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楼主: 癯鹤

蒙戈湖人与丹尼索瓦人的关联

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 楼主| 发表于 2018-9-13 13:28 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-9-13 13:31 编辑

我省越发彪悍了!东北发现海德堡人?玉皇大帝,达本还原沾光彩张广才,东北复兴有望了!“哈尔滨”跟“和平”发音也接近呢!(大家有没感觉现在浏览器编辑文档有点所见非所得?还是因为现在我这电脑系统还是太山寨?)另:两万年的“哈尔滨人”也该测测基因呀!

我国首次发现海德堡人类型化石


来源: 神秘的地球  
  • 时间:2018年9月13日 12:10











我国首次发现海德堡人类型化石

(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据河北地质大学:9月12日,我校在春秋讲堂举行2018年重大科学发现信息交流会。著名古生物学家、我校教授季强在海德堡人类型化石研究方面,取得重大科学发现:在我国哈尔滨首次发现海德堡人类型化石。古人类学家、中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所研究员、我校客座教授倪喜军亲临现场并表示,这不仅是中国的首次发现,也是亚洲的首次发现。该古人类头骨化石是迄今为止世界上保存最为完整的早期古人类化石之一。

经季强教授和倪喜军研究员初步鉴定,该海德堡人类型化石眉骨宽厚,头盖骨长圆形,眼眶孔很大,吻部稍微前突,推测年龄为40万年-20万年,时代可能会更早。

据了解,国际科学界普遍认为,人与猿的分异大约在距今700万年前后,人类最早起源于非洲;但也有少数学者认为人类的起源中心不止一个,即多中心起源说。在欧亚大陆发现的古人类大约有4大类:直立人、海德堡人、尼安德特人和智人。西方学者认为,直立人是第一批走出非洲的人,然后再扩散到欧洲和亚洲。非洲出现的海德堡人大约距今30-12.5万年。欧洲发现的海德堡人大约距今60万年-20万年。亚洲先后也发现了一些具有与海德堡人特征相似的古人类化石,但由于化石保存不好,始终没有定论。西方学者一般认为,亚洲还没有发现过真正的海德堡人类型的化石。

会上,季强教授讲述了哈尔滨古人类头骨化石发现始末:1933年,中国东北发现了一件古人类头颅化石,由于当时所处环境,这件化石没有被研究,长期以来鲜为人知。2017年8月,他在参观广西桂林瓦窑奇石市场时在一位农民手中了解到该人头化石。经双方多次协商,这位农民在2018年5月将化石捐赠给了河北地质大学,并收藏于该校的地球科学博物馆。2018年7月,季强教授和黑龙江省地质学家实地考察了哈尔滨市东江桥,初步认为1933年发现的古人类头骨化石应该产自松花江的河沙沉积物中。目前,季强正在组建科研团队和申请研究项目,将在哈尔滨地区松花江上游两岸寻找产出古人类化石的原始地点和地层层位,并进行多学科的综合研究。

季强教授表示,海德堡人是智人、尼安德特人和丹尼索瓦人的共同祖先,在研究现代人起源问题上具有极其重要的科学价值。哈尔滨海德堡人类型化石不仅为研究现代人起源提供了确凿的化石证据,而且也为重新认识人类发展历史和演化模式开辟了新的途径。因此,我们有必要对以往提出的 “多中心起源”的观点与“人类三次走出非洲”的“老根发新枝”的演化模式重新进行评价和思考。

校长王凤鸣代表学校表示,季强教授将在这里发布他的最新发现——在我国东北首次发现的海德堡人类型化石,并介绍相关情况。这一突破性发现在古生物、古人类研究领域意义重大,能够为相关的科学研究提供有力的佐证和素材,也很可能刷新我们对人类起源和演进历史的已有认知。学校衷心希望,季强教授能以这一重大发现为依托,继续深入推进我校的古生物研究和古生物专业建设的发展。

中国科学院院士、河北地质大学名誉校长李廷栋,中国工程院院士、河北地质大学特聘教授毛景文,河北省地质矿产勘查开发局党组成员、副局长贺喜以及省内外多家兄弟单位负责人出席了信息交流会。

国内多家媒体:新华社、中央广播电视台、人民日报、光明日报、中国科学报、中国教育报、中国自然资源报、中国青年报、中国矿业报、人民网、河北传媒集团、河北日报、河北广播电视台、燕赵都市报、石家庄广播电视台、河北科技报、河北青年报、长城网、黄石电视台、东楚晚报、国石网等应邀参会并予以报道。

相关报道:河北地质大学学者在我国首次发现海德堡人类型化石

(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据中国青年报(樊江涛):河北地质大学今日举办信息交流会。该校古生物研究院首席科学家季强发布其重大科学发现——我国首次发现海德堡人类型化石。出席此次信息交流会的中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所研究员、河北地质大学客座教授倪喜军表示,这不仅是中国的首次发现,也是亚洲的首次发现。

该古人类头骨化石是迄今为止世界上保存最为完整的早期古人类化石之一。经季强和倪喜军初步鉴定,该海德堡人类型化石眉骨宽厚,头盖骨长圆形,眼眶孔很大,吻部稍微前突,推测化石年龄为40万年~20万年,时代可能会更早。

据季强介绍,2017年8月他在参观广西桂林瓦窑奇石市场时从一位农民处了解到该古人类头骨化石。经双方多次协商,这位农民在今年5月将化石捐赠给了河北地质大学,并收藏于该校的地球科学博物馆。今年7月,季强和黑龙江省地质学家实地考察当年发现该化石的哈尔滨市东江桥,初步认为这枚早在1933年就被发现的古人类头骨化石,应该产自松花江的河沙沉积物中。

此前,亚洲也先后发现了一些具有与海德堡人特征相似的古人类化石,但由于化石保存不好,始终没有定论。因而,西方学者一般认为,亚洲还没有发现过真正的海德堡人类型的化石。此次发现可能改变这个说法。

季强告诉记者,海德堡人是智人、尼安德特人和丹尼索瓦人的共同祖先,在研究现代人起源问题上具有极其重要的科学价值。哈尔滨海德堡人类型化石不仅为研究现代人起源提供了确凿的化石证据,而且也为重新认识人类发展历史和演化模式开辟了新的途径。“现在我们有必要对以往提出的‘多中心起源’的观点与‘人类三次走出非洲’的‘老根发新枝’的演化模式重新进行评价和思考。”

目前,季强正在组建科研团队和申请研究项目,将在哈尔滨地区松花江上游两岸寻找产出古人类化石的原始地点和地层层位,并进行多学科的综合研究。

相关报道:河北地质大学科学家发现似海德堡人头颅化石

(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据河北新闻网(马利):9月12日,河北地质大学举办信息交流会,该校古生物研究院首席科学家季强发布他的最新发现——在我国东北首次发现似海德堡人头颅化石。据介绍,这一发现有望为相关的科学研究提供佐证和素材,甚至可能刷新目前对人类起源和演进历史的已有认知。

季强表示,这件化石于1933年由一名在哈尔滨市松花江修建桥梁的劳工发现并保存。今年5月,这名劳工的后代将人头化石捐赠给了河北地质大学,并作为固定资产永远收藏于该校的地球科学博物馆。经季强和中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所研究员倪喜军初步鉴定,此化石应是似海德堡人头颅化石:眉骨宽厚,头盖骨长圆形,眼眶孔很大,吻部稍微前突,推测年龄为20万年至40万年或更早。

国际科学界普遍认为,人与猿的分异大约在距今700万年前后,人类最早起源于非洲;但也有少数学者认为人类的起源中心不止一个。在欧亚大陆发现的古人类大约有4大类:直立人、海德堡人、尼安德特人和智人。直立人在非洲、亚洲和欧洲均有分布。中国北京周口店发现的北京猿人属于直立人。“目前,学界普遍认为,海德堡人是智人、尼安德特人和丹尼索瓦人的共同祖先,在研究现代人起源问题上具有极其重要的科学价值。”季强表示,在哈尔滨发现的似海德堡人头颅化石不仅是中国的首次发现,而且也是亚洲的首次发现,其不仅为研究现代人起源提供了新的化石证据,而且也为重新认识人类发展历史和演化模式开辟了新的途径。“现在,有必要对以往提出的 ‘多中心起源’的观点与‘人类三次走出非洲’的老根发新枝的演化模式重新进行评价和思考。”

目前,季强正着手组建科研团队对这一发现进行多学科综合研究。

相关报道:河北地质大学发布重大科学发现:中国东北发现似海德堡人头颅化石

(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据长城网(张晓明 胥文燕):记者从河北地质大学召开的重大科学发现信息交流会上获悉,河北地质大学教授、古生物学家季强在现代人起源的研究中取得了重大进展——发现似海德堡人头颅化石。

经季强教授和中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所倪喜军研究员初步鉴定,似海德堡人头颅化石眉骨宽厚,头盖骨长圆形,眼眶孔很大,吻部稍微前突,推测年龄为40万年-20万年,时代可能会更早。

据了解,国际科学界普遍认为,人与猿的分异大约在距今700万年前后,人类最早起源于非洲;但也有少数学者认为人类的起源中心不止一个。在欧亚大陆发现的古人类大约有4大类:直立人、海德堡人、尼安德特人和智人。直立人在非洲、亚洲和欧洲均有分布。中国北京周口店发现的北京猿人属于直立人。

目前,非洲出现的海德堡人大约距今30万年-12.5万年。欧洲发现的海德堡人大约距今60万年-20万年。亚洲先后也发现了一些具有与海德堡人特征相似的古人类化石,但由于化石保存不完整,始终没有定论。广义上,海德堡人是智人、尼安德特人及丹尼索瓦人的共同祖先。因此,海德堡人在研究现代人起源方面处在一个非常重要的位置,迄今还没有任何化石证据证明海德堡人一定起源于非洲。

季强介绍,1933年,中国东北发现了一件古人类头颅化石,由于当时所处环境,这件化石没有被研究,长期以来鲜为人知。2017年8月,他在参观广西桂林瓦窑奇石市场时在一位农民手中了解到该人头化石。经双方多次协商,这位农民在2018年5月将化石捐赠给了河北地质大学,并收藏于该校的地球科学博物馆。2018年7月,季强教授和黑龙江省地质学家实地考察了哈尔滨市东江桥,初步认为1933年发现的古人类头骨化石应该产自松花江的河沙沉积物中。目前,季强正在组建科研团队和申请研究项目,寻找产出古人类化石的原始地点和地层层位,并进行多学科的综合研究。

“似海德堡人头颅化石不仅是中国的首次发现,而且也是亚洲的首次发现。将为研究现代人起源提供确凿的化石证据,而且也为重新认识人类发展历史和演化模式开辟了新的途径。因此,我们有必要对以往提出的‘多中心起源’观点与‘人类三次走出非洲’的‘老根发新枝’的演化模式重新进行评价和思考。”季强告诉记者。

相关报道:我国首次发现似海德堡古人类头颅化石

(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据中国自然资源报(许光辉):9月12日,河北地质大学在石家庄市召开重大科学发现信息交流会,公布在哈尔滨市发现新型古人类头颅化石。经河北地质大学教授季强和中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所研究员倪喜军初步鉴定,该古人类化石应是似海德堡人古人类头颅化石,眉骨宽厚后,头盖骨长圆形,眼眶孔很大,吻部稍微前突,推测年龄为40万年~20万年,但其时代可能会更早。

2017年8月,季强在广西桂林瓦窑奇石市场偶遇一个农民,得知其家中珍藏一件祖传的人头化石。经了解,1933年4月,日本人强征劳工在哈尔滨市松花江上修建一座桥梁,也就是现在的东江桥,当年这位农民的爷爷是监工。一名劳工在修建桥墩时挖出了一颗“人头”,就交给了这位农民的爷爷。他没有将这事告诉日本人,而是偷偷地将这颗“人头”带回家中,包裹好后丢进了院子里的水井中,连夜用土将水井填埋。这个秘密隐藏了几十年,只到临终前,他才把这件事儿告诉了儿孙。这位农民向季强表示,愿意把人头化石捐赠给一家国有博物馆收藏。2018年5月,这位农民将这件人头化石捐赠给了河北地质大学,并作为固定资产永远收藏于该校的地球科学博物馆。

据季强介绍,目前在欧亚大陆发现的古人类大约有4大类:直立人、海德堡人、尼安德特人和智人。1929年12月2日在北京周口店发现的北京猿人属于直立人,时代是78万年~40万年。古人类研究界普遍认为海德堡人是智人、尼安德特人及丹尼索瓦人的共同祖先,这在研究现代人起源方面处在一个非常重要的位置。非洲、欧洲均发现过海德堡人化石,亚洲还没有发现过真正的海德堡人类型的化石。哈尔滨似海德堡人头颅化石不仅是中国的首次发现,也是亚洲的首次发现,不仅为研究现代人起源提供了确凿的化石证据,也为重新认识人类发展历史和演化模式开辟了新的途径。季强表示,我们有必要对以往提出的“多中心起源”的观点与“人类三次走出非洲”的“老根发新枝”的演化模式重新进行评价和思考。

2018年7月,季强和黑龙江省的地质学家实地考察了哈尔滨市东江桥,初步认为1933年发现的古人类头骨化石应该产自松花江的河沙沉积物中,这意味着头颅化石的发现地不是化石产出的原始地点。目前已计划在哈尔滨地区松花江上游两岸寻找产出古人类化石的原始地点和地层层位,并进行多学科的综合深入研究。







“泥河湾猿人”卫奇:在泥河湾寻踪远古人类



 楼主| 发表于 2018-9-15 00:18 | 显示全部楼层
大有深意,神意伊甸园,言与神同在!

医巫闾山——伊吾卢山——evolution,大陆——丁零——铁勒——迭剌——土拉——德令哈——德里——顚軨——颠连——大连——泰来——铁岭——襜褴——塘朗——螳螂山——地哩——桐庐——同罗——多罗——打洛——大罗——达罗毗荼——妥拉——达累斯萨拉姆——图卢兹——Thule
昆仑——巨鹿——涿鹿——俱卢——高丽——库伦——康洛满——克里木——科利马——科累马——葛莱美——克鲁伦——浊路罗——科里亚克——克里姆林宫
卢龙——罗罗——楼兰——乐浪——貉龙——兰若
和龙——葫芦河——壶流河——霍林河——乌拉尔河——胡里改——呼兰河——呼伦湖——狐鹿姑——兀良哈——虎而哈——虎林——回龙观——黑龙河(黑龙江、黑龙港)——荷兰——贺兰——哈兰——hollow
滹沱——河套——洪洞——邯郸——河图——虎头梁——海坨——赫图阿拉——赫梯——湖涂——浩特——忽炭——无达——无棣——馄饨——哈达——胡天——胡里特——糊涂——霍屯督(印欧与华夏似乎都对这些游猎人群心怀敌意,历史上有战争,难免的)——海德——赫德——胡天——荒唐——霍顿——合敦(女人如水)——哈迪斯——海底(哈达尔)

库页——古冶——姑射——稒阳——古椰——伽倻
查瓦利河谷(Vale do Javari)——查文——爪哇
基托伊——赤塔——契丹——基多——奇塔万(Chitawan)——奎达——伊基托斯
茹塔伊河(Jutai River——有邰氏——鱼台——盱眙——于阗——准提——朱特——犹太
利马——藜麦——黎民——黎母岭——黎巴嫩——喇嘛——罗马——Inti Raymi(古印加人崇拜太阳神,派Kullku神鸟把珍贵的藜麦Quinoa种子赋予安第斯人民。Kullku——苦累焅——灰灰——喀尔喀——苦苦喵儿,Quinoa——困难呀)(“藜”、“藋(di)”同义,翟人是北奔黎民,难怪有昌黎、交黎、高黎、牛黎,估计“redeemer”、“Timor”、“帖木儿”、“泰梅尔”、“泰米尔”等词也与之有关)
波塞冬——包牺——博斯腾——波斯——菠菜(藜科植物跟亚特兰蒂斯很有关系?黎民、黎母利亚源自亚特兰蒂斯。大力水手吃菠菜巧合对应波塞冬——海神)
纳内河——那乃族——涅涅茨——茹茹
“玛纳斯”这个词很多民族都有。
 楼主| 发表于 2018-9-26 15:00 | 显示全部楼层
那个海德堡人头骨,我看新闻时就曾怀疑是不是欧洲的犹太、白俄科学家东逃带过来的,可能乱世,不小心丢了。但是如此完好的头骨,除非私藏,发掘后应该有报道才对呀。而且如果是科学家,一般没有造假动机的话,应该会公布情况,或至少留有文字材料。所以如果是欧洲带来,只可能是极特殊清新。





俄罗斯西伯利亚的丹尼索瓦洞穴发现另外4个原始人类的骨骼化石


来源: 神秘的地球  
时间:2018年9月26日 10:38
俄罗斯西伯利亚的丹尼索瓦洞穴发现另外4个原始人类的骨骼化石

俄罗斯西伯利亚的丹尼索瓦洞穴发现另外4个原始人类的骨骼化石

俄罗斯西伯利亚的丹尼索瓦洞穴发现另外4个原始人类的骨骼化石

(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据中国科学报(赵熙熙):上个月,科学家在俄罗斯西伯利亚的丹尼索瓦洞穴中发现的一块小骨头碎片引起了巨大轰动。科学家认为,这个被他们称为“丹尼”的家伙属于一个古老的混血人种,即有一个尼安德特人的母亲和一个丹尼索瓦人的父亲。

如今,发现丹尼遗骸的研究人员已经在同一个洞穴中发现了另外4个原始人类的骨骼。

这些发现是通过梳理数千件未被确认的动物骨骼从而识别早期人类的一项研究的一部分,这些标本有许多已经在博物馆和研究机构的仓库里布满了灰尘。

德国耶拿市马克斯普朗克人类历史科学研究所(MPI-SHH)古人类学家Samantha Brown说:“当发现一种新的人类骨骼时,我们会非常兴奋。”

9月14日,在葡萄牙法罗举行的欧洲人类进化学会年会上,Brown展示了他们的最新发现,这是一块26毫米长的骨头碎片。“它们都很重要——我们发现的每一个标本都有助于对记录的理解。”

古人类学家通常很擅长区分古代人类的骨骼和其他动物的骨骼。但是,没有清晰特征的微小骨骼碎片则是一项挑战。

英国牛津大学考古学家Tom Higham说,这些碎片通常构成了从考古遗址中发现的遗骸的重要组成部分。

例如,在丹尼索瓦洞穴,大多数骨骼材料都是随着时间的推移被动物,如鬣狗破坏的,因此用肉眼是无法识别它们的。他说:“所以这些碎片基本上都是被储存在仓库里。”

然而即便是这些微小的骨骼碎片也包含了一些分子信息,这些信息可以用来识别它们所属的动物群体。

通过使用一种名为质谱分析动物考古(ZooMS)的技术,研究人员可以从骨骼中提取胶原蛋白—— 一种坚硬的可以形成结缔组织的纤维蛋白,并将其分解成最基本的组成单位,名为缩氨酸。随后,研究人员寻找特征“指纹”,进而将古人类的缩氨酸与熊或猛犸象的缩氨酸区分开来。

丹尼是第一个对骨骼碎片使用这种技术并被归类为人类的人。在她的DNA被提取和测序之前,研究人员在2016年的一篇论文中描述了这一技术。

从那以后,研究小组又检查了数百具骨骼,并最终确定了他们目前正在分析的另外4个古人类标本。

这些最新的发现是由MPI-SHH的古人类学家Katerina Douka率领的一项更大型研究的一部分。这个名为“发现者”的项目的目标是从亚洲各地的遗址中筛选出4万块骨头碎片,进而发现更多的古人类遗骸。

该研究团队现在计划进行电脑断层扫描,并从骨头碎片中提取DNA,以了解更多关于其古老主人的信息。这将使研究人员能够确定它来自于哪一种原始人类群体——单凭ZooMS无法做出如此精细的区分——并研究它与从丹尼索瓦洞穴中发现的其他标本之间的关系。

他们可能是丹尼的亲戚吗?“一切皆有可能。”Higham说,他是“发现者”项目的科学顾问。“在这个领域,没有什么能让我感到惊讶。”

与此同时,Douka、Brown和一些志愿者将继续筛选成千上万的骨头碎片。

到目前为止,在这些骨骼碎片中,研究人员能从约1000个动物碎片中发现1个人类骨骼标本。以这样的速度,他们可以找到大约400个人类骨骼标本。
研究人员特别渴望能够发现更多的丹尼索瓦人标本,因为到目前为止,只有少数的标本被发现,并且全部是在丹尼索瓦洞穴里。

在远至澳大利亚和巴布亚新几内亚的现代人基因组中都有丹尼索瓦人的DNA,这表明这些古代人类曾到达比西伯利亚更靠近东方的地方。Brown说,在其他地方找到一个丹尼索瓦人“将是这个项目真正的胜利”。
发表于 2018-9-26 15:21 | 显示全部楼层
不知道有无丹人的完整骨骼或者头骨?
 楼主| 发表于 2018-9-26 16:16 | 显示全部楼层
lindberg 发表于 2018-9-26 15:21
不知道有无丹人的完整骨骼或者头骨?

谁知道金牛山、马坝、许家窑人能不能提取古DNA,看看是不是丹尼索瓦人,若是,丹尼索瓦人就是东亚老土著。
 楼主| 发表于 2018-9-26 16:17 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-9-26 21:00 编辑

谁知道金牛山、马坝、许家窑人能不能提取古DNA,看看是不是丹尼索瓦人,若是,丹尼索瓦人就是东亚老土著。

几万年前非洲老土著的遗骨不知道有没有提取出古DNA来看看的。我很怀疑那是一批走入非洲的智人。而且现代智人就是三大洲前智人(海德堡人?)混血后演变而来。
(这个新界面很多功能完全不如以前,不过多了一个“保存数据”功能,算是唯一可以称道的地方)


南非布隆伯斯洞穴发现的人类手绘图岩片可能证明智人曾有意识地使用象征性符号



来源: 神秘的地球  
  • 时间:2018年9月25日 13:35


南非布隆伯斯洞穴发现的人类手绘图岩片可能证明智人曾有意识地使用象征性符号

(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据中国社会科学网(姚晓丹/编译):法国考古学家认为,在南非布隆伯斯洞穴发现的带有人类手绘图的岩片,可能证明智人曾有意识地使用各类象征性符号。

9月12日,法国国家科学研究中心网站发文表示,考古学家很长一段时间都认为直到约4万年前,人类才开始使用具有象征意义的符号。然而,在非洲、欧洲和亚洲的考古发现告诉人们,人类从更早的时候就已经开始使用符号。《自然》杂志近期发表的一篇论文中,描绘了考古研究人员发现的用赭石笔绘制的抽象符号实例。考古学家在布隆伯斯洞穴进行考古研究时发现了这一图案,它被绘制在一块硅结砾岩的表面,由9条线条组成。这块绘有图案的岩石是在距今约7.3万年的土层中发现的,极有可能是人类最早的手绘“画作”。

分析考古遗址中发现的各种“图形”具有何种象征意义,是一个难题,人们今天认为的真实表征,实际上可能只是古人在没有任何特定目的的情况下的涂鸦之作。对于参与此次发掘研究工作的专家而言,如何确认这些线条是人类故意刻画在岩石表面上的,是一个重大挑战。研究人员利用多种方法,实验性地再现了这些用赭石绘制的线条,如用带有锋利边缘的赭石片进行绘画,或者用画笔蘸取不同稀释比例的赭石粉末和水的混合物在石块表面进行描画等。随后,他们将这些作品与原始的图画进行了比较,利用显微技术、化学和摩擦学知识对结果进行了分析。结果发现,这些线条是用锋利的赭石笔,刻意绘制在已经被事先打磨平滑的岩石表面的。此发现证明,非洲地区的智人曾经利用不同技术,在不同媒介上制作相似的标志,也进一步证实了智人曾经有意识地使用各类象征性符号的假设。




 楼主| 发表于 2018-10-6 23:00 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-10-6 23:08 编辑



Not so brutish after all: Neanderthals had a 'well developed system of care' to look after their sick and 'midwives' who helped with childbirth
  • A new report suggests Neanderthals took good care of sick friends and relatives
  • Report adds to a body of evidence suggesting they were like modern humans  
PUBLISHED: 00:20 BST, 4 October 2018 | UPDATED: 00:26 BST, 4 October 2018

The study suggests they provided widespread healthcare to members of their group, even offering assisted childbirth.
Researchers say the compassion and caring for the injured and dying could have given the Neanderthals an 'evolutionary advantage' and kept them alive for far longer.
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The University of York study suggests they provided widespread healthcare to members of their group, even offering assisted childbirth


Previous research at the University of York had already suggested that compassion and caring for the injured and dying could have been a factor in the development of healthcare practices, but further investigation has now shown that there was evolutionary drivers behind it too.  
Researchers investigated the skeletal remains of more than 30 individuals where minor and serious injuries were evident, but did not lead to loss of life.
The samples displayed several episodes of injury and recovery, suggesting that Neanderthals must have had a well-developed system of care in order to survive.
'Neanderthals faced multiple threats to their lives, particularly from large and dangerous animals, but in popular culture Neanderthals have such a brutish and strong image that we haven't really thought too deeply about their vulnerabilities before now,' said Dr. Penny Spikins, from the University of York's Department of Archaeology.
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A new study concludes Neanderthals were caring individuals. The report explains that some were willing to risk injury hunting dangerous animals for the sake of others (file photo)


'We have evidence of healthcare dating back 1.6 million years ago, but we think it probably goes further back than this.  
'The high level of injury and recovery from serious conditions, such as a broken leg, suggests that others must have collaborated in their care and helped not only to ease pain, but to fight for their survival in such a way that they could regain health and actively participate in the group again.'
More than 80% of the skeletal remains of Neanderthals known to archaeologists have several injuries, some of which may have required simple remedies, such as food and rest, while others would have required serious levels of care due to a high risk to life.
In some cases the injuries occurred long before death and would have required monitoring, massage, fever management and hygiene care, previous studies have found.
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A review of previously discovered remains found most individuals had a severe injury of some kind. The skull of the skull of crania of the La Chapelle aux Saints Neanderthal is shown left. On right, examples of injuries to the tibia and femur of a Neanderthal are pictured


One analysis of a male aged around 25-40 at time of death revealed a catalogue of poor heath, including a degenerative disease of the spine and shoulders.
Dr Spikins found he remained part of the group - as his articulated remains were subsequently carefully buried.
His condition would have sapped his strength over the final 12 months of life and severely restricted his ability to contribute to the group.
Researchers say that because Neanderthals lived in small groups, even a single death could have a large effect on the group.
They also say that childbirth was a particular target for Neanderthal healthcare.
'It is likely that they would have had assisted childbirth; the role that we now attribute to midwives,' Dr. Spikins said:
'Without support, they probably could not have survived the toll that the death rate of mothers and babies could have taken on their communities.
'When we look at the daily risks and dangers involved in hunting and finding food, as well as in childbirth in respect to their small hunting communities, it is not surprising that they would develop practices to improve health and reduce mortality risk.
'We can start to see healthcare as a pattern of evolutionary significant collaborative behaviour, alongside hunting together, food sharing and parenting. In this we can see why providing healthcare to those in need today is such an important part of human life.'
Neanderthals occupied Europe and Asia from around 300,000 to 30,000 ago. They were traditionally viewed as unintelligent.
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Near complete Neanderthal skeletons have been found at Shanidar Cave (pictured) and other rockshelter locations. These, the researchers say, would have been difficult to access even for healthy individuals


But evidence has been mounting in recent years supporting the claim that they were intelligent with a sophisticated culture.
It is believed they created and wore the world's first jewellery 130,000 years ago, making necklaces or bracelets from eagle talons. They also buried their dead, and may even have had rudimentary religion.
Stone tools discovered at sites they inhabited suggest they were skilled tool makers with adept hand eye coordination. They may also have built homes using the materials they found around them.


How having sex with NEANDERTHALS saved humanity: DNA from our ape-like cousins boosted our immune systems, protecting early humans from deadly diseases 70,000 years ago
  • Modern humans interbred with Neanderthals after leaving Africa
  • Neanderthals had lived in Eurasia for hundreds of thousands of years already
  • Exposure to viruses allowed them to develop some protection against them
  • This form of immunity was then passed on to the next generation of humans
  • The genes helped fight RNA viruses such as HIV, influenza A and hepatitis C
PUBLISHED: 16:00 BST, 4 October 2018 | UPDATED: 16:17 BST, 4 October 2018


Modern-day humans received the genetic tools to fight viral infections such as HIV, influenza A and hepatitis C from Neanderthals.
Scientists believe Homo sapiens received the protection against the deadly viruses when they interbred with Neanderthals around 70,000 years ago.
Neanderthals mysteriously disappeared around 40,000 years ago but had already existed outside of their native Africa for hundreds of thousands of years.
When homo sapiens followed suit and also moved out of the continent they interbred with Neanderthals, scientists say.
This passed on the genetic defences of Neanderthals to humans and helped protect them against deadly viruses.
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Scientists have found that interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern humans gave us genetic tools to combat viral infections such as HIV.  When the two species interbred it passed down thousands of years of evolution from Neanderthals to humans instantaneously


As a result of the trysts, many modern Europeans and Asians still harbour about two per cent of Neanderthal DNA in their genomes.
This percentage varies from person to person but some sections of ancient neanderthal DNA have a tendency to pop up more often than others in modern human populations.
Some experts have long predicted that these snippets of genetic material are beneficial to human survival and that's why they persisted for millennia.  
Research published in the journal Cellhas found proof of a theory known as the 'poison-antidote' model.
This suggests that the swapping of genes between the two species during the process of interbreeding bequeathed both infectious viruses and genetic tools to combat the invaders to modern humans.
Professor Dmitri Petrov, an evolutionary biologist at Stanford's School of Humanities and Sciences, said: 'Neanderthal genes likely gave us some protection against viruses that our ancestors encountered when they left Africa.'
The study found the genetic defences that humans inherited from Neanderthals were against RNA viruses.
These utilise a molecule called RNA - ribonucleic acid - a molecule that is similar in shape and function to DNA.
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This diagram shows how human evolution was altered after breeding with Neanderthals. Humans instantly inherited the adapted and virus-resistant genes from the Neanderthals who had developed it after living outside their native Africa for hundreds of thousands of years


After compiling a list of more than 4,500 genes that are known to interact with viruses in modern-day humans, the researchers cross-referenced this with a database of Neanderthal DNA.
This process identified 152 fragments of genetic information which exist in both modern humans and the extinct Neanderthals.
Professor Enard said: 'One of the things that population geneticists have wondered about is why we have maintained these stretches of Neanderthal DNA in our own genomes.
'This study suggests that one of the roles of those genes was to provide us with some protection against pathogens as we moved into new environments.'
Today, these genes are still active and interact with various types of RNA viruses, including influenza A, HIV and hepatitis C.
Professor Petrov said: 'Many Neanderthal sequences have been lost in modern humans, but some stayed and appear to have quickly increased to high frequencies at the time of contact, suggestive of their selective benefits at that time.
'Our research aims to understand why that was the case.
'We believe that resistance to specific RNA viruses provided by these Neanderthal sequences was likely a big part of the reason for their selective benefits.
Scientists concluded that these genes helped our ancestors fend off ancient RNA viruses that they encountered upon leaving Africa.
Assistant Professor David Enard, of the University of Arizona, said: 'It's not a stretch to imagine that when modern humans met up with Neanderthals, they infected each other with pathogens that came from their respective environments
'By interbreeding with each other, they also passed along genetic adaptations to cope with some of those pathogens.'

Neanderthals had been living outside of Africa for hundreds of thousands of years, giving their immune systems ample time to evolve defences against infectious viruses in Europe and Asia.

But our newly emigrated ancestors would have been much more vulnerable.
Professor Enard, a former postdoctoral fellow in Prof Petrov's lab, explained: 'It made much more sense for modern humans to just borrow the already adapted genetic defences from Neanderthals rather than waiting for their own adaptive mutations to develop, which would have taken much more time.
'Modern humans and Neanderthals are so closely related that it really wasn't much of a genetic barrier for these viruses to jump
'But that closeness also meant that Neanderthals could pass on protections against those viruses to us.'   
Interestingly, the Neanderthal genes they identified are present only in modern Europeans, suggesting that different viruses influenced genetic swapping between Neanderthals and the ancient ancestors of today's Asians.
Professor Enard said it made sense since interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern humans is thought to have occurred multiple times and in multiple locations throughout prehistory, and different viruses were likely involved in each instance.







 楼主| 发表于 2018-10-6 23:24 | 显示全部楼层

环地中海,人类起源的重要区域。非洲智人、尼安德特人,跟蒙戈湖人、丹尼索瓦人正好是对立面。


Fossil teeth discovered in Italy reveal Neanderthals developed distinct features as far back as 450,000 years ago
  • Study examined ancient teeth found in Fontana Fanuccio and Visogliano, Italy
  • Experts say remains date back to Early-Middle Pleistocene, 450,000 years ago
  • Analysis revealed Neanderthal-like features, different from other human species
PUBLISHED: 19:02 BST, 3 October 2018 | UPDATED: 19:03 BST, 3 October 2018

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Fossil teeth dating back to the Middle Pleistocene roughly 450,000 years ago could help to piece together the timeline of ancient humans in Eurasia.
Researchers have discovered two sets of teeth now thought to be among the oldest human remains found on the Italian Peninsula.
The remains from the sites of Fontana Fanuccio and Visogliano in Italy suggest Neanderthal dental features had already evolved by the Early-Middle Pleistocene, supporting theories that the Neanderthal lineage diverged from our own early on.




Researchers have discovered two sets of teeth now thought to be among the oldest human remains found on the Italian Peninsula. A virtual rendering of the teeth from Fontana Fanuccio and Visogliano is shown above


The ancient teeth discovered in Italy add new clues to the complex path of human evolution hundreds of thousands of years ago.
They are among very few fossil human remains in Europe from the Middle Pleistocene.
In the new study published to the journal Plos One, researchers examined teeth found in Fontana Fanuccio about 31 miles (50 km) southeast of Rome, and Visogliano, located 11 miles (18 km) northwest of Trieste.
Micro-CT scans and morphological analyses of the Pleistocene teeth revealed distinct Neanderthal-like features compared to other human species.
The teeth from both sites were found to share similarities with Neanderthals, with marked differences from those of modern humans.
As experts have long debated the identities and relationships of ancient humans in Eurasia during the Middle Pleistocene, the discovery could help to put some arguments to rest.
‘The remains from Fontana Ranuccio and Visogliano represent among the oldest human fossil remains testifying to a peopling phase of the Italian Peninsula,’ said Clément Zanolli of the Université Toulouse III.
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Micro-CT scans and morphological analyses of the Pleistocene teeth revealed distinct Neanderthal-like features compared to other human species. The teeth from both sites were found to share similarities with Neanderthals


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The remains from the sites of Fontana Fanuccio and Visogliano in Italy suggest Neanderthal dental features had already evolved by the Early-Middle Pleistocene, supporting theories that the Neanderthal lineage diverged from our own early on. File photo


‘Our analyses of the tooth internal structural organization reveal a Neanderthal-like signature, also resembling the condition shown by the contemporary assemblage from Atapuerca Sima de los Huesos, indicating that an overall Neandertal morphological dental template was preconfigured I Wester Europe at least 430 to 450 ka ago.’
According to the researchers, the teeth also show significant differences to other teeth from this time period found in Eurasia.
This suggests the region was once home to several lineages of human species, hinting at the complexity of human evolution in the Middle Pleistocene.
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Fossil teeth dating back to the Middle Pleistocene roughly 450,000 years ago could help to piece together the timeline of ancient humans in Eurasia. An illustration of the human lineage is shown


‘Results revealed more complex population interactions through time and space than previously established,’ the researchers explain in the paper.
‘In particular, nuclear genomic data indicate closer relationships between the SH hominins and European Neanderthals than with the Siberian Denisovans.’
According to the researchers, the ‘genetic and morphological evidence now suggest an early divergence between Neanderthals and modern humans, likely around the Early Middle Pleistocene transition.’





Ancient animal rib sharpened into a knife and found in Morocco shows our cave-dwelling ancestors were making 'sophisticated bone tools' 90,000-years ago
  • 90,000-year-old bone knife made from an animal rib has been discovered
  • The bone is the oldest tool that would have been used by the Aterian culture
  • They made tools that were distinct from similarly-aged sub-Saharan artefacts
PUBLISHED: 19:00 BST, 3 October 2018 | UPDATED: 20:35 BST, 3 October 2018

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A 90,000-year-old bone knife made from an ancient animal rib has been discovered in a Moroccan cave.
The find proves that our north African cave-dwelling ancestors were making 'sophisticated bone tools' much earlier than previously thought and more than 40,000 years before the Neanderthals.
The bone is the oldest tool to have been used by the technologically advanced Aterian culture that lived in northern Africa during the Middle Stone Age.
This culture made tools that were distinct from similarly-aged sub-Saharan artefacts, suggesting a unique technological industry had developed in North Africa.  
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A 90,000-year-old bone knife (pictured, left) made from an ancient animal rib has been discovered in a Moroccan cave. Pictured (middle, right) are two tools from another cave site in Morocco


The tool was discovered in 2012 in Dar es-Soltan 1 cave, which is around 850 feet (260 metres) inland from the Atlantic coast of Morocco.
Scientists led by Dr Silvia Bello from the Natural History Museum believe the bone was part of a large mammals rib.
They found evidence the bone had been shaped and sharpened into a knife that was just under 5 inches (13cm) long.
'This find is significant because it shows how sophisticated bone tool technology was already around about 100, 000 years ago', Dr Bello told MailOnline.
'Modern humans seemed to have been capable of crafting sophisticated bone tools very early on.
'It also show the existence of a new type of bone tool, with no other example in the rest of Africa.'
Scientists say there is very little use-wear pattern on the edge of the bone tool.
'Therefore we suggest it was use to cut soft material', Dr Bello said, although it was not clear at this stage what materials it would have cut.
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The find (pictured) proves that our cave-dwelling ancestors were making 'sophisticated bone tools' much earlier than previously thought and more than 40,000 years before the Neanderthals


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The bone is the oldest tool to have been used by the technologically advanced Aterian culture who lived in northern Africa during the Middle Stone Age


The layer containing the bone knife has been dated to approximately 90,000 years ago, approximately 55,000 years after the first appearance of the Aterian culture.
The Aterian stone tool industry was based in North Africa and is believed to have disappeared around 20,000 years ago.
‘Aterians were capable of a complex and controlled sequence of actions involved in the manufacture of specialised bone knives', said Dr Bello.
The tool - and the methods used to create it - are distinct from bone tools of a similar age in southern Africa.
However, it is similar to two tools known from the El Mnasra cave site in Morocco which is of a similar age.
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The tool (pictured) - and the methods used to create it - are distinct from bone tools of a similar age in southern Africa. Specialised bone tools are considered a sign of cognitive complexity


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The tool was discovered in 2012 in Dar es-Soltan 1 cave, which is around 850 feet (260 metres) inland from the Atlantic coast of Morocco


‘Aterians made specialised bone tools earlier than originally believed and more than 40,000 years before the Neanderthals', said co-author lead author Dr Abdeljalil Bouzouggar from the Institut National des Sciences de l'Archéologie et du Patrimoine in Morocco.
The find suggests they were using bones in a way that was unique to North African Aterian culture, according to the paper published in Plos One.
Specialised bone tools are considered a sign of cognitive complexity.
However, they have been poorly-understood with the Aterian technological complex, so this finding represents a new insight into the development of modern human cognition.
The authors also suggest that this new technology may have come about in response to changing resources around 90,000 years ago, but note that more study will be required to support this theory.



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