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Nature: Palaeolithic culture in India reframes Out of Africa models

发表于 2018-2-1 11:38 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Early Middle Palaeolithic culture in India around 385–172 ka reframes Out of Africa models

Luminescence dating at the stratified prehistoric site of Attirampakkam, India, has shown that processes signifying the end of the Acheulian culture and the emergence of a Middle Palaeolithic culture occurred at 385 ± 64 thousand years ago (ka), much earlier than conventionally presumed for South Asia1. The Middle Palaeolithic continued at Attirampakkam until 172 ± 41 ka. Chronologies of Middle Palaeolithic technologies in regions distant from Africa and Europe are crucial for testing theories about the origins and early evolution of these cultures, and for understanding their association with modern humans or archaic hominins, their links with preceding Acheulian cultures and the spread of Levallois lithic technologies2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20. The geographic location of India and its rich Middle Palaeolithic record are ideally suited to addressing these issues, but progress has been limited by the paucity of excavated sites and hominin fossils as well as by geochronological constraints1,8. At Attirampakkam, the gradual disuse of bifaces, the predominance of small tools, the appearance of distinctive and diverse Levallois flake and point strategies, and the blade component all highlight a notable shift away from the preceding Acheulian large-flake technologies9. These findings document a process of substantial behavioural change that occurred in India at 385 ± 64 ka and establish its contemporaneity with similar processes recorded in Africa and Europe2,3,4,5,6,7,8,10,11,12,13. This suggests complex interactions between local developments and ongoing global transformations. Together, these observations call for a re-evaluation of models that restrict the origins of Indian Middle Palaeolithic culture to the incidence of modern human dispersals after approximately 125 ka19,21.
发表于 2018-2-1 17:52 | 显示全部楼层
发表于 2018-2-2 05:26 | 显示全部楼层
发表于 2018-2-2 13:38 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 imvivi001 于 2018-2-2 13:39 编辑


a, b, Handaxes. c, Cleaver. d, Large flake tool. e, Blade core (see details in Extended Data Fig. 6b). f, g, Levallois cores. h, Levallois flake. i, Biface with a preferential flake removal. Arrow with solid circle indicates direction of flake scar removal
发表于 2018-2-2 13:41 | 显示全部楼层

a, Biface, unit 5a. b, Blade core, layer 2. c, Retouched Levallois point, layer 4. d, e, Blades, layer 3. f, Blade, layer 2.

发表于 2018-2-2 13:43 | 显示全部楼层

a, Blade core from layer 5 (see Fig. 3a) (left); illustration of blade scar removals (right). b, Blade core from layer 5 (see Extended Data Fig. 3e) (left); illustration of blade scar removals (right). c, Blade core on a cobble from layer 5. Black arrows indicate direction of percussion.
发表于 2018-2-2 13:44 | 显示全部楼层

a, Preferential Levallois flake core from trench T7A (layer 5, phase I).
b, Preferential Levallois flake core from trench T7A (layer 5, phase I).
c, Recurrent unidirectional Levallois core from trench T7A (layer 5, phase I).
d, Recurrent centripetal Levallois core from trench T7A (layer 3, phase II). Superimposed white lines indicate flake scars.
      Arrows indicate direction of flake removals; arrows with solid circle indicate the point of percussion
发表于 2018-2-2 13:52 | 显示全部楼层
一统浆糊 发表于 2018-2-2 05:26

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