蓝海人类学在线 Ryan WEI's Forum of Anthropology

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发表于 2017-6-8 07:48 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 Tocharian_2 于 2017-6-8 08:11 编辑


New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens[size=14.495px]

[size=14.495px]Fossil evidence points to an African origin of Homo sapiens[size=14.495px] from a group called either H. heidelbergensis[size=14.495px] or H. rhodesiensis[size=14.495px]. However, the exact place and time of emergence of H. sapiens[size=14.495px] remain obscure because the fossil record is scarce and the chronological age of many key specimens remains uncertain. In particular, it is unclear whether the present day ‘modern’ morphology rapidly emerged approximately 200 thousand years ago (ka) among earlier representatives of H. sapiens1[size=14.495px] or evolved gradually over the last 400 thousand years2[size=14.495px]. Here we report newly discovered human fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, and interpret the affinities of the hominins from this site with other archaic and recent human groups. We identified a mosaic of features including facial, mandibular and dental morphology that aligns the Jebel Irhoud material with early or recent anatomically modern humans and more primitive neurocranial and endocranial morphology. In combination with an age of 315 ± 34 thousand years (as determined by thermoluminescence dating)3[size=14.495px], this evidence makes Jebel Irhoud the oldest and richest African Middle Stone Age hominin site that documents early stages of the H. sapiens[size=14.495px] clade in which key features of modern morphology were established. Furthermore, it shows that the evolutionary processes behind the emergence of H. sapiens[size=14.495px] involved the whole African continent.


The age of the hominin fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, and the origins of the Middle Stone Age

[size=14.495px]The timing and location of the emergence of our species and of associated behavioural changes are crucial for our understanding of human evolution. The earliest fossil attributed to a modern form of Homo sapiens[size=14.495px] comes from eastern Africa and is approximately 195 thousand years old1, 2[size=14.495px], therefore the emergence of modern human biology is commonly placed at around 200 thousand years ago3, 4[size=14.495px]. The earliest Middle Stone Age assemblages come from eastern and southern Africa but date much earlier5, 6, 7[size=14.495px]. Here we report the ages, determined by thermoluminescence dating, of fire-heated flint artefacts obtained from new excavations at the Middle Stone Age site of Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, which are directly associated with newly discovered remains of H. sapiens8[size=14.495px]. A weighted average age places these Middle Stone Age artefacts and fossils at 315 ± 34 thousand years ago. Support is obtained through the recalculated uranium series with electron spin resonance date of 286 ± 32 thousand years ago for a tooth from the Irhoud 3 hominin mandible. These ages are also consistent with the faunal and microfaunal9[size=14.495px] assemblages and almost double the previous age estimates for the lower part of the deposits10, 11[size=14.495px]. The north African site of Jebel Irhoud contains one of the earliest directly dated Middle Stone Age assemblages, and its associated human remains are the oldest reported for H. sapiens[size=14.495px]. The emergence of our species and of the Middle Stone Age appear to be close in time, and these data suggest a larger scale, potentially pan-African, origin for both.

 楼主| 发表于 2017-6-8 08:10 | 显示全部楼层
发表于 2017-6-8 13:09 | 显示全部楼层
 楼主| 发表于 2017-6-8 13:14 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Tocharian_2 于 2017-6-8 13:36 编辑
lindberg 发表于 2017-6-8 13:09


[size=14.495px]At an archaeological site near the Atlantic coast, finds of skull, face and jaw bones identified as being from early members of our species have been dated to about 315,000 years ago. That indicates H. sapiens[size=14.495px] appeared more than 100,000 years earlier than thought: most researchers have placed the origins of our species in East Africa about 200,000 years ago.
发表于 2017-6-12 16:36 | 显示全部楼层
发表于 2017-8-30 19:41 | 显示全部楼层
1# Tocharian_2 话说一般看的非洲起源说,基本上从类人猿开始都锁定在东非演化来着。
发表于 2017-8-30 22:21 | 显示全部楼层
发表于 2017-8-31 20:40 | 显示全部楼层
7# 一统浆糊 串门。。
发表于 2017-9-3 08:41 | 显示全部楼层
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