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Flores Man 弗洛勒斯人可能是能人后裔,而非直立人

发表于 2015-8-2 14:18 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 Ryan 于 2015-8-2 15:09 编辑

roc. R. Soc. B 2015 282 20150943; DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2015.0943. Published 22 July 2015

Bayesian analysis of a morphological supermatrix sheds light on controversial fossil hominin relationships
Mana Dembo, Nicholas J. Matzke, Arne Ø. Mooers, Mark Collard

The phylogenetic relationships of several hominin species remain controversial. Two methodological issues contribute to the uncertainty—use of partial, inconsistent datasets and reliance on phylogenetic methods that are ill-suited to testing competing hypotheses. Here, we report a study designed to overcome these issues. We first compiled a supermatrix of craniodental characters for all widely accepted hominin species. We then took advantage of recently developed Bayesian methods for building trees of serially sampled tips to test among hypotheses that have been put forward in three of the most important current debates in hominin phylogenetics—the relationship between Australopithecus sediba and Homo, the taxonomic status of the Dmanisi hominins, and the place of the so-called hobbit fossils from Flores, Indonesia, in the hominin tree. Based on our results, several published hypotheses can be statistically rejected. For example, the data do not support the claim that Dmanisi hominins and all other early Homo specimens represent a single species, nor that the hobbit fossils are the remains of small-bodied modern humans, one of whom had Down syndrome. More broadly, our study provides a new baseline dataset for future work on hominin phylogeny and illustrates the promise of Bayesian approaches for understanding hominin phylogenetic relationships.


Cited from: ... te-Asia-Europe.html

The first humans out of Africa were small and scrawny: Controversial study claims ape-like Homo habilis may have been first to migrate to Asia and Europe

1,New analysis of early human fossils has challenged conventional theories
2,Most experts believe tall, muscular Homo erectus was first to leave Africa
3,The new study suggests Homo habilis, known as Handy Man, beat them
4, It suggests Homo erectus did not evolve in Africa but moved there later

PUBLISHED: 13:00 GMT, 30 July 2015 | UPDATED: 17:00 GMT, 31 July 2015
Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

    The first early human ancestors to leave Africa were srawny little creatures that walked more like apes, according to a new study that is challenging existing theories on the origin of our species. For years it was thought that the first early human to walk from the African continent into Asia and Europe was the tall and muscular Homo erectus. But new analysis of early human fossils has suggested it may have actually been a far more diminutive species known as Homo habilis, or 'Handy man', that first made the journey.
    Anthropologists have long believed that the heavily built Homo erectus, shown in the reconstruction on the right) was the first early human species to leave Africa and inhabit Asia and Europe, but new analysis has suggested it was the smaller Homo habilis, shown left, who left the continent first and gave rise to erectus. The findings are likely to be highly controversial as no fossils belonging to Homo habilis have been discovered outside Africa.
    Some anthropologists even doubt the existence of Homo habilis as a distinct human species, preferring to clump it with a far older group of ape-like humans, the Australopithecenes.  However, Homo habilis was known to have a relatively big brain and made tools.
    The researchers came to the conclusion after analysing data on early human fossils and comparing them to various theories for how different human species were related to each other. They found a controversial species of human, Homo floresiensis, also called the Hobbit of Flores, is a unique species that evolved from another small human species.
    Debate about the hobbit humans, which lived on the island of Flores in Indonesia between 74,000 and 17,000 years ago and stood three feet tall, has raged since they were discovered in 2004.
    However, Professor Mark Collard, an evolutionary biologist and archaeologist at Simon Fraser University in British Columbia, Canada and the University of Aberdeen who led latest study, and his colleagues found it appears the hobbit is most closely related to a small bodied human like Homo habilis.
    Writing in the journal writing in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, they said: 'This suggests that Homo floresiensis is a descendant of pre-Homo erectus small-bodied hominins that migrated out of Africa and made it to Southeast Asia.'
  The researchers said if this was the case, it could be that Homo erectus did not emerge from Africa at all but is an Asian descendant of a smaller species like Homo habilis.
    The origins of the hobbit of Flores in Indonesia has been a controversial subject since they were discovered, with some claiming they were a deformed group of an existing species. The new research has supported the view that they were a unique species. A hobbit skull is shown above beside a modern human skull
   This would mean the current 'out of Africa' theory for Homo erectus's spread is wrong.
Speaking to Discovery News, Professor Collard said: 'Homo erectus would then have spread from Asia into Africa, rather than the reverse, which is what the current consensus contends.'
     The new study suggests Homo floresiensis, shown in the reconstruction above, may be descended from a small early human like Homo habilis
      Professor Collard and his team compiled what they claim is the largest data set ever created on early human fossils.However, they concentrated on details of skulls rather than other body parts as these are the easiest to distinguish species with.Homo habilis is seen as being far more ape like than Homo erectus and may have combined walking on two legs with climbing in trees.It had longer arms thn modern humans but had a cranial capacity that was half the size of our own. Despite this it is thought to have made and used tools. Some scientists believe Homo habilis was the ancestor of the more sophisticated early human Homo ergaster, which in turn gave rise to Homo erectus in Africa. However, if the new study proves to be correct, it would suggest Homo habilis was far more widespread than previously thought and its descendants evolved outside Africa. The researchers also examined data around controversial skulls found in a cave close to Dmanisi, Georgia, which have been identified as belonging to Homo erectus, but others have claimed it may be another early human species such as Homo habilis.
      Professor Collard and his colleagues found they could not rule out that the skull belonged to Habilis. They said: 'The current consensus is that Homo erectus was the first hominin species to migrate out of Africa, and did so shortly after two million years ago.  A pre-Homo erectus origin for Homo floresiensis implies that an earlier Homo was the first species of hominin to leave Africa. A pre-Homo erectus origin for Homo floresiensis also raises the possibility that Homo erectus evolved in Asia rather than in Africa.'
      Professor Chris Stringer, a leading anthropologist at the Natural History Museum in London who has studied Homo floresiensis, said the new research raised some interesting questions about whether Homo erectus was first to leave Africa.

    He said: 'I do think it is an open question as to whether Homo erectus was the first hominin to leave Africa, or whether the Dmanisi and floresiensis evidence, plus this new paper, might indicate an earlier exit by a habilis-like creature.
    'The Dmanisi material is well-dated to around 1.8Ma, while earlier erectus-like fossils are claimed as far back as 2.3 million years ago in East Africa, but that evidence is disputed.
'It could be, as some argue, that we haven’t found the real ancestors of the Dmanisi people yet.'

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 楼主| 发表于 2015-8-2 14:19 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Ryan 于 2015-8-2 14:20 编辑;111/33/11967

PNAS, vol. 111 no. 33 > Maciej Henneberg,  11967–11972, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1407382111

Evolved developmental homeostasis disturbed in LB1 from Flores, Indonesia, denotes Down syndrome and not diagnostic traits of the invalid species Homo floresiensis

Maciej Henneberga, Robert B. Eckhardtb,1, Sakdapong Chavanavesb, and Kenneth J. Hsüc,1

HighWire Press-hosted articles citing this article
 楼主| 发表于 2015-8-2 14:24 | 显示全部楼层
Special collection in NATURE's website:
 楼主| 发表于 2015-8-2 14:32 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Ryan 于 2015-8-2 14:36 编辑

Bayesian Analysis of Flores Man's craniodental characters.
Bayesian Analysis of Flores Man's craniodental characters.jpg
 楼主| 发表于 2015-8-2 14:52 | 显示全部楼层
发表于 2015-8-3 11:36 | 显示全部楼层
 楼主| 发表于 2015-8-3 11:54 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Ryan 于 2015-8-3 11:55 编辑

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