蓝海人类学在线 Ryan WEI's Forum of Anthropology

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发表于 2018-6-24 23:27 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 ChinaHistory 于 2018-6-24 23:29 编辑


Carriers of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup L3 basal lineages migrated back to Africa from Asia around 70,000 years ago

BMC Evolutionary Biology201818:98

Received: 10 August 2017
Accepted: 5 June 2018
Published: 19 June 2018



The main unequivocal conclusion after three decades of phylogeographic mtDNA studies is the African origin of all extant modern humans. In addition, a southern coastal route has been argued for to explain the Eurasian colonization of these African pioneers. Based on the age of macrohaplogroup L3, from which all maternal Eurasian and the majority of African lineages originated, the out-of-Africa event has been dated around 60-70 kya. On the opposite side, we have proposed a northern route through Central Asia across the Levant for that expansion and, consistent with the fossil record, we have dated it around 125 kya. To help bridge differences between the molecular and fossil record ages, in this article we assess the possibility that mtDNA macrohaplogroup L3 matured in Eurasia and returned to Africa as basal L3 lineages around 70 kya.


The coalescence ages of all Eurasian (M,N) and African (L3 ) lineages, both around 71 kya, are not significantly different. The oldest M and N Eurasian clades are found in southeastern Asia instead near of Africa as expected by the southern route hypothesis. The split of the Y-chromosome composite DE haplogroup is very similar to the age of mtDNA L3. An Eurasian origin and back migration to Africa has been proposed for the African Y-chromosome haplogroup E. Inside Africa, frequency distributions of maternal L3 and paternal E lineages are positively correlated. This correlation is not fully explained by geographic or ethnic affinities. This correlation rather seems to be the result of a joint and global replacement of the old autochthonous male and female African lineages by the new Eurasian incomers.


These results are congruent with a model proposing an out-of-Africa migration into Asia, following a northern route, of early anatomically modern humans carrying pre-L3 mtDNA lineages around 125 kya, subsequent diversification of pre-L3 into the basal lineages of L3, a return to Africa of Eurasian fully modern humans around 70 kya carrying the basal L3 lineages and the subsequent diversification of Eurasian-remaining L3 lineages into the M and N lineages in the outside-of-Africa context, and a second Eurasian global expansion by 60 kya, most probably, out of southeast Asia. Climatic conditions and the presence of Neanderthals and other hominins might have played significant roles in these human movements. Moreover, recent studies based on ancient DNA and whole-genome sequencing are also compatible with this hypothesis.

Fig. 1   Geographic origin and dispersion of mtDNA L haplogroups: a Sequential expansion of L haplogroups inside Africa and exit of the L3 precursor to Eurasia. b Return to Africa and expansion to Asia of basal L3 lineages with subsequent differentiation in both continents. The geographic ranges of Neanderthals, Denisovans and Erectus are estimates only




发表于 2018-6-25 09:23 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 xavierxh 于 2018-6-25 10:37 编辑

1# ChinaHistory
2、所有线粒体欧亚(M,N)和非洲(L3)谱系的同一母系祖先时间在7.1 万年前左右。最古老的M和N欧亚分支发现在东南亚而不是非洲附近,正如南部路线假说所预期的那样。Y染色体复合单倍体群的分裂与线粒体DNA L3的年龄非常相似。在非洲的非洲Y染色体单倍型群E由欧亚大陆起源和向非洲迁徙,母体L3和父系E系的频率分布呈正相关。这种相关性没有完全解释地理或民族亲缘关系。这种相关性似乎是由新欧亚传入者(母系L3、父系E)对旧非洲原地父系(?)和母系非洲(?)替代的结果。
发表于 2018-6-25 10:45 | 显示全部楼层



发表于 2018-6-25 10:46 | 显示全部楼层
这篇BMC Evolutionary Biology(英国《BMC进化生物学》,在SCI影响因子3.4)最新论文和我15年在论坛的一篇猜测相一致。
发表于 2018-6-25 11:03 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 xavierxh 于 2018-6-25 11:19 编辑



2、有如此强大的线粒体覆盖 ...
hxr7353 发表于 2018-6-25 10:45

1、这篇文章没有提及:父系单倍群从非洲向外扩张,母系线粒体从东南亚向欧亚向非洲扩张。   但是我认为文中这句正确:起源于东南亚的前L3母系及相关父系(文中没说)作为新欧亚传入者(母系L3、父系E)对旧非洲原地父系(?)和母系非洲(?)替代。
发表于 2018-6-27 19:00 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 skyyrie 于 2018-6-28 12:26 编辑


There are no native D lineages in India, decreasing the possibility that this subcontinent was the center of the DE partition, which argues against a southern route. It is likely that the divergence of the Y-chromosome D and E haplogroups occurred up to the Himalayas and in or westward of the Tibet which coincides with the hypothetical bifurcation center proposed for the mtDNA L3 macrohaplogroup.

这个文章说 Y DE是在喜马拉雅北坡分开的
并且mt DNA L3也是在这里分开的。
发表于 2018-7-3 01:31 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Danny 于 2018-7-3 01:33 编辑

2# xavierxh 感觉三是对的时间7万年前
发表于 2018-7-3 14:18 | 显示全部楼层
2# xavierxh 感觉三是对的时间7万年前
Danny 发表于 2018-7-3 01:31

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