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石峁遗址为黄帝系白狄人(N、O、C南、Q)建立的遗址

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发表于 2018-7-4 08:37 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 hxr7353 于 2018-7-5 13:59 编辑

石峁遗址为黄帝系白狄人(N、O、C南、Q)建立的
公元前627年,春秋前期白狄主要分布于古雍州北部(今陕北一带)此处即为石峁遗址和诸多类似石砌城堡的核心区。此时,距离周穆王(姬满(?--公元前921年)西游已近过去300年,陕北石峁遗址按位置应当是周穆王时期-河宗氏、愚知之平、崩阝国与姬周祖地庆阳之间的地盘。前550年,东迁至今河北省石家庄一带(冀中),前507年其中的鲜虞氏建立中山国。

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 楼主| 发表于 2018-7-4 08:39 | 显示全部楼层
白狄与秦都在雍州,白狄其最初的分布区域,主要在今陕北(石峁遗址附近)及陕西洛水流域。公元前578年,晋厉公命吕相为使致秦桓公《绝秦书》说:"白狄与君同州,君之仇雠;而我之婚姻也"。

前550年,因受秦国的压迫和晋国和戎政策的诱惑,东迁至今河北省石家庄一带。东迁后的白狄主要由鲜虞氏、肥氏、鼓氏、仇由氏 4个氏族组成。后肥氏、鼓氏、仇由氏为晋所灭。公元前507年鲜虞建立中山国,是为早期鲜虞中山国,白狄所建的诸侯国,其见诸史乘始于公元前506百有余年后,“地方五百里”,兵车千乘,成为一个实力仅次于“七雄”的二等强国。鲜虞中山国姬姓白狄可能是黄帝集团在陕北的一脉子孙。与姬周同宗。
公元前406年为魏文侯所灭。前381年左右,"中山复国",是为后期鲜虞中山国,都灵寿(今河北省平山县),公元前296年为赵国所灭。
 楼主| 发表于 2018-7-4 08:39 | 显示全部楼层
顾栋高《春秋大事表•四裔表序》[2]云:“狄之别有三:曰赤狄、曰白狄、曰长狄。长狄兄弟三人,无种类。而赤狄之种有六:曰东山皋落氏、曰廧咎如、曰潞氏、曰甲氏、曰留吁、曰铎辰。潞为上党之潞县,处晋腹心。(鲁)宣(公)十五年(前594)晋灭赤狄潞氏,明年(前593)并灭甲氏、留吁、铎辰。留吁、甲氏俱在今之广平,铎辰在潞安境。白狄之种有三,其先与秦同州,在陕之延安(石峁遗址附近),所谓西河之地。其别种在今之真定、槁城、晋州者,曰鲜虞、曰肥、曰鼓。鲜虞最强,与晋数斗争,而肥、鼓俱为晋所灭。盍春秋时戎狄为中国患甚矣,而狄为最;诸狄之中赤狄为最;赤狄诸种族,潞氏为最。晋之灭潞也,其君臣全力以胜之。…狄之强莫炽于闵、僖之世,残灭邢、卫,侵犯齐、鲁,其时止称狄,未冠以赤、白之号。……,自宣迄昭六七十年,晋灭陆浑兼肥、鼓,刬潞氏、留吁、铎辰,戎狄之在河朔间者稍稍静矣。而鲜虞亦曰中山(国),至战国时为列国,潜号称王,后灭于赵。…潞氏在山西潞安府,落氏则在平阳府垣由县,鲜于在直隶真定府,肥在膏城县西南,鼓在今晋州。”
赤狄 之别种。公元前六世纪末,为 晋 所灭。故城在今 山西省 潞城县 东北四十里。《左传·宣公十五年》:"六月癸卯, 晋 师灭赤 狄 潞氏 。" 杜预 注:" 潞 , 赤狄 之别种。 潞氏 ,国,故称氏。"
 楼主| 发表于 2018-7-4 08:39 | 显示全部楼层
《竹书纪年》:“殷王子亥宾于有易而淫焉,有易之君绵臣杀而放之。是故殷主上甲微假师于河伯,以伐有易,克之,遂杀其君绵臣也。”《山海经•大荒东经》:“王亥托于有易、河伯仆牛,有易杀王亥,取仆牛。河念有易,有易潜出”。
《春秋大事表》赤狄之种六之中,甲氏在今广平(今河北省鸡泽县),于前814年被晋所灭。

白狄原在陕西(石峁遗址哦),后渐向东扩展并越过太行山,其属鲜虞之名,最早见于《国语》。公元前774年(周幽王八年),郑桓公问史伯何处才能得到安居,史伯曰:“北有卫、燕、狄鲜虞、潞、洛、泉、徐、蒲”, 所提狄诸部落,除鲜虞属白狄,其余大都属赤狄,史伯所说鲜虞实际上是代表白狄。从地理位置看,当年有易氏被商上甲微灭亡后之遗民,逃往晋冀间和太行山区应可信
发表于 2018-7-4 17:11 | 显示全部楼层
奥库涅夫文化——石峁文化——鬼崽岭,皆有类似石像,愚以为乃我有虞氏出于昆仑,就正于石峁(夏部落),南下征服三苗开通贝币之路的证据。
 楼主| 发表于 2018-7-30 11:41 | 显示全部楼层


白狄东迁后,义渠戎与秦人占据了白狄旧有的地盘

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发表于 2018-7-30 12:02 | 显示全部楼层
《汉书〔卷二八上〕〈地理志〉》说成平县境内的滹池河民曰徒骇河,可见此河,原是〈禹贡〉时代黄河下游九河中的干流。
不徒何——休屠——屠各——吐火罗——斯托克(stock)
stock_百度翻译
stock英[stɒk]

美[stɑ:k]



n.库存; 股份,股票; 树干; 家畜;
adj.常备的,存货的; 陈旧的;
vt.提供货物; 备有;

黄河九派(九股尾闾),主干派分九汊,不跟“股份”可以比拟么?九河最大者称“徒骇”,跟“树干”、“常备”也是可以类比的。
白狄有印欧语的因素,还是我华夏古语也是印欧语的来源之一?我倾向于都有!毕竟,迁三苗于三危,以变西戎,语言证据很确凿!
发表于 2018-7-30 13:32 | 显示全部楼层
《汉书〔卷二八上〕〈地理志〉》说成平县境内的滹池河民曰徒骇河,可见此河,原是〈禹贡〉时代黄河下游九河中的干流。
不徒何——休屠——屠各——吐火罗——斯托克(stock)

黄河九派(九股尾闾),主干派分九汊 ...
癯鹤 发表于 2018-7-30 12:02

休屠各——斯托克

那些阿凡那谢沃古人,应该与原始凯尔特人是十分接近的。

南西伯利亚和新疆的干尸,有三种类型,两种原欧类型-大一号和小一号的,还有一种和凯尔特人种类似。

吐火罗语和西部印欧语更接近,而据印度伊朗语和波罗地-斯拉夫语相距较远。

很多原始印欧人融入了东欧的木椁墓文化中,木椁墓文化被同与原始伊朗人联系起来,铁器时代里海东有一支东伊朗语部落联盟-Dahae人,他们的一个分支就是著名的帕提亚人。

帕提亚人的贵族与西欧人的相似程度令人吃惊,对帕提亚王族墓地的发掘表明他们是典型的诺迪克人种,与日耳曼人相似。
lindberg 发表于 2018-7-30 12:53  
(自:http://www.ranhaer.org/viewthread.php?tid=34041&page=1#pid555173

Dahae——徒骇——图海——大汗
帕提亚——葡萄牙——波罗的海——芭堤雅——不丹——保德——宝坻——白狄
 楼主| 发表于 2018-7-30 17:22 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 hxr7353 于 2018-7-30 17:24 编辑

东汉安定郡属凉州,改治临泾县,领6县,原领临泾、彭阳、泾阳、祖厉、乌支(乌氏更名)4县,另置阴盘,朝那2县。

夫西河魏土,文侯所兴,有段干木、田子方之遗风,漂然皆有节概,知去就之分。顷者足下离旧土,临安定,安定山谷之间,昆戎旧壤,子弟贪鄙,岂习俗之移人哉?

昆戎旧壤;八百里昆仑丘之戎。赤乌氏、殷人主、河宗氏迁徙到此地乎???

禹铸“九鼎”分天下为九州,彭阳境属雍州,世居戎狄部落。[1]
彭阳境内居鬼方、羌方等族落。高宗妻妇好统兵攻羌方。《周易》记,殷商后期,“震用伐鬼方,三年有赏于大国”,说明当地人口增加,经济和军事实力已经十分强大。
据《汉书》记载:“安定山谷之间,昆戎旧壤”,戎族的*一支——昆戎(即犬戎)就生活在彭阳及附近地区。西周时称固原一带为大原之域,至周穆王时,戎狄不贡,发兵西征犬戎,俘五王,迁戎于大原。周夷王时,命虢公率六师伐大原之戎,至于俞泉,获马千匹。周宣王五年(前823)猃狁攻周到泾水北岸,尹吉甫反攻到大原,有兮甲盘铭文记其事。《史记·周本纪》载:“宣王既亡南国之师,乃料民于大原。”就是在周宣王三十九年(前789)在当地调查民数。
彭阳境内属义渠戎居住范围。当时地处关中的秦国,自“平王东迁,以岐西地赐秦后,秦地愈大,秦乘势励精图治。”霸西戎,兼并弱小诸侯,仅秦穆公三十年(前623),用由余计攻戎王,“兼国十二,开地千里。”居住于“。
秦厉公三十三年(前444),秦攻义渠,并俘获义渠戎王。秦惠文王更元五年(前320)攻义渠,取郁郅(今甘肃庆阳),更元十一年(前314)再攻义渠,得二十五城,灭乌氏戎,置乌氏县(今泾源县境),此后秦惠文王欲伐楚,曾投文诅楚于朝那湫(今彭阳古城镇境内)。昭襄王三十五年(前272),宣太后诱杀义渠戎王,秦灭义渠国,于其地设北地郡,以今彭阳境内的朝那邑为中心置朝那县(今古城镇),县境长城遗迹即为朝那县北缘。
秦灭六国后,废分封诸侯之制,分全国为36郡,朝那县属北地郡。
秦始皇二十七年(前220),始皇巡视北地、陇西途经朝那。始皇三十三年(前215)使将军蒙恬发兵30万北击匈奴,疆域北扩,朝那县相对处于内地,为当地经济发展创造了良好的社会环境。据《史记·货殖列传》记载:“乌氏倮畜牧,及重斥卖。求奇缯物,间献遗戎王。戎王十倍其偿,与之畜,畜至用谷量马牛。秦始皇帝令倮比封君,以时于列臣朝请。”据文献中零散史料印证,今县境新集乡剡堡(焉氏塞)和城阳乡吴堡(乌氏堡)均与乌氏倮有关。
西汉初,地方建置仍沿袭郡县制,郡有郡守、都尉等职,朝那县为北地郡都尉的分治所。汉文帝十四年(前166)冬,匈奴老上单于14万骑入朝那萧关,杀北地郡都尉,虏掠月余而去。汉武帝元鼎三年(前114)析北地郡置安定郡,治高平(今原州区),上隶凉州刺史部,领高平、朝那、乌氏等21县。元鼎五年(前112),武帝“湫渊祠朝那”,史学家司马迁随驾记胜,汉武帝在位曾先后6次北巡安定,往经朝那。西汉末年,王莽篡汉,改国号为新,变更大部分地名和官名,然朝那县依旧。中国设十二刺史部(州)和一个司隶州,朝那县仍属凉州安定郡。
汉安帝永初五年(111),由于北方羌族起义,下诏安定等三郡内徙,乌氏、泾阳、朝那等属县及汉族百姓随安定郡迁至美阳(今陕西武功县境)。顺帝永建四年(129),诏内迁三郡还旧土,“使谒者郭璜促徙者各归旧县,缮城郭,置候驿。”并省泾阳入朝那县,县域范围扩至平凉西北。永和六年(141)东西羌会合,势力大盛,又徙安定郡于扶风(今陕西新平县境)。献帝初平元年(190),因分安定、扶风两郡置新平郡,朝那县随郡迁还。
曹魏恢复《禹贡》九州建置,朝那县属雍州安定郡(治临泾)。此时因高平县(今原州区)处在曹魏政权和羌胡的分界线上,废高平县入朝那县。安定郡的管辖区域也大为缩减,只有高平以南的朝那等6县。
 楼主| 发表于 2018-8-1 17:04 | 显示全部楼层
叶尼塞流域公元前2000年以前是Q系为主(类美洲印第安父系)。

王传超参与的马普所2018、5、16日发表论文:北高加索人群遗传靠近安纳托利亚农业人群,而与迈科普草原人群差异较大(Q系为主兼有C系、N系)旧石器时代的西伯利亚和美洲原住民。该遗传成分曾在欧亚草原广泛分布。

公元前2000年以前;叶尼塞当地母系mt:A8a1、C5c、D4、C4a1母系;父系单倍群为Q1a、Q1a2、Q1a2b、Q1a1b1、Q1a2a1。以这些为绝大多数

公元前2000年以前;也有一些如下,属于少数
mtDNA: D4+195
Y-DNA: R-Z2015(R1b1a2a2);

公元前900年
mtDNA: N1a1a1a1
Y-DNA: R1 (R-Z2125 ?)
 楼主| 发表于 2018-8-1 17:05 | 显示全部楼层
公元前2000年以前;黄白混合的前沿在乌拉尔山~叶尼塞河流域;其后黄白混合分界逐渐倒退到阿尔泰山~贝加尔湖~一线。

石峁遗址为黄帝系白狄人(N、O、C南、Q)建立的遗址
发表于 2018-8-1 17:33 | 显示全部楼层
叶尼塞流域公元前2000年以前是Q系为主(类美洲印第安父系)。

王传超参与的马普所2018、5、16日发表论文:北高加索人群遗传靠近安纳托利亚农业人群,而与迈科普草原人群差异较大(Q系为主兼有C系、N系)旧石器时代 ...
hxr7353 发表于 2018-8-1 17:04

请不要心口词红,标红部分请给文献链接或数据!
发表于 2018-8-2 22:16 | 显示全部楼层
石峁文化内涵应该是来自中亚,不要乱找祖宗.
发表于 2018-8-3 00:27 | 显示全部楼层
“迁三苗于三危以变西戎”,三苗迁三危变成氐羌,从这里到欧洲最西部,有一些很有意思的文化现象:“积石为室、积石为城”、“火葬”、“女王”、“权杖、王冠”、“青铜工具”、“车马”、“陶器”、“畜牧”,似乎是三苗之前远古塞人进行东西交流就已经广泛传播了,近万年前黑龙江小南山就有火葬。地中海很多岛屿、爱尔兰、英国边远小岛如奥克尼、设得兰、赫布里底群岛都有巨石建筑(比石峁发达很多)。我曾猜测和仲到达英国,但基因证据还不多。


Ancient WELSHMEN helped build Stonehenge 5,000 years ago using vast 'bluestones' which they dragged for 140 miles from the Preseli Mountains, Oxford study reveals
  • Stones used to build the Wiltshire monument were sourced from the Preseli Mountains in west Wales
  • Oxford University analysis reveals some of the people buried at Stonehenge moved to England with the rocks
  • At least 10 of 25 skulls found at the site belonged to people from the western edge of ancient Britain
  • This region includes west Wales - the source of the 'bluestones' used in the early stages of construction

[size=1em][size=1em]PUBLISHED:
14:00 BST, 2 August 2018
|
[size=1em][size=1em]UPDATED:
15:21 BST, 2 August 2018




Ancient Welshmen helped build Stonehenge more than 5,000 years ago, according to a new study led by the University of Oxford.
It was already known that some of the stones in the prehistoric monument were sourced from the Preseli Mountains of
Wales, some 140 miles (225km) from the Wiltshire monument.
However, despite more than a century of intense study, researchers knew little about the people buried at Stonehenge or how they came to be there.
New research into the cremated remains found at Stonehenge has revealed a number of people moved to England with the Welsh 'bluestones' used in the early stages of construction.
Analysis of 25 skull bones left at the site between 3,180 and 2,380 BC has revealed that at least 10 of the ancient Britons did not live near Stonehenge prior to their death.
Instead, they found chemicals in the remains were consistent with people from western Britain, a region that includes west Wales – the known source of Stonehenge's 'bluestones'.
[size=1em]Scroll down for video

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An analysis of 25 skull bones left at the site between 3180 to 2380 BC revealed that at least 10 did not live near Stonehenge prior to their death. Pictured are three of the cremated cranial fragments used in the study


Stonehenge is one of the world's most prominent prehistoric monuments and was built in several stages, with construction completed around 3,500 years ago.
Historians believe the first stage was completed around 5,000 years ago by Neolithic Britons using primitive tools, possibly made from deer antlers.
Over the years there has been much speculation around how and why Stonehenge was built, but the question of 'who' was behind the mysterious structure has received far less attention.
Part of the reason for this neglect is that the majority of the human remains discovered at the site were cremated, making it difficult for scientists to extract much useful information.


However, scientists have now combined radiocarbon-dating with new developments in archaeological analysis pioneered by Christophe Snoeck during his doctoral research in the School of Archaeology at Oxford University.
He carried out his study with an international team of researchers from UCL, Université Libre de Bruxelles & Vrije Universiteit Brussel, and the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris.
Dr Snoeck demonstrated that looking at strontium isotope composition in cremated bones can reveal where people spent their lives.
'The strontium isotopes measured in the bones originate from the food we eat and in particular the plants,' Dr Snoeck told MailOnline.

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Ancient Welshmen helped build Stonehenge more than 5,000 years ago, according to a new study. It was already known that some of the stones in the prehistoric monument (pictured) were sourced from the Preseli Mountains of Wales, some 140 miles (225km) away from its location in Wiltshire



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New research into cremated remains at the site has revealed a number of people moved to England with the Welsh 'bluestones' used in the early stages of construction. Pictured is their probable route from the Preseli Mountains


'They take their strontium from the soil and that strontium is then incorporated into our bones, reflecting the place where the plants grew.
'The values we measured on several individuals from Stonehenge were consistent with plants we analysed from Wales,' he said.
Researchers analysed skull bones from 25 individuals, according to the paper published in
Scientific Reports.

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Pictured are excavations at a bluestone quarries in Pembrokeshore. New research on cremated remains at the site has revealed that a number of people moved with these Welsh 'bluestones' used in the early stages of construction



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Stonehenge's bluestones made up the entirety of the monument's monoliths during one stage of construction. 'Bluehenge' featured a path that led worshippers to Stonehenge from the nearby river Avon. Ancient Britons later added other stones to the monument, and the bluestones now make up just the largest of the site's monoliths



These remains were originally excavated from a network of 56 pits in the 1920s, placed around the inner circumference and ditch of Stonehenge, known as 'Aubrey Holes'.
These bone fragments come from cremated human bone from an early phase of the site's history around 3000BC when it was mainly used as a cemetery.
Researchers found that at least 10 of the 25 people did not live near Stonehenge prior to their death.
The individuals with a 'local' strontium signal had also been burned in different conditions than those having a 'non-local' signal.

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These remains were originally excavated from a network of 56 pits in the 1920s, placed around the inner circumference and ditch of Stonehenge, known as 'Aubrey Holes' (pictured)



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The bone fragments in the Aubrey Holes come from cremated human bone from an early phase of the site's history around 3000BC when it was mainly used as a cemetery


'Furthermore, the report for the archaeologists excavating the site in the early 1920s suggest the cremated remains in the Aubrey Holes appeared to have been deposited in organic containers such as leather bags, leading them to suggest that they "had apparently been brought from a distant place for interment",' said Dr Snoeck.
'Together, this suggests indeed, that some individuals were cremated away from Stonehenge (possibly in west Wales) and then, their cremated remains brought to the site.'
Although strontium isotope ratios alone cannot distinguish between places with similar values, experts believe west Wales is the most likely origin of at least some of these people.

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The individuals with a 'local' strontium signal had also been burned in different conditions that those having a 'non-local' signal. Pictured is an experimental pyre



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The large standing stones at Stonehenge are made of local sandstone, but the smaller ones, known as 'bluestones', come from a quarry in south Wales (pictured)


'The powerful combination of stable isotopes and spatial technology gives us a new insight into the communities who built Stonehenge,' said John Pouncett, a lead author on the paper and Spatial Technology Officer at Oxford's School of Archaeology.
'The cremated remains from the enigmatic Aubrey Holes and updated mapping of the biosphere suggest that people from the Preseli Mountains not only supplied the bluestones used to build the stone circle, but moved with the stones and were buried there too.'
While the Welsh connection was known for the stones, the study shows that people were also moving between west Wales and Wessex in the Late Neolithic time.

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Researchers believe ancient Britons used a complex system of logs and rope pulleys to drag the monument's bluestones from west Wales. Pictured is a reconstruction of the practice




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Stonehenge has been used as a centre for ceremonies throughout its 5,000-year-history. Pictured is an artist's impression of a Neolithic ceremony at the site circa 3,000 BC, when the monument was just a series of ditches without the monoliths it is known for today


The results emphasise the importance of inter-regional connections involved in the movement of both materials and people in the construction and use of Stonehenge.
'The recent discovery that some biological information survives the high temperatures reached during cremation (up to 1000 degrees Celsius) offered us the exciting possibility to finally study the origin of those buried at Stonehenge,' said Dr Snoeck.
'To me the really remarkable thing about our study is the ability of new developments in archaeological science to extract so much new information from such small and unpromising fragments of burnt bone,' said Rick Schulting, a lead author on the research and Associate Professor in Scientific and Prehistoric Archaeology at Oxford.
'Some of the people's remains showed strontium isotope signals consistent with west Wales, the source of the bluestones that are now being seen as marking the earliest monumental phase of the site.'
The technique could be used to improve our understanding of the past using previously excavated ancient collections.
 楼主| 发表于 2018-8-3 08:20 | 显示全部楼层
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发表于 2018-8-3 08:45 | 显示全部楼层
迈科普的数据呢?
 楼主| 发表于 2018-8-3 08:47 | 显示全部楼层
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自己看
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-8-3 09:01 | 显示全部楼层
N1a1-M46(以前称为N1c1)血统进入北欧的时间是公元前5000年[Ilumae et al. 2016],与N1a1a1a-L708的TMRCA一致。然而,欧洲普通血统n1a1a1a1a1a1a - l392最近的形成(约公元前3800年)和TMRCA(约公元前2300年)表明,这些狩猎采集者群体进入森林地带的时间较晚且逐步扩大,这与梳子器皿文化的扩展没有关系。
因此,文化同化仍然是现代社区中大多数r1a1 - m417和N1a1-M46血统的共同乌拉尔语的最佳解释。具有n1a1a1a1a1a - l392血统的东部群体可能带来了乌拉尔语系语言中发现的阿尔泰语系特征[Kortlandt 2010]。
在约公元前2500年的森林地带Serteya发现了单倍群N1a-F1206的aDNA样本[Chekunova et al. 2014]。尽管如此,人们还是倾向于将西伯利亚狩猎采集者群体大规模迁移到乌拉尔山周围,而人们对这一鲜为人知的“塞米马-图尔比诺”现象(起源于公元前2000年的东亚)的不断扩大,因为它将蒙古和芬兰的文化联系在了一起。
在青铜时代中期的奥库涅夫培养中发现的3个单倍群NO (xO)样本,以及后来在切尔穆切克文化区发现的2个样本[Hollard et al. 2014]可能支持这一假设。
现代爱沙尼亚人有超过三分之一的人口拥有rna - m417血统[Laitinen et al. 2002],类似于单倍群N1a1-M46的比例[Rosser et al. 2000]。然而,在现代人群中,几乎三分之二的单倍群N1a1-M46,只有10%的rna - m417。
爱沙尼亚人是芬兰人的近亲,也是来自Tver地区的波罗的海民族和俄罗斯人[Nelis et al. 2010]。对现代芬兰人的mtDNA的调查显示,大约在公元前1500年,有可能出现人口下降,后来出现了一个铁时代的瓶颈,人口峰值大约在公元500年[Oversti et al. 2017]。
当时,该地区很可能出现了长期的、逐渐的Y-DNA rna - m417亚种的替换,这是由现代芬兰人全基因组祖先中“草原”祖先的增加所支持的。与N1a1-M46血统的到来有关的突然的、强大的人口(和文化)变化——就像在东欧看到的R1a-M417和R1b-M269 (Yamna)一样,必须被拒绝。因此,N1a1-M46血统的创始人效应是他们采用芬兰语言的最有可能的解释,这种情况也得到了萨米人遗传多样性的支持。
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