天寒地冻之中,我们的志工们日夜抢救每一只需要帮助的动物,给它们温暖、喂它们吃饭,紧急时也带它们前往兽医院治疗。」但他们仍觉得,为了保护这些动物免于伤害,大家仍可以做得更多。

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发表于 2018-1-28 16:38 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-1-28 21:30 编辑
……
按本人推测古Y-P曾从东南亚沿海北上到达东北亚,然后在南西伯利亚分化出Y-R、Y-Q,Y-R就此向西,Y-Q主要向东,并跟东亚土著结合通婚,成了最早的黄种人并东进美洲(先在白令吉亚),当然也数次有部分西返的(塞人,有冰河期回返的,有亚特兰蒂斯时期回返的),也就是现在欧亚的Y-Q群体。
由此可见,我们古人对北方不是有记忆就是有科考。 ...
癯鹤 发表于 2018-1-27 20:40

Yang and Fu: Insights into Modern Human Prehistory Using Ancient Genomes
很有些可以证明本人的全数迁移理论呢!点个赞!
亚特兰蒂斯之前,全数迁移造成全球化也是有数次的(就是晚期智人的全球殖民),本人认为亚特兰蒂斯传说其实就是某次史前全球化运动的记忆(可惜那波豪杰大部分被天灾消灭了)。具体到各单倍群,万年不挪窝的应该是很少的,只有热带雨林或低纬度海岛等上万年环境不变的地方可能存在。环境造人,应该是不错的!
其实环境对物种性状的影响是很厉害的。很多人种性状,都可以在社会生活剧变后发生较大变化,对于低等动物更是如此,说明内因外因各有侧重,外在环境的影响相对于基因的影响,是物种急功近利适应性进化和种群长远进化的动力——又回到了达尔文的选择论!
看看下面这个科技新闻:

澳大利亚研究证实人类过度猎鲨 鱼类缺天敌眼睛缩小


来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年1月28日 13:25






鱼类在没有鲨鱼的威胁下,眼睛和尾部会比正常细小。


科学家在珊瑚礁收集了多个品种的鱼类研究。


鱼类眼睛和尾部明显缩小。

(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)澳大利亚部分珊瑚礁的鲨鱼,被大量捕猎作鱼翅之用。科学家在珊瑚礁海域研究,发现鱼类在没有鲨鱼的威胁下,眼睛和尾部会比正常细小。研究证实人类过度猎鲨,对海洋生态环境和食物链的影响。

迈阿密大学一个海洋研究团队早前在澳大利亚西北部的两个邻近的珊瑚礁海域进行调查,分别是禁止捕鲨的罗莉浅滩(Rowley Shoals),及捕鲨活动频繁的斯科特暗礁(Scott Reefs)。他们在2个珊瑚礁收集了7个品种、611条鱼作研究,发现生活在鲨鱼数量较少的斯科特暗礁的鱼类,眼睛及鱼尾比罗莉浅滩的同品种鱼类,平均分别小达46%及40%。

研究团队的负责人哈默施拉格(Neil Hammerschlag)表示,斯科特暗礁的捕鲨活动令鲨鱼数量减少,鱼类失去了天敌的威胁,负责侦测捕猎者的眼睛及用作高速逃跑的尾部亦随之缩细。研究团队指,鱼类的体型改变,可能会对生态系统及食物链造成进一步影响。


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呵呵哒,如此鱼类这种进化能够同理类推,黄种人的小眼睛会不会也是在一个自然环境比较严酷(所以野兽和敌人少)但是野兽和敌人等天敌比较少的地方进化而来的呢!当然环境和野兽都是次要,敌人之间的同种竞争是主要矛盾。比如南部非洲的科伊桑人(生活环境艰苦,所以臀部储存脂肪等现象比较严重),在近古以前,是长久没有什么敌人的(这可以从基因组的存古看出来),他们就进化出了类似蒙古人的小眼睛。
猜测东西伯利亚就是这样的地方,亚美人种的小眼睛就是长期隔离进化出来的。如果考虑印欧语系先民也是从这里西去,那么可以看看,英语“南方”——“south”,发音接近汉语“首向”,这个跟汉语一致,“北方”——“north”,发音接近汉语“南向”和英语“鼻子”,呵呵,莫非英语先民的北方仍是蒙古人种的南方,盎格鲁人在安加拉河仰人鼻息?英语“东方”——“east”,发音接近“伊始”(日出,一日之伊始)、“夷尸狄”;“西方”——“west”,发音接近“微史、尉氏、月氏”,石夷,石国,威姓,三危,“维吾尔”也。
俄语“南方”——“юг”,发音接近“鱼国”、“月氏”、“禹贡”,这个应该是跟华夏在历史上关系更晚近些,印欧语系先民已经到了阿尔泰山一带,而夏人(萨哈)楚人(楚科奇)南迁了,相对于毛民算是南方,毛民也认同夏朝呀。
俄语“北方”——“север”,发音接近“豕韦”、“三危”、“素宛”,可见原始蒙古人种的鲜卑、豕韦(或许还有后来北上的)还在毛民之北哩。“苏维埃”就是NEA的大联盟,相对来说因为寒带生活不易,人口不多,争斗杀伐少,也是进化小眼睛的主要地区。当然本来接近黄种人的印欧先民迁徙到欧洲,跟那里争斗激烈的土著混血后,眼睛变大就很正常了。
俄语“东方”——“восток”,发音接近“倭斯托克”,看来,很早就知道东方有倭人、斡难河等等,这或许是对Y-P系沿着东亚海岸北迁的历史的回忆。
俄语“西方”——“запад”,发音接近“咋怕他”,呵呵,一路西征,学习夸父,脱亚入欧,由黄洗白!
言与神同在呀!不管你信不信,我反正是越来越自信了!
发表于 2018-1-30 23:07 | 显示全部楼层
熵增加原理:
……
能接近北极圈一带——日月馀光之照其土,不生嘉苗。其民食草根水实,不知火食。看着很像泛北极部落的生活呀!我忘了最近在哪个帖子说过,全球变暖温度升高熵增加,会增加气候系统不稳定因素,出现极端天气,而冰河期全球低温,系统熵较低,极端天气不多,甚至冰川附近气候可能也就类似接近现代北欧的气候也说不准,稳定,倒显得常温暖? ...
癯鹤 发表于 2018-1-27 20:40

冰河末期气候转暖时期及其他全球变暖时期,却往往是气候系统熵变增大极端天气增多的时期。无怪乎越是这种时候,越容易出现因极端天气及次生灾害导致的生物死亡甚至物种灭绝现象。 ...
癯鹤 发表于 2018-1-27 23:56

Record warm January temperatures logged in Russian ArcticBy The Siberian Times reporter
30 January 2018
Thermometers go above zero in places where the winter should be 20 or 30 degrees colder.

Stunned locals are taking pictures - of the rain, a near unique sight in January. Picture: Yulia Egorova

Unusually mild temperatures have been recorded in several famously cold Siberian towns this week.
Stunned locals are taking pictures - of the rain, a near unique sight in January.
In Cherskiy - far north in Yakutia - weather watchers registered 2C - in a month when temperatures, according to locals, never reach anywhere near above zero.

In Cherskiy - far north in Yakutia - weather watchers registered 2C. Picture: Alexey Kurilo

The previous closest, two years ago, was -5C.
Some 400 km to the east, in Pevek, in Chukotka, the thermometers reached a balmy 5C, the warmest ever for 30 January.
This compared to a more normal -27 on Friday.

Tractor sank on winter road in the outskirts of Chersky in February 2017 die to extremely warm weather. Picture: Pleistocene Park

Meanwhile, the Pacific port of Magadan which registered temperatures very slightly above zero.
Only a week ago, this Pacific city - well south of the polar circle but famous for its cold - was freezing in temperatures of -40C.





Meanwhile, the Pacific port of Magadan which registered temperatures very slightly above zero. Pictures: @joox_magadan, @aleks_sandra_mgdn, Irina Denisova, @kisaeva

Schools that functioned in the deep cold had to be closed today because of avalanche risks.
A warm cyclone coming in from the Pacific is blamed - or credited - for the unseasonal weather.
Some also say it is a feature of climate change.
Southern wind brought ice to Providenia Bay. Video by Maxim Antipin






广东最冷的一场雪!高寒山区银装素裹第一峰上挂冰瀑
2018-01-30 08:27大洋网-广州日报评论(11人参与)
[url=][/url]

A-A+

“广东西伯利亚”银装素裹

蔬菜被冰雪覆盖


“广东第一峰”上挂冰瀑。
  广州日报韶关讯 (全媒体记者卜瑜 通讯员沈明礼)记者昨天上午从韶关市三防指挥部办公室了解到的最新韶关低温冰冻天气信息显示,28日白天到29日早晨,韶关普降小到中雨,北部高寒山区最低气温-5℃到-2℃,出现冻雨、霰、降雪和结冰。其中乐昌梅花镇录得最低气温-5.1℃,京珠北云岩最低-5.0℃,京珠北云岩到梅花段、乳源洛阳和大桥镇、始兴罗坝镇等已出现降雪、道路结冰和冻雨,新丰黄磜镇、南雄百顺镇等出现冻雨和道路结冰,广乐高速梅花北路段道路结冰,行车缓慢。
  韶关各级民政部门积极做好困难群众及民政服务对象防寒保暖工作,1月26日至28日,各级共派出工作组40个,为困难群众发放棉被420床,大衣、棉衣、毛毯等御寒衣物281件,大米、花生油等食品一批;市救助管理站共救助困难群众33人,及时向救助对象发放棉被27床,棉大衣、毛毯等防寒物资51件(张),方便面、面包等食品一批。
  在电力方面,截至昨日10时,覆冰线路17条,只有一条坪关甲线地线中度覆冰,其余均为轻度覆冰。
  截至29日早上11时,韶关有白石、庆云、秀水、云岩、沙坪镇出现因水管结冰停水现象,涉及人口约2万人。沙坪、乐城街道、庆云镇、五山、云岩、白石、九峰等大部分乡镇道路及S247线、S248线,因结冰不能通车,正在抢修。X013线、X791线出现结冰,经抢修已经恢复通车。农业方面,沙坪镇有600亩果树、3000亩蔬菜受灾。乐昌市大乐线停电,涉及1000多户,主要是两江和大源两镇,供电部门已经组织抢修。
  在乳源,洛阳镇、大布镇部分道路出现结冰,部分村庄停电,供电部门正排查抢修中,大桥镇红云村委、柯树下村委、红光村委、三元村委等高寒山区出现道路结冰现象;坪乳公路大桥石角塘村委到大桥镇区交通缓慢通行,大桥镇半边桥到高家路段已封路。
  据韶关气象台预报,1月30日夜间到31日白天,冷空气继续补充影响韶关,高寒山区将继续出现雪、雨夹雪、冻雨和道路结冰等现象,高寒山区最低温度在-6℃到-3℃。31日夜间起降水减弱,2月1日白天转多云,高寒山区温度有望回升到0℃以上。
  探访“广东西伯利亚”
  千山鸟飞绝 万径人踪灭
  广州日报韶关讯 (全媒体记者卜瑜 通讯员赖南坡、李新华摄影报道)昨天一早,记者从韶关城区出发赶赴遭遇今冬最强寒流袭击的乳源高寒石灰岩山区采访,探访被称为“广东西伯利亚”的大桥红云一带鲜为人知的冰雪世界。
  从韶关城区出发时,车内温度计显示窗外温度为3℃。在坪乳公路上,多名乳源交警正忙着实施交通管制。这条和京珠北高速平行的公路,昨夜遭遇雨雪天气袭击,路面结冰。
  当采访车行驶至距离乳源县城仅10余公里的东坪路段时,公路两侧山头已明显可见冰雪痕迹,路面悬空的桥梁也已出现薄冰。再继续北行至乳源大桥镇时,气温已经从起初3℃直线下降至-4℃,路面已经被厚约3厘米的积雪完全覆盖。
  走下车来,凛冽寒风呼啸着,仿佛能穿透冲锋衣刺入骨头。静立于寒风中,只见远处洁白的峰峦耸立,数条白色小径纵横,然而山无飞鸟径无人踪,天地间似万籁俱寂。
  从坪乳公路往红云村的方向驶去,天上开始有玉屑似的雪沫飘飘洒洒降下。走入山间,记者仿佛就掉进了一个银装素裹的世界,天地间除了一片纯白外再无其他。只有远处偶尔传来的几声咔嚓声在提醒着人们不要迷醉于此,那是被雪压断了小树的枝干发出的脆响。
  走入红云村的马老汉家,老人正双手揣着一只土制“火笼”在取暖。“每天做饭时,放几块烧红的木炭进去,盖上灰,就能保暖12小时。”他说,今年冬天当地已经下了三场雪,“就数这场最冷。”来自三防部门的信息显示,当地录得了-5℃的低温。和往年相比,马老汉觉得,“今年是2008年以来最冷的一年”。不过,面对严寒,老人非常淡定:“我家里备了30斤青菜、8斤肉,吃上一两个星期不成问题。”
  探访连南县千年古寨
  冰瀑直下第一峰 疑是水晶挂瑶寨
  广州日报清远讯 (全媒体记者曹菁摄影报道)昨天,清远市偏北地区大部有雨夹雪或小雪,受冷空气影响,连南、阳山等高寒山区气温降至-2℃到0℃,地处高寒山区的连南县千年古寨冰霜满地,别有风情。
  呼啸的北风不停,广东第一峰也出现了冰瀑奇观。一度结冰的连南县X397线南岗至千年瑶寨K4+000-K10+000段经过公路部门的紧张撒盐除冰,于1月29日12时恢复通车,游客赏雪同时别忘了要注意交通安全。气象部门预计,今明后三天清远全市大部分地区最低气温跌破5℃,北部山区道路结冰范围将有所扩大。
发表于 2018-2-3 23:23 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-2-3 23:24 编辑

似乎是“外国民科”(?)的研究,发到正式刊物上了,说根据历史记载古希腊人在第一世纪时曾经到过北美洲?有意思,有一丝可信度。



Did the ancient Greeks sail to Canada? Scientists claim the civilisation travelled to Newfoundland and set up colonies to mine gold in the 1st Century nearly a millennium before the Vikings


  • Hellenistic Greeks may have regularly visited Newfoundland, researchers claim
  • This idea is based on close examination of the work of Greek biographer Plutarch
  • These settlers may have travelled for the sake of finding new lands or riches
  • Many historians and archaeologists have dismissed the work as unfounded
  • 'While it is clever and interesting I don't think the Greeks reached Canada', Dr Hector Williams from the University of British Columbia told MailOnline
By Phoebe Weston and Tim Collins For Mailonline
Published: 16:21 GMT, 2 February 2018 | Updated: 17:48 GMT, 2 February 2018


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The ancient Greeks could have reached Canada in 56 AD - almost a millennium before the Vikings.
This is according to a controversial study that claims Hellenistic Greeks had such detailed knowledge of astronomy that they were able to pinpoint Atlantic currents that would propel them west.
This idea is based on a study of the text 'De Facie' by Greek biographer and essayist Plutarch, who lived between 46 and 119 AD.
A character in the texts recounts meeting a Greek stranger who had recently returned from a 'great continent' - and scientists say this may have been Canada.
Powered by sails and oars, they may have regularly visited Newfoundland, mined gold and set up colonies that thrived for centuries, the study claims.
However, there is no concrete evidence of these trips and many historians and maritime archaeologists have dismissed the work as 'unfounded'.
Scroll down for video

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The ancient Greeks could have reached North America in 56 AD - almost a millennium before the Vikings, according to new research. Pictured is the route they might have taken

'Our intention is to prove, with modern science, that it was possible for this trip to be made,' Ioannis Liritzis, an archaeologist from the University of the Aegean told Hakai Magazine as part of an in-depth feature on his research.
These early settlers may have travelled for the sake of finding new lands or riches, researchers say.
They believe some travellers would return home after a brief stay but for others the trip was one way.
Researchers acknowledge that they do not have evidence that these trips were made but believe they were possible, as suggested by the writings of Plutarch.
Plutarch wrote more than sixty in-depth biographies of famous Romans and Greeks, detailed in his writings of Parallel Lives.
This theory is based on evidence from Plutarch's work De Facie, also known as On the Face Which Appears in the Orb of the Moon.
In this work, which became familiar to classicists during the Renaissance, characters discuss whether the moon is another Earth, whether it has life, and other philosophical questions.

One character recounts meeting a stranger who had recently returned from a 'great continent'.

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This idea is based on close examination of the work of Greek biographer and essayist Plutarch (pictured), who lived between 46 and 119 AD

HOW DID THE ANCIENT GREEKS NAVIGATE AT SEA?The first Western civilisation known to have developed the art of navigation at sea were the Phoenicians, around 4,000 years ago in 2,000 BC.
Phoenician sailors navigated using primitive charts and observations of the sun and stars to determine directions.
It would take many centuries before global navigation at sea became possible.
By the second millennium BC, accumulated knowledge of stars and constellations began to facilitate more direct travel across the Mediterranean.
As increasing knowledge of astronomy began to spread and became more precise, navigation across open water became more possible and less risky.
Detailed knowledge of the constellations, eclipses, and moon movements made navigation during day and night much easier.
Other developments include the use of sounding weights, which helped sailors determine the depth of water in given locations.
Weights would be lowered from a boat and would inform on the location’s depth.
This knowledge could help with regards to how far ships were from land, as shallower seas could indicate that land was nearby or approaching.

By the late first millennium BC, new developments facilitated further navigation capabilities.
This included the development of navigational charts and information passed down to sailors.
These charts include types of notes and descriptions that likely assisted sailors over generations.

Farther ventures were enabled by the development of scientifically and mathematically based methods and tools.

It seems the Ancient Greeks did develop early incarnations of these instruments, perhaps including the Antikythera mechanism.
Found in 1900 near the Greek island of Antikythera, this metal contraption appears to be a mechanical device with gears and wheels.
Some experts believe it may have been used to aid navigation and understand the movements of celestial bodies in the third or second century BC.

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Dr Liritzis and his colleagues believe this content was in fact North America, specifically Newfoundland.
This is not the first time that this theory has been proposed.
Johannes Kepler, a German mathematician and astronomer who was a key figure in the 17th-century scientific revolution, also believed that this reference was in relation to North America.
The stranger recounts how travellers made the trip every 30 years when Saturn appeared in the constellation Taurus.
The ancient Greeks closely followed astronomical phenomena associated with Saturn, which was called Kronos at the time.
The suggestion is these trips could have occurred every 30 years for centuries.
Unfortunately the first few chapters of De Facie have been lost so no one knows on what date these conversations happened so researchers had to date the story themselves.



Powered by sails and oars, Hellenistic Greeks may have regularly visited Newfoundland, mined gold and set up colonies that thrived for centuries. Pictured is a Greek trireme (artist's impression), which is the boat they could have used

WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT THE GREEK HISTORIAN PLUTARCH?L Mestrius Plutarchus, better known as Plutarch, was a Greek writer and philosopher who was born around 45 to 50 AD and died between 120 and 125 AD.
Much of what is known about the ancient world comes from Plutarch, who wrote more than sixty in-depth biographies of famous Romans and Greeks, detailed in his writings of Parallel Lives.
Of the fifty that have survived, nine feature main characters who lived at the same time, knew many of the others, and participated in many of the same events.
As a result, Plutarch narrates the same stories numerous times.
This provides historians with a rare opportunity to compare how the same author, often having used the same sources, narrates the same stories differently.
Plutarch was a prolific writer who, according to one fourth-century inventory, wrote 227 works.
This also included an eclectic array of writings known as his Moralia.
Most of Plutarch's writings have been lost to history, but a number have survived and been heavily scrutinised by scholars down the centuries.
Among them is On the Face Which Appears in the Orb of the Moon, commonly referred to as De Facie.
In this work, which became familiar to classicists during the Renaissance, characters discuss whether the moon is another Earth, whether it has life, and other philosophical questions.

In this story, one character recounts meeting a stranger who had recently returned from a 'great continent'.
One study produced by archaeologists from the University of the Aegean in Mytilene, Greece, in January 2018 argued that the continent described was North America.
This is not the first time that this theory has been proposed.
Johannes Kepler, a German mathematician and astronomer who was a key figure in the 17th-century scientific revolution, also believed that this reference was in relation to North America.

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They focused in on a reference one of the characters made about a solar eclipse that happened at around midday.
Dr Liritzis and his colleagues then looked through 5,000 years of eclipses and found one that matched the description in Plutarch's writings. It took place in 75 AD.
Next they looked at the decades surrounding the eclipse for evidence of Saturn appearing in Taurus and found it happened on three occasions - 26 to 29 AD, 56 to 58 AD, and 85 to 88 AD.
They decided the trip was most likely to have occurred during 56 AD as this was the one when Saturn was most recently in Taurus.
Travellers would have stayed one year and then sailed out in 58 AD when Saturn was no longer in Taurus, they claimed.
'By applying modern scientific data, the present reappraisal of the astronomical and geographical elements within this dialogue has produced a novel interpretation of the date and place of the meeting and a journey to the northern Atlantic Ocean', researchers wrote in their paper published in the Journal of Coastal Research Online.
They looked at the Gulf Stream current, as well as other known sea currents in the northern Atlantic Ocean and estimated speed for the ship.

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Ioannis Liritzis, an archaeologist from the University of the Aegean believes Hellenistic Greeks had such as detailed knowledge of astronomy they were able to pinpoint Atlantic currents that would propel them west. Pictured is the ancient Greek theatre of Segesta on Sicily

WHY DO HISTORIANS BELIEVE THE VIKINGS DISCOVERED CANADA?[size=1.2em]They are infamous for terrorising the coastlines of Europe in their distinctive longships, but the Vikings may be able to claim another victory over their medieval neighbours.
[size=1.2em]Evidence uncovered in 2016 suggests the Vikings may have discovered North America nearly 500 years before Christopher Columbus made his famous journey to the New World.
[size=1.2em]Scientists claimed to have uncovered what they believe to be a Viking settlement on the Canadian island of Newfoundland that appears to have been built between 800 AD and 1300 AD.
[size=1.2em]It is only the second known Viking site to be discovered in North America and suggests that they were the first Europeans to reach the New World.
[size=1.2em]This site, discovered in an area called Point Rosee in southern Newfoundland, is 400 miles (643km) south west of a Viking settlement found in L'Anse aux Meadows during the 1960s.
[size=1.2em]Archaeologists said the discovery potentially opens 'a new chapter' in history by showing the Vikings had explored far further into the New World than previously believed possible.
[size=1.2em]The Vikings are well known to have been adept seafarers, using the sun and the stars to help pick their way across open stretches of ocean away from the coastline.
[size=1.2em]It is thought the Vikings first discovered America by accident in the autumn of 986 AD, according to one historical source, the Saga of the Greenlanders.
[size=1.2em]It tells how Bjarni Herjolfsson stumbled across North America after being blown off course as he attempted to sail from Norway to Greenland, but he did not go ashore.
[size=1.2em]Inspired by his tales, however, another Viking Leif Ericsson then mounted his own expedition and found North America in 1002 AD.
[size=1.2em]Finding it a fertile land, rich in grapes and berries, he named it Vinland.
[size=1.2em]Eriksson also named two further 'lands' on the North American coast - one with flat stones, which he called Helluland, and one that was flat and wooded, named Markland.
[size=1.2em]The discovery of the settlement at Point Rosee suggests that these legends were in fact true.

[url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url]

The 'great continent' lined up with a bay on the same latitude as the Volhga River delta, the northern entrance to the Caspian sea.
Using Google Earth, they predicted that Greek settlers would have been able to make it to St. Lawrence Gulf and Newfoundland island.
'Other unnamed islands mentioned in this dialogue are identified with Norway's islands, Azores, Iceland, Greenland, and Baffin islands', researchers found.
They claim the Greeks had good knowledge of sea currents and astronomy meaning that this would be a 'plausible event'.
However, other experts have widely disputed the claims.
'While it is clever and interesting I don't think the Greeks reached Canada', Dr Hector Williams from the University of British Columbia told MailOnline.
'Indeed the authors themselves admit there is no archaeological or other historical evidence for the Greeks ever having crossed the Atlantic', he said.
'Such a crossing might theoretically be possible--there are numerous examples of Japanese fishing boats making it across the Pacific when caught in storms and carried by currents that run west-east, for example--but the Greeks rarely even made it out into the Atlantic (unlike the Romans who of course colonized Britain).'
Brendan Foley, an underwater archaeologist at Lund University in Sweden told Hakai Magazine there is no way that first millennium BCE Mediterranean sailors would have any concept of Atlantic Ocean currents.
'They certainly did not possess the navigational technologies and knowledge (à la Polynesian sailors) to position themselves in the open Atlantic Ocean to ride them', Dr Foley said.
He also says there are no ancient Greek artefacts that contain gold traced to North America.
Also, the paper claims the boats travelled at 10 knots, but this would be fast for even modern ships.

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5345049/Did-ancient-Greeks-sail-Canada.html#ixzz563iHg1ET
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发表于 2018-4-21 22:03 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-4-21 22:17 编辑

昨天是谷雨节气,今天我们这里下了大雨,从早晨6点开始下,上午下得不算大,时断时续,很多时候都是淅淅沥沥的小雨,有时是通常大小的雨点,有时是细得跟沙子粒一样的雨点,不过下得都不紧,也就一小阵下得地面水泥洼地略有积水,后来又蒸发了耗散了,不过地皮一直是湿的。中午到现在,雨点一直不断,很多时候房檐哗哗(入夜以来到现在尤其如此),真是特大的雨了。尤其这个晚上,风雨甚猛,甚至不时有电闪雷鸣助威,也是这里现在这季节相当少有的现象。春雨贵如油,今年真慷慨!春雷应节气,今日不少来!看来这个暴雨蓝色预警还是比较中肯的:
暴雨蓝色预警:河北山东等5省区局地有大暴雨
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20时至22日20时,河北南部、山东中北部、湖北中东部、湖南北部、广西北部等地的部分地区有大雨或... 详情>>
新浪新闻 1小时前

另外今天下午我竟然打死了一只想咬我的黑蚊子(现在又有一只蚊子飞到我耳朵这儿想进餐,它的嗡嗡声被我觉察,然后它被我赶跑),真没想到这么早就出来活动,以前记忆里还没有这么早的!活了三四十年,这气候的小的波动就已经让人感受非常(尤其是新闻常报道什么几十年一遇、几百年一遇、……,让人抑郁,几百年,说的准不准?又何况更长时间)!气候变化着实是人类进化史上需要考虑的重要问题。
又有网友讨论这个问题:“石器时代西欧人抵达美洲?(转)
顺带把自己对“亚特兰蒂斯”的一个另类观点(我自己也认为这个假说并非我的定论,只是一个思索线索而已)。就是亚特兰蒂斯有可能是一大片陆缘冰,虽然在柏拉图的著作里那里被描述得犹如热带,只可能是年代久了,没有更多详情,柏拉图拿当时希腊、中东那些亚热带、热带地区的常情反推罢了(因为亚特兰蒂斯人也曾经征战过这里)。
气候剧变,陆缘冰崩裂沉没,会形成大量冰山,冰山还会造成浓雾(因为温度低),是海洋航行的障碍。所谓亚特兰蒂斯沉没后,那一带海域难以航行,一般解释为火山爆发的浮石,但是难以航行也有可能是冰山造成的。另外中国古代神话传说里蓬莱等五座仙岛的剧变,很可能就是陆缘冰组成的群岛崩解造成的。
组成亚特兰蒂斯的陆缘冰很可能依附冰岛这样的大岛,因为洋流环绕岛屿而形成环流,类似冰圈一样,就形成了圆形岛屿,这就是昆仑是圆形形制的由来。陆缘冰上一般只有海鸟海兽和鱼类可以捕猎,没法进行陆生动物的饲养和狩猎。但是可能因为风力作用,类似黄土高原的形成,比如撒哈拉或欧美当时干燥的寒带荒漠的细土可能会被吹到冰架上,于是特定形成了表面并不一定是冰(但是年年落雪结冰是一定的)的地貌,也就是由冻土覆盖冰原。这样苔藓地衣植物和某些耐寒草本也能生息,运过来的驯鹿和马牛羊也能生存,这就跟大陆没什么两样,所以人类能在欧美大陆的冰川边缘活动,也能在这样的地方生存。
亚特兰蒂斯人十分钟爱自己的土地,这里寒冷但是少疾病,鸟兽众多水产丰富,生活富裕。他们就是冰夷,他们知道有些地方凿井很深的话,会打出海眼(咸水),那是因为其实他们的陆地之下是冰川,冰川之下是海洋。他们会用冰制作巨石建筑(有冰的话,运用合理就相当于重载机械。连大陆都能承载,何况巨石;不过必须不能停工,很快建成,不然冻结了之后,就没法再移动了。所谓罗马是一天建成的,应该就是类似工程历史的一个投影),单用冰其实也能垒出水晶宫,这就是后世因纽特人雪屋的灵感!因为冰,启迪了其工程技术,作为岛夷,他们发展出了很多先进的科技文化。虽然其实他们并没有柏拉图所说那么先进,但是也算一枝独秀,他们西进美洲,东征欧亚非,甚至可能进行过全球探索。虽然还是石质工具为主,不妨碍他们像直立人一样目光远大,跋涉山海到达很远的地方!何况已经有了那时相对先进的航海技术!
福兮祸所伏,亚特兰蒂斯人在冰架上的大规模改造,以及不断加剧的人类与家畜活动,赶上气候剧变的当儿。然后吊儿郎当,某天一次特殊天文地质事件,导致了整个冰架的溃散与其上冻土的分崩离析和不断堕海。
大部分亚特兰蒂斯遗民葬身大海,遗民作为后人眼中的仙圣播迁欧亚非美,给留下了关于远古“亚特兰蒂斯”、“北极仙岛”、“伊甸园”等的神话传说般的记忆。
海底人可能没有,但是大海中,说不定就有这样的亚特兰蒂斯遗迹!
发表于 2018-4-22 14:35 | 显示全部楼层

  
  
若此图属实,最早探索北美的应该是埃及或迦太基或摩尔人,而非希腊人。  希腊第一个大学者 泰勒斯 也坦言,他的实证主义思维与几何测绘知识,是在埃及学到。
  
  
美钞 1 dollar 上印着的金字塔天眼,正是古埃及的荷鲁斯之眼,是欧美数理化科工知识的源头。


  欧美的航海技术,总体上是从非洲埃及,传到腓尼基,再传到小亚希腊,再到西北欧;与近几千年地球气候变冷的大周期基本一致。此大周期导致撒哈拉和黎凡特干旱缺水,精英分子逐渐北迁。
发表于 2018-4-22 15:03 | 显示全部楼层

  
  
假如atlantis存在,必非寒冰之地,反而会特别湿热,因它刚好正对加勒比暖流。这股加勒比暖流现在直射欧洲北岸,使北纬50度以上区域冬季都甚少跌穿零度。
  
  
上辐atlantis猜想地图绘制于17世纪德意志,方向布局是上南下北。古代中国的地图也是上南下北。当时欧洲仍未获得钢铁机动力,仍未敢自大妄为到用“上北下南”。
发表于 2018-4-22 15:13 | 显示全部楼层
除了直布罗陀附近有双向洋流可往返欧非美,赤道非洲也有洋流可直达美洲。这样就能解释为何美洲Olmec文明出现黑人石像。

美洲的另一端,也有从赤道南太平洋射向  厄瓜多尔 与 阿拉斯加 的两股暖流,向美洲传播玉石文明。
发表于 2018-4-24 23:46 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-4-24 23:56 编辑

天人感应每如此,我有研思人有做!下面这则新闻,把我关于白令吉亚可能是黄种人主要体质特征的起源地的推测大大推进了一把(尤其考虑到是白保竿根田园古人接近古华南人种,而现代琉球人常染距离离东南亚甚远这层关系,可知东亚古人的典型蒙古人种性状的初始形成地可能还得往北方寻找)。
其实我很早也考虑过白令吉亚是不是亚特兰蒂斯的问题,但是因为没有遗迹、文物和传说,以及位置的偏僻,文化的落后,我觉得不可能。
忽然满怀敬畏之心,言与神同在的又一个例子(我当然知道白令是个人名,但……):不令支——白令吉亚——卑路支——比利时,这些地方远古都有含亚美人种常染基因较多的遗骸呢!人种的形成,真的是一个亟待破解的谜团!


Stone Age ancestors of Native Americans who lived without sunlight evolved denser breasts so they could give their children more Vitamin D through milk
  • Ancient group was stranded 25,000 years ago near what is now the Bering Strait
  • The area has scarcely any food and doesn't see sunlight for months at a time
  • To combat this humans there developed more branches in their milk ducts
  • This helped them provide their babies with enough fat and vitamin D to survive

By Harry Pettit For Mailonline
Published: 12:27 BST, 24 April 2018 | Updated: 13:26 BST, 24 April 2018

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Stone Age humans trapped on the fringes of the Arctic Circle 25,000 years ago evolved thicker breasts to help them survive the region's harsh conditions.
The group, stranded in a barren region that sees little sunlight near what is now the Bering Strait, developed the change to enure their children got enough vitamin D.
Researchers made the finding while studying a common genetic mutation in East Asians and Native Americans, who are descendants of ancient Beringians.
If their theory is true, the team have found a rare instance of humanity evolving to survive a harsh environment, with consequences seen today.
Scroll down for video

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Stone Age humans trapped on the fringes of the Arctic Circle evolved thicker breasts to help them survive. The first people to arrive in North America were descendants of western Asians and so looked more like inuits (stock) than the Native Americans known today

The researchers, from the University of California at Berkeley, argue mothers who made it through the harsh winters had a mutation in their EDAR gene.
This made them develop more milk duct branches that gave rise to denser breasts and allowed mothers to provide their babies with enough fat and vitamin D.
'This highlights the importance of the mother-infant relationship and how essential it has been for human survival,' study coauthor Dr Leslea Hlusko told UC Berkeley's news team.
Arising around 25,000 years ago, the mutation became dominant among the Beringians, who eventually spread into North America and the Pacific coast of Asia.


According to the team, the variant affected several features, leaving descendants with longer, thicker hair, 'shovel-shaped' incisors and closely-packed sweat glands.
Shoveled incisors are common among Native Americans and northeastern Asian populations but rare in everyone else.

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The mutation became dominant among the Beringians, who eventually spread into North America and the Pacific coast of Asia. The variant affected several features, leaving descendants with longer, thicker hair and 'shovel-shaped' incisors (file photo)


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Mothers who made it through the harsh winters had a mutation in their EDAR gene that made them develop more milk duct branches. Pictured is an artist's impression of the Beringian Upward Sun River camp (artist's impression) in what is now Alaska

For their study, researchers assessed the how shovel-shaped incisors have developed in archaeological and modern human populations.
They found that nearly all Native Americans prior to European colonisation had shoveled incisors, as do around 40 per cent of East Asians today.
The team then used this dental genetic history to trace the evolutionary path of large mammary glands because of their common link with the EDAR gene.
'People have long thought that this shoveling pattern is so strong that there must have been evolutionary selection favoring the trait, but why would there be such strong selection on the shape of your incisors?' Dr Hlusko said.

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During the last glacial maximum, sea level dropped nearly 400 feet and created a land bridge between Siberia and Alaska, which was crossed by the ancestors of all Native Americans sometime after 32,000 years ago



Most people have incisors, the front cutting teeth (left). Many northern Asians and Native Americans have shoveled incisors (right)

'When you have shared genetic effects across the body, selection for one trait will result in everything else going along for the ride.'
Native American ancestors settled for 10,000 years in an area called 'Beringia' between Asia and North America before moving to the New World.
This so-called Beringian standstill coincided with the height of the last Ice Age between 18,000 and 28,000 years ago.
Giant ice sheets to the east and hundreds of miles of uninhabitable tundra to the southwest prevented migration into North America, forcing the ancient humans to stick around an icy area that is now the Bering strait.
WHAT IS THE BERINGIAN STANDSTILL?

Pictured is the history of migration from western Asia into the Americas via a vast Bering land bridge

Native Americans descended from people who migrated to the Americas from eastern Asia.
These ancestors first settled in an area called 'Beringia' - a vast Bering land bridge that once linked Siberia and Alaska.
They spent up to 10,000 years in Beringia before moving rapidly into the Americas beginning at least 15,000 years ago.
This so-called Beringian standstill coincided with the height of the last Ice Age between 18,000 and 28,000 years ago.
Giant ice sheets to the east and hundreds of miles of uninhabitable tundra to the southwest prevented migration into North America.
This 10,000-year migratory 'pause' left small populations of 'Beringians' ripe for natural selection to help them survive the brutal conditions.

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This 10,000-year standstill left small populations of humans in the region ripe for natural selection to help them survive the brutal conditions.
And according to the researchers, the EDAR mutations seen in Asian populations today is on example of the Beringian group's evolutionary path.
'If you take these data from the teeth to interpret the evolutionary history of this EDAR allele, you frame-shift the selective episode to the Beringian standstill population, and that gives you the environmental context,' Dr Hlusko said.

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The group, stranded in a barren region that sees little sunlight near what is now the Bering Strait (centre), developed the change to enure their children got enough vitamin D

'At that high latitude, these people would have been vitamin D deficient.
'We know they had a diet that was attempting to compensate for it from the archaeological record, and because there is evidence of selection in this population for specific alleles of the genes that influence fatty acid synthesis.
'But even more specifically, these genes modulate the fatty acid composition of breast milk.
'It looks like this mutation of the EDAR gene was also selected for in that ancestral population, and EDAR's effects on mammary glands is the most likely target of the selection.'





Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5650977/Stone-Age-humans-trapped-Arctic-without-sunlight-evolved-denser-breasts.html#ixzz5DbX96PQR
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