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为何咖啡、可乐没有像烟酒、槟榔那样在医学上视为毒品?

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发表于 2018-8-21 21:42 | 显示全部楼层
美国亚裔平均寿命

药价大涨啊最近

饮食科学了,就是长寿药啊!
《柳叶刀》:科学家发现日常饮食中碳水化合物占比达到50%的人们较长寿


来源: 神秘的地球  
  • 时间:2018年8月21日 10:26







《柳叶刀》:科学家发现日常饮食中碳水化合物占比达到50%的人们较长寿

(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)《柳叶刀》杂志报道称,美国布莱根妇女医院的科学家发现一天摄入多少碳水化合物能延年益寿。

科学家们在研究中使用了8项队列研究的数据,共432178人参与研究,其中40181人已去世。研究覆盖欧洲、北美和亚洲20个国家,考虑了受调查者的性别、年龄、坏习惯、现有疾病和食物配比。

结果,科学家们发现,日常饮食中碳水化合物占比达到50%的人们具有长寿的倾向,而碳水化合物在饮食中占比多于70%或少于40%的人死亡机率更高。

研究人员以50岁以上人群为例。这一年龄群体中,碳水化合物在饮食占比为一半的人平均能再活33.1岁,占比不足30%的人能再活29.1岁。

此外,研究者称,完全不吃碳水化合物的人,或用牛羊鸡和奶酪等动物脂肪及蛋白质代替碳水化合物的人,死亡风险最高。

碳水化合物是在土豆、面包、糖果、谷物等食物中广泛存在的有机化合物,在生物机体中起重要作用,是主要的能量来源。



发表于 2018-8-22 23:56 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-8-22 23:58 编辑

“懒惰”也既是毒药(消灭了直立人),又是良药(让人长寿。看来我会长寿)!


Survival of the slacker! Being lazy could help beat EXTINCTION by lowering metabolic rates
  • Molluscs living on the floor of the Atlantic suggest laziness aids survival rates
  • 'Low maintenance' species who use minimal energy have escaped extinction
  • This could be applied to higher animals including land-dwelling vertebrates
By COLIN FERNANDEZ SCIENCE CORRESPONDENT FOR THE DAILY MAIL
[size=1em][size=1em]PUBLISHED: 22:00 BST, 21 August 2018 | [size=1em][size=1em]UPDATED: 08:49 BST, 22 August 2018

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If you're always being criticised for being lazy, it seems you could have a good excuse.
A study suggests idleness is an excellent survival strategy – and the sloths among us may represent the next stage in human evolution.
Scientists believe they have uncovered a previously overlooked law of natural selection based on 'survival of the slacker'.
This suggests that laziness can be a good strategy for ensuring the survival of individuals, species and even whole groups of species.

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Although the research was based on lowly molluscs living on the floor of the Atlantic, the authors believe they may have stumbled on a general principle that could apply to higher animals – including land-dwelling vertebrates.

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New research has found that being lazy could beat extinction due to lower metabolic rates

The scientists carried out an extensive study of the energy needs of 299 species of extinct and living bivalves and gastropods – including slugs and oysters – spanning a period of five million years.
Those that had managed to escape extinction and survived to the present day tended to be 'low maintenance' species with minimal energy requirements.

Molluscs that had gone the way of the dinosaurs and disappeared had higher metabolic rates than their still flourishing cousins.
US ecologist Professor Bruce Lieberman, who co-led the University of Kansas team, said: 'Maybe in the long term the best evolutionary strategy for animals is to be lassitudinous and sluggish.

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'Low maintenance' species with minimal energy requirements have survived extinction

The lower the metabolic rate, the more likely the species you belong to will survive. Instead of 'survival of the fittest', maybe a better metaphor for the history of life is 'survival of the laziest' or at least 'survival of the sluggish'.'
The findings, reported in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, could have important implications for forecasting the fate of species affected by climate change, said the scientists.
Dr Luke Strotz, also from the University of Kansas, said: 'In a sense, we're looking at a potential predictor of extinction probability.
'At the species level, metabolic rate isn't the be-all, end-all of extinction – there are a lot of factors at play. But these results say that the metabolic rate of an organism is a component of extinction likelihood.
'With a higher metabolic rate, a species is more likely to go extinct.'
发表于 2018-8-29 16:00 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-8-29 16:05 编辑

食物影响物种性状!就是“金粒餐”也是有科学道理的:



  • Naked mole rat queens are the only females in colony that can produce offspring
  • Other 'subordinate' females help tend to children, grooming and corralling them
  • Study suggests they get maternal behavior consuming hormone in queen's poop
By CHEYENNE MACDONALD FOR DAILYMAIL.COM
[size=1em][size=1em]PUBLISHED: 21:31 BST, 28 August 2018 | [size=1em][size=1em]UPDATED: 22:12 BST, 28 August 2018
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Scientists have discovered what may be the naked mole rat’s most bizarre trait yet.
These hairless rodents live in colonies dominated by a queen, the sole female in the group who produces offspring.
All of the other females are unable to reproduce, but care for the queen’s children as if they were their own.
Now, researchers studying the unique situation have found that this maternal instinct may boil down to the females’ unusual method of obtaining key hormones: consuming the queen’s feces.
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Scientists have discovered what may be the naked mole rat’s most bizarre trait yet. These hairless rodents live in colonies dominated by a queen, the sole female who produces offspring. The 'subordinate' females, however, may eat her poop to become more maternal

A team of researchers in Japan describe the latest findings in a paper published to Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
The phenomenon of eating feces – known as coprophagy – may play an important role in child-rearing for naked mole rats.
In these colonies, the non-breeding ‘subordinate’ females still perform a number of parental duties, including grooming and corralling of the pups.
As naked mole rats are known to eat their own feces, the researchers suspected they may also consume the queens, consequently ingesting some of the hormones produced by her body.
The team tested this by feeding different types of pellets to the subordinate females, with some coming from the pregnant queens and others from nonpregnant queens augmented with estradiol, which the queen naturally produces.


Within days of the feeding period, the naked mole rats became more responsive to the pups, the researchers found.
And, their fecal and urinary estradiol concentrations fluctuated in a way that mimicked the queen’s reproductive stages.

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In these colonies, the non-breeding ‘subordinate’ females perform a number of parental duties, including grooming and corralling of the pups. File photo

The researchers say the transferring of this hormone influences the subordinate females’ behaviour, with a few in particular acting as primary caregivers for the queen’s offspring.
Naked mole rats have all sorts of unusual traits that make them interesting to scientists.
They have long lifespans, are resistant to cancer, and can even survive extended periods of time deprived of oxygen, making them a key target in the ongoing search for the ‘fountain of youth.’
Recent breakthroughs have uncovered some of the secrets behind their incredible resilience.
WHY ARE SCIENTISTS INTERESTED IN THE NAKED MOLE RAT?With wrinkly skin and walrus like teeth, naked mole rats are never going to win any beauty contests.



Yet these creatures, which live underground in the deserts of east Africa, are one the medical marvels of the natural world.
If a human was to have the same lifespan as a naked mole rat, relative to its size, they would live for up to 600 years.
As well as being resistant to cancer, they have very low respiratory and metabolic rates, meaning they use oxygen sparingly.
Scientists have put considerable effort into sequencing the creatures' genome in an attempt to understand its secrets.
The machinery that translates their DNA into the functioning molecules in the cells, proteins, have also been found to be highly accurate.
This means their proteins contain few errors compared to other mammals, and meaning their is less chance of something malfunctioning.

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A study published in February, for example, identified a unique characteristic behind a cellular process that may allow the rodents to fight both cancer and the effects of aging, despite the two acting like ‘competing interests’ in other animals.
A process known as cellular senescence is responsible for preventing damaged cells from dividing out of control, which can lead to cancerous tumors.
But, this comes with a price. As senescence stops cell division, it also accelerates aging.
While it was thought the rodents may not experience this, researchers found, to their surprise, that naked mole rats do undergo cellular senescence.
For these rodents, however, the researchers found the process resulted in higher resistance to the damaging effects by inhibiting the metabolic process of the senescent cells.
发表于 2018-8-31 22:00 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-8-31 22:02 编辑

似乎很多跟人类关系密切的植物都有大基因组和倍增现象?


新研究披露罂粟如何演化出缓解疼痛的属性


来源: 神秘的地球  
  • 时间:2018年8月31日 12:09




新研究披露罂粟如何演化出缓解疼痛的属性

(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据EurekAlert!:一项研究的作者披露,罂粟基因组的揭晓披露了一组基因的融合如何赋予了该植物具有止痛功能的化合物;罂粟在大约780万年前经历了重要的基因组倍增。自新石器以来,人们就已在收获罂粟(Papaver somniferum L.)了,因为它具有各种生物碱,其中包括吗啡和可待因;其所产生的功效包括从缓解疼痛、止咳到欣快感、嗜睡及成瘾。如今,对罂粟基因组的测序揭示了它是如何生成这些化合物的。

Li Guo和同事组装了大约95%的罂粟基因组,发现其基因编码中有相当大的组成部分为重复成分,尤其是长末端重复逆转录转座子颇为显著,这些DNA片段会以类似病毒的方式复制。作者将罂粟基因组与其它植物的基因组进行了比较,这些植物包括Aquilegia coerulea 和 Nelumbo nucifera;结果发现,这些植物分别在大约1.1亿年至1.25亿年前与罂粟分道扬镳。系统发育分析显示,支持全基因组倍增事件发生在约780万年前的几率为65%。

这些数据揭示,就在整个基因组倍增之前,一个特定的基因簇融合在了一起,其融合方式最终产生了人们自此经年享受的吗啡和可待因化合物。
发表于 2018-9-27 13:45 | 显示全部楼层
癯鹤 发表于 2018-8-31 22:00
似乎很多跟人类关系密切的植物都有大基因组和倍增现象?



忽然发现一个很重要的问题:基因倍增似乎跟神经活动有关?大脑细胞里的基因组也是这样。自然突变或人类驯化物种,产生一些多倍体动植物,这些对于人类智力的进步应该是有帮助的,因为大脑也是如此,大概精神药物跟基因拷贝带来的神经活动有关,总之,就类似电脑系统里的那些诀窍小程序:
美研究人员发现大脑发育过程中存在数千个未知的DNA变异 澎湃新闻 2018-09-26 07:15:52
是大脑细胞发育及多样化的基础。新研究填补了科学家对大脑中“基因组拷贝数变异”理解的关键空白,有助进一步了解大脑机制。





知识分子
【毒品“摇头丸”对章鱼也有效果,其或与人类有相似大脑机制】“摇头丸”是一种臭名昭著的毒品,被人类吞下后,其主要成分会与神经元内一种蛋白质结合,促使大脑释放化学物质五羟色胺,带来一种“快乐”的迷幻感觉。巧合的是,章鱼也同样携带着储存该蛋白质的基因,那么章鱼接触摇头丸后会发生什么情况 ​ [url=]展开全文c[/url]






另一个言与神同在的例子,“可可”发音接近“骨骼”,原来真有关系呢:

德国哈勒-维腾贝格大学研究发现含可可食物是维生素D2的来源之一



来源: 神秘的地球  
  • 时间:2018年9月27日 11:22







德国哈勒-维腾贝格大学研究发现含可可食物是维生素D2的来源之一

(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)德国哈勒-维腾贝格大学专家研究发现,含可可食物是维生素D2的来源之一,相关研究报告发布在EurekAlert!网站上。

研究人员提出一个理论:可可豆在阳光下晒干后,维生素D的前体可转化为维生素D2。专家对各种可可制品进行分析后,证实了自己的理论。

但研究人员指出,不同的可可制品中维生素D2含量不同。例如,可可油和黑巧克力中可可含量最高,而白巧克力中的可可含量则要少得多。

维生素D是人的饮食中不可替代的一部分。缺维生素D可增加呼吸疾病、软骨病和骨质疏松的患病风险。

美国医学专家此前研究发现,摄入可可含量高的黑巧克力有助于提高免疫力,增强大脑活性。






发表于 2018-10-1 22:18 | 显示全部楼层
癯鹤 发表于 2018-9-27 13:45
忽然发现一个很重要的问题:基因倍增似乎跟神经活动有关?大脑细胞里的基因组也是这样。自然突变或人 ...


呵呵,果不其然。逆转录病毒的变异和重复拷贝,也跟神经上瘾性有关:


Can you blame your Neanderthal ancestor for being an addict? Ancient virus STILL lingering in our DNA blamed for addictions
  • All humans are 'littered' with remnants of ancient viruses that date back to our primate ancestors
  • But until now they were not thought to be factors that determine a person's tendencies or character
  • Oxford and Athens scientists have shown addicts are up to 3 times more likely to have copies of a certain retrovirus
PUBLISHED: 23:04 BST, 25 September 2018 | UPDATED: 00:00 BST, 26 September 2018

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Addiction may have developed from an ancient retrovirus that predates modern humans.
Researchers in Oxford and Athens mapped the genomes of drug users in the UK and Greece to see what features they had in common.
They found addicts are more likely than others to have a particular ancient virus called HK2, which tends to huddle near a gene that controls dopamine release.
All humans are 'littered' with remnants of ancient viruses that date back to our primate ancestors.
But these viruses are rarely thought to be overwhelming factors that determine a person's tendencies or character millennia later.
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All humans are 'littered' with remnants of ancient viruses that date back to our primate ancestors. But until now they were not thought to be factors that determine a person's tendencies or character


The study is the culmination of an eight-year-long project, after the research team first started investigating whether HK2 could be harmful.
In the early 1990s, research emerged showing links between HK2 and modern diseases, sparking years of controversy.  
Over time studies seemed to stand up the theory, with a few showing evidence of HK2 in cancer patients, but nothing that showed causality.
But finally, the University of Oxford and University of Athens teams have claimed victory with a study that seems to suggest that HK2 (which is short for HERV-K HML-2, a type of HERV) directly influences a person's propensity for addiction.

Most retroviruses are shared by all humans, so do not play a major role in defining who were are or how we act.



HK2, however, seems to be different. The new study shows some people seem to have a variation of the standard version of HK2, or even have multiple copies of it in distinct parts of the body. Even more intriguing, some of these varied copes seem to be capable of coding more viruses in the human host - while most retroviruses are 'broken' blueprints, which are no longer capable of something so powerful.  
'[N]ow we have strong proof that HERVs can be pathogenic. For the first time, we are able to make a distinction between cause and effect in HERV pathogenicity,' Dr Gkikas Magiorkinis of the University of Athens said.
The team analyzed samples from British patients with hepatitis C, and from Greek patients with HIV, who had all contracted their diseases by injecting drugs.
Normally, HK2 is present in about five percent of the population.  
The researchers found HK2 is two to three times more common people who inject drugs (PWID).
Professor Aris Katzourakis, from the University of Oxford, said: 'We know of clear biological roles for a small number of human endogenous retroviruses.
'However, there has never before been strong evidence in support of a role in human biology of an endogenous retrovirus that is unfixed, in other words not shared by all individuals in the population.
'Our study shows for the first time that rare variants of HK2 can affect a complex human trait. The replication of this finding in the distinct Athens and Glasgow cohorts is particularly important.'




发表于 2018-10-4 12:00 | 显示全部楼层

生命的自组织:

Liquid crystals and the origin of lifeDate:October 3, 2018Source:American Chemical SocietySummary:Liquid crystals are common in modern electronic device screens, but they may have played a far more ancient role: helping to assemble Earth's first biomolecules. Researchers have found that short RNA molecules can form liquid crystals that encourage growth into longer chains.Share:

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Liquid crystals formed by short RNA strands, revealed by polarized optical microscopy.
Credit: American Chemical Society



The display screens of modern televisions, cell phones and computer monitors rely on liquid crystals -- materials that flow like liquids but have molecules oriented in crystal-like structures. However, liquid crystals may have played a far more ancient role: helping to assemble Earth's first biomolecules. Researchers reporting in ACS Nanohave found that short RNA molecules can form liquid crystals that encourage growth into longer chains.
Scientists have speculated that life on Earth originated in an "RNA world," where RNA fulfilled the dual role of carrying genetic information and conducting metabolism before the dawn of DNA or proteins. Indeed, researchers have discovered catalytic RNA strands, or "ribozymes," in modern genomes. Known ribozymes are about 16-150 nucleotides in length, so how did these sequences assemble in a primordial world without existing ribozymes or proteins? Tommaso Bellini and colleagues wondered if liquid crystals could help guide short RNA precursors to form longer strands.
To find out, the researchers explored different scenarios under which short RNAs could self-assemble. They found that at high concentrations, short RNA sequences (either 6 or 12 nucleotides long) spontaneously ordered into liquid crystal phases. Liquid crystals formed even more readily when the researchers added magnesium ions, which stabilized the crystals, or polyethylene glycol, which sequestered RNA into highly concentrated microdomains. Once the RNAs were held together in liquid crystals, a chemical activator could efficiently join their ends into much longer strands. This arrangement also helped avoid the formation of circular RNAs that could not be lengthened further. The researchers point out that polyethylene glycol and the chemical activator would not be found under primordial conditions, but they say that other molecular species could have played similar, if less efficient, roles.
The authors acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation Division of Materials Research and the Invernizzi Foundation.


Story Source:
Materials provided by American Chemical Society. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:
  • Marco Todisco, Tommaso P. Fraccia, Greg P. Smith, Andrea Corno, Lucas Bethge, Sven Klussmann, Elvezia M. Paraboschi, Rosanna Asselta, Diego Colombo, Giuliano Zanchetta, Noel A. Clark, Tommaso Bellini. Nonenzymatic Polymerization into Long Linear RNA Templated by Liquid Crystal Self-Assembly. ACS Nano, 2018; DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.8b05821


Cite This Page:
American Chemical Society. "Liquid crystals and the origin of life." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 October 2018. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/10/181003090350.htm>.







发表于 2018-10-4 17:42 | 显示全部楼层
味道,舌尖上的上古世界,口福享受,新奇刺激?习以为常,习惯就好!我一直觉得特殊的食物比如一些香辛料,很可能刺激了人类进化:

Humans have loved pumpkin spice for 3,500 years: Researchers discover oldest known example of nutmeg as a food ingredient on remote Pacific island
  • Researchers found traces of nutmeg on pottery sherds dating back 3,500 years
  • This is about 2,000 older than example previously considered to be the oldest
  • Researchers uncovered ancient spice during excavations at island of Pulau Ay
PUBLISHED: 23:10 BST, 3 October 2018 | UPDATED: 23:33 BST, 3 October 2018

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The ancient inhabitants of a small island in an Indonesian archipelago may have had a 3,500 year jump on the pumpkin spice craze.
Researchers have discovered what’s said to be the earliest known use of nutmeg as a food, dating back to a period about 2,000 years before the example that previously held the title.
The millennia-old traces of nutmeg were found as residue on ceramic potsherds on Pulau Ay, in the Banda Islands.
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Researchers have discovered what’s said to be the earliest known use of nutmeg as a food. A pottery sherd with nutmeg on it is shown. The researchers found evidence that the people cooked with a number of plants in addition to nutmeg, including sago and purple yam


Researchers uncovered the ancient spice during excavations at Pulau Ay in 2007 and 2009.
There, they also found animal bones, earthenware pottery, stone tools, and post molds of what may have been housing structures.
According to the team, Pulau Ay was occupied from 2,300 to 3,500 years ago.
The artifacts found at the site show how the lifestyles of the ancient people changed over time, at first relying on a fish-based diet before shifting primarily to eating domesticated pigs in the first 500 years.
While water was scarce, the island’s inhabitants built thin-walled vessels to store liquid.
Eventually, they developed better pottery skills to allow for more advanced cooking.
The researchers found evidence that the people cooked with a number of plants in addition to nutmeg, including sago and purple yam.
These could have been cultivated or foraged, they note.
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Researchers uncovered the ancient spice during excavations at Pulau Ay in 2007 and 2009. There, they also found animal bones, earthenware pottery, stone tools, and post molds of what may have been housing structures


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The millennia-old traces of nutmeg were found as residue on ceramic potsherds on Pulau Ay, in the Banda Islands


‘This site shows us how people adapted to living on these small tropical islands in stages, from occasional use as fishing camps to permanent occupation,’ said Peter Lape, professor of anthropology at the University of Washington and curator of archaeology at the Burke Museum.
‘It’s also fascinating to see such early use of nutmeg, a spice that changed the world a few thousand years later.’
While the site shows sign of human activity, the researchers say settlements here could not initially have been permanent given the lack of surface water.
Instead, people visited the island to for its rich marine reef resources over the course of thousands of years.
DOES NUTMEG GIVE YOU FRESHER BREATH?
Researchers at the Kao Corporation screened hundreds of plants and spices in the hope of finding more.
They found an extract of dried nutmeg acted on the same cold-sensitive receptor as menthol and then set about identifying the compound that was responsible.
The compound, known as threo-Δ8′-7-ethoxy-4-hydroxy-3,3′,5′-trimethoxy-8-O-4′-neolignan, was 30 times as potent as menthol, but the researchers found that if they tinkered with the chemical structure slightly, they found they could make it up to 116 times as potent.
The scientists then tested the nutmeg compound on volunteers by giving it to them in a mouthwash to rinse with for 30 seconds.
They found it took five minutes to reach the initial level of cooling experienced after rinsing with menthol, meaning it builds more gradually and leads to a more pleasant experience.
The cooling effect also lasted for 30 minutes, three times longer than that of menthol.

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It wasn’t until the early Neolithic that permanent populations were established, with more of this seen during the Stone Age.
These ‘visitors’ likely came from the nearby island of Seram, which sits about 62 miles to the east.
Around 2,300 years ago, however, the island was abandoned until at least 1,500 years ago, though researchers have no idea why.
The researchers say the discovery of nutmeg this early helps to piece together the timeline of international trade; in the 14th century, traders were traveling to Banda for the spice.

Nutmeg's hidden power: Helping the liver
Date:May 9, 2018Source:American Chemical SocietySummary:Smelling nutmeg evokes images of fall, pumpkin pie and hot apple cider. But the spice has been used for years in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gastrointestinal illnesses. Now one group reports that they have figured out how nutmeg helps other organs, specifically the liver.Share:

FULL STORY


Smelling nutmeg evokes images of fall, pumpkin pie and hot apple cider. But the spice has been used for years in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gastrointestinal illnesses. Now one group reports in ACS' Journal of Proteome Research that they have figured out how nutmeg helps other organs, specifically the liver.
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the world consumes 9,000 tons of nutmeg annually. Nutmeg is the seed of the Myristica fragrans tree, which is commonly found in Indonesia, and has been used to treat asthma, rheumatic pain, toothaches and infections. In the laboratory, researchers have shown that nutmeg can fight hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycemia, heart tissue damage and hepatotoxicity. Inspired by these studies, Xiu-Wei Yang, Frank Gonzalez, Fei Li and colleagues wanted to see how nutmeg prevents damage to the liver.
The researchers used a mouse animal model of liver toxicity to test the mechanism behind nutmeg's protective effects. Metabolomics analyses showed that nutmeg likely protected against liver damage by restoring the mice to more healthy levels of various lipids and acylcarnitines. Gene expression studies showed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) was modulated by nutmeg, and the spice didn't protect mice from liver injury if the PPARα gene was deleted. In addition, the team found that a specific compound in nutmeg, myrislignan, had a strong protective effect against liver damage.


Story Source:
Materials provided by American Chemical Society. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:
  • Xiao-Nan Yang, Xue-Mei Liu, Jian-He Fang, Xu Zhu, Xiu-Wei Yang, Xue-Rong Xiao, Jian-Feng Huang, Frank J. Gonzalez, Fei Li. PPARα Mediates the Hepatoprotective Effects of Nutmeg. Journal of Proteome Research, 2018; 17 (5): 1887 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.7b00901














发表于 2018-10-4 18:00 | 显示全部楼层
味道,舌尖上的上古世界。食物影响人类进化和文明产生:





Researchers have discovered how to slow agingNatural product found to reduce the level of damaged cells in the body, caused by agingDate:October 2, 2018Source:University of Minnesota Medical SchoolSummary:Previous research showed it was possible to reduce the burden of damaged cells, termed senescent cells, and extend lifespan and improve health, even when treatment was initiated late in life. They now have shown that treatment of aged mice with the natural product Fisetin, found in many fruits and vegetables, also has significant positive effects on health and lifespan.Share:

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Fisetin, found in many fruits and vegetables, has significant positive effects on health and lifespan, a new study in mice suggests.
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Previous research published earlier this year in Nature Medicine involving University of Minnesota Medical School faculty Paul D. Robbins and Laura J. Niedernhofer and Mayo Clinic investigators James L. Kirkland and Tamara Tchkonia, showed it was possible to reduce the burden of damaged cells, termed senescent cells, and extend lifespan and improve health, even when treatment was initiated late in life. They now have shown that treatment of aged mice with the natural product Fisetin, found in many fruits and vegetables, also has significant positive effects on health and lifespan.
As people age, they accumulate damaged cells. When the cells get to a certain level of damage they go through an aging process of their own, called cellular senescence. The cells also release inflammatory factors that tell the immune system to clear those damaged cells. A younger person's immune system is healthy and is able to clear the damaged cells. But as people age, they aren't cleared as effectively. Thus they begin to accumulate, cause low level inflammation and release enzymes that can degrade the tissue.
Robbins and fellow researchers found a natural product, called Fisetin, reduces the level of these damaged cells in the body. They found this by treating mice towards the end of life with this compound and see improvement in health and lifespan. The paper, "Fisetin is a senotherapeutic that extends health and lifespan," was recently published in EBioMedicine.
"These results suggest that we can extend the period of health, termed healthspan, even towards the end of life," said Robbins. "But there are still many questions to address, including the right dosage, for example."
One question they can now answer, however, is why haven't they done this before? There were always key limitations when it came to figuring out how a drug will act on different tissues, different cells in an aging body. Researchers didn't have a way to identify if a treatment was actually attacking the particular cells that are senescent, until now.
Under the guidance of Edgar Arriaga, a professor in the Department of Chemistry in the College of Science and Engineering at the University of Minnesota, the team used mass cytometry, or CyTOF, technology and applied it for the first time in aging research, which is unique to the University of Minnesota.
"In addition to showing that the drug works, this is the first demonstration that shows the effects of the drug on specific subsets of these damaged cells within a given tissue." Robbins said.


Story Source:
Materials provided by University of Minnesota Medical School. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:
  • Matthew J. Yousefzadeh, Yi Zhu, Sara J. McGowan, Luise Angelini, Heike Fuhrmann-Stroissnigg, Ming Xu, Yuan Yuan Ling, Kendra I. Melos, Tamar Pirtskhalava, Christina L. Inman, Collin McGuckian, Erin A. Wade, Jonathon I. Kato, Diego Grassi, Mark Wentworth, Christin E. Burd, Edgar A. Arriaga, Warren L. Ladiges, Tamara Tchkonia, James L. Kirkland, Paul D. Robbins, Laura J. Niedernhofer. Fisetin is a senotherapeutic that extends health and lifespan. EBioMedicine, 2018; DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2018.09.015















发表于 2018-10-4 18:12 | 显示全部楼层
鸦片战争的起源,大概也跟一带一路有关:


Bronze Age drug trade revealed as researchers finally prove 'opium jugs' really WERE used to ferry drugs 3,000 years ago
  • 'Base-ring juglets', has long been thought to have links with opium use
  • They are shaped like a like a poppy seed head, and are known to have been widely traded in the eastern Mediterranean around 1650 - 1350BC
  • Jug from the British Museum's collection found to contain  Opium traces
  • It is the first time conclusive proof has been found
PUBLISHED: 00:12 BST, 3 October 2018 | UPDATED: 14:40 BST, 3 October 2018

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Researchers at the University of York and the British Museum have discovered traces of opiates preserved inside a distinctive vessel dating back to the Late Bronze Age.
The vessel, known as a 'base-ring juglets', has long been thought to have links with opium use because of its distinctive shape - like a poppy seed head.
Traces of opiates inside the distinctive container dating back at least 3,000 years were found by scientists at the University of York.
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The vessel, known as a 'base-ring juglets', has long been thought to have links with opium use because of its distinctive shape - like a poppy seed head. Researchers found a sealed jug in the British Museum's collection, and were able to test it - finding Opium traces.


The Cypriot vessel, known as a 'base-ring juglet' at the British Museum dates back to between 1650BC and 1350BC.  
Initial analysis by scientists at the British Museum showed that the juglet residue was mostly composed of a plant oil but hinted at the presence of opium alkaloids, a group of organic compounds derived from the opium poppy, and that are known to have 'significant psychological effects' on the human body.
Dozens of small clay vases archaeologists call Base Ring juglets, dating from 1600-1100 B.C., have been unearthed at sites across Egypt and Syria, and were believed to have been made in Cyprus then transported.
Researchers found a sealed jug in the British Museum's collection, and were able to test it - finding Opium traces.
'The particular opiate alkaloids we detected are ones we have shown to be the most resistant to degradation, which makes them better targets in ancient residues than more well-known opiates such as morphine,' said Dr Rachel Smith of the University of York.
'We found the alkaloids in degraded plant oil, so the question as to how opium would have been used in this juglet still remains.
'Could it have been one ingredient amongst others in an oil-based mixture, or could the juglet have been re-used for oil after the opium or something else entirely?'   
THE HISTORY OF OPIUM
Opium has been known for millennia to relieve pain and its use for surgical analgesia has been recorded for several centuries.
The Sumerian clay tablet (about 2100 BC) is considered to be the world's oldest recorded list of medical prescriptions, and many believe the opium poppy is referred to on the tablet.
Some objects from the ancient Greek Minoan culture may also suggest the knowledge of the poppy, including  a goddess from about 1500 BC shows her hair adorned probably with poppy-capsules and her closed eyes disclose sedation.
Also juglets probably imitating the poppy-capsules were found in that period in both Cyprus and Egypt.
The first authentic reference to the milky juice of the poppy we find by Theophrastus at the beginning of the third century BC.
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In the past, it has been argued that these juglets could have been used to hold poppy seed oil, containing traces of opium, used for anointing or in a perfume


In the first century the opium poppy and opium was known by Dioscorides, Pliny and Celsus and later on by Galen.
The Arabic physicians used opium very extensively and about 1000 AD it was recommended by Avicenna especially in diarrhoea and diseases of the eye.
Simplified preparations of opium such as tinctura opii were also used up to about 2000 in Denmark.
In the early 1800s sciences developed and Sertürner isolated morphine from opium and was the founder of alkaloid research.
A more safe and standardized effect was obtained by the pure opium.
Several morphine-like drugs have been synthesized to minimize adverse effects and abuse potential.

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In the past, it has been argued that these juglets could have been used to hold poppy seed oil, containing traces of opium, used for anointing or in a perfume. In this theory, the opium effects may have held symbolic significance.
Professor Jane Thomas-Oates, Chair of Analytical Science in the Department of Chemistry, and supervisor of the study at the University of York, said: 'The juglet is significant in revealing important details about trade and the culture of the period, so it was important to us to try and progress the debate about what it might have been used for.
'We were able to establish a rigorous method for detecting opiates in this kind of residue, but the next analytical challenge is to see if we can succeed with less well-preserved residues.'
This is the first time that reliable chemical evidence has been produced to link the opium poppy with a base-ring juglet, despite many previous attempts by researchers over the years.
Dr Rebecca Stacey, Senior Scientist in the Department of Scientific Research at the British Museum, said: 'It is important to remember that this is just one vessel, so the result raises lots of questions about the contents of the juglet and its purpose.
'The presence of the alkaloids here is unequivocal and lends a new perspective to the debate about their significance.'

发表于 2018-10-5 11:16 | 显示全部楼层
物华天宝,地灵人杰。味道,舌尖上的世界,最健康的肠道在哪里?民以食为天,食物,对人类进化的影响实在是大!远古人类出非洲?大食那里很可能是关键枢纽。
Hunter-gatherers from Tanzania butcher a dead baboon they'll cook for dinner as last 1,000 of the Hazda tribe battle to preserve ancient way of life
  • The Hazda tribe of Tanzania, Africa, one of the last hunter gatherer tribes, tuck into a dead baboon for dinner  
  • London professor claims the tribe have some the healthiest guts in the world with their unprocessed diets
  • The Hadza tribe need to secure their land rights to have access to unpolluted water springs and wild animals
  • There are around 1,000 remaining Hadza people who live near the site of some of the earliest human fossils
  • Tribe's food includes 'tubers', tasting similar to turnips and celery, and meat from baboons and porcupines
PUBLISHED: 09:10 BST, 4 October 2018 | UPDATED: 23:10 BST, 4 October 2018

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These are the amazing pictures of an African tribe slicing into a dead baboon to eat.
The Hazda tribe in Tanzania, Africa, have been pictured at their home on the shores of Lake Eyasi, in the Ngorongoro district in the north of the country.
It is believed there are a little over 1,000 Hadza people remaining, forming one of the last hunter-gatherer communities still in existence, and living close to the site of some of the very earliest human remains.
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One of the last few remaining hunter gatherer tribes slice into a dead baboon as they prepare to butcher it for meat. The tribe have lived as hunter-gatherers for the past 10,000 years


Members of the Tanzanian tribe, who have lived as hunter-gatherers for 10,000 years, are coming under threat and fear they will be forced to adapt to Western society.
The Hadza tribe must find a way to secure their land rights, in order to have access to unpolluted water springs and wild animals to hunt in the east African country.  
The tribe's food includes the fruit of the baobab tree, which is crushed to make a citrus-flavoured milkshake, wild tubers tasting similar to turnips and celery, and meat from animals including baboons and porcupines.
A King's College London professor who visited the tribe last year said they had the healthiest guts in the world, as their diets allowed them to grow a diverse range of digestive bacteria.
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The tribe butcher the dead baboon, centre, while wild dogs, right, wait for their share of the meat. The tribe's food includes the fruit of the baobab tree, which is crushed to make a citrus-flavoured milkshake


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A Hazda tribe member comes back with the dead baboon, who has an arrow through its neck. Members of the Tanzanian tribe, who have lived as hunter-gatherers for 10,000 years, are coming under threat and fear they will be forced to adapt to Western society


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One of the tribe members - 14-year-old Manu - is pictured shooting an arrow at Lake Eyasi in the north of Tanzania. The hunter-gatherer Hadza tribe have lived a largely unchanged existence for thousands of years in the east African country but are coming under threat and fear they will be forced to absorb into a Western culture of which they have no experience


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Two tribe members look for food: 68-year-old Alagu (left) is carrying his axe to look for honey inside the trees while 50-year-old Giaga (right) is carrying a similar weapon over his shoulder. They use axes and hand-made bows and arrows to find their food. Their daily physical activity means the tribe does not face Western problems such as obesity and type 2 diabetes


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Teenage Hadza tribe members sit around a fire roasting baboon meat at Lake Eyasi in the north of Tanzania. Other foods eaten by the hunter-gatherer people include porcupine meat - which is said to taste the same as any other barbecued meat - and wild tubers tasting similar to turnips and celery


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Manu, 14, wearing a shirt decorated with the colours of the Jamaican flag, holds four of his arrows and his bow as he sits on a dead tree in Tanzania. The Hadza people have their own language which is only very loosely related to other regional languages - based on its use of clicks as consonants - and the language does not have any written form



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One of the Hadza people, 15-year-old Osama, stands near Lake Eyasi in Tanzania's Ngorongoro district, home to around 1,000 remaining members of the tribe, against a backdrop of the Rift Valley which runs along the east of the continent. Their home is situated close to the site of some of the very earliest human remains ever discovered


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Young Hadza men test their hand-made arrows in northern Tanzania. The tribespeople fear the consequences if they cannot find a way to secure their land rights in order to preserve the access they have to unpolluted water springs and wild animals


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Two teenagers - 15-year-old Osama and 14-year-old Manu - sit on the remains of a tree holding their bows and arrows on a cloudy day in northern Tanzania. The children take part in the hunting and gathering which occupies around five hours of the tribespeople's time a day. They sleep in huts which are made of branches and grass


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Four tribe members - Giaga, 50, Manu, 14, Osama, 15, and Madenye, 46, sit and rest on a dead tree and put their bows and arrows to one side. They use the weapons to hunt meat from animals including birds, baboons, antelope and buffalo


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Madenye, 46, is pictured rolling a tobacco cigarette near Lake Eyasi in Tanzania. Tribe members fear their lifestyle will disappear leaving them with no formal education in a Westernised society which is completely foreign to them. Experts say their way of life has faced encroachment by nearby farmers and national parks designated by the Tanzanian government


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Four Hadza boys climb a huge stone rock next to their camp, some of them still holding their bows and arrows, while four more youngsters watch on. The nearby landscape can be dangerous as it is populated with lions and poisonous snakes. Research found the hunter-gatherer people have a particular kind of walk which they use for their hunting trips


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Alagu (left), 68, on his way to look for honey inside the trees, and Osama (right), 15, who is wearing a more Western-style T-shirt. One professor said the porcupine meat eaten by the tribespeople tastes similar to any other barbecued meat


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Setting off for the day: A group of young Hadza boys carrying their weapons - including two very young children with miniature bows and arrows - head out in the morning to look for meat and honey in the north Tanzanian landscape


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Osama, 15, tests one of his newly-made arrows under a cloudy sky in northern Tanzania. The Hadza tribespeople have no electricity and no currency other than occasional trade for a pair of shorts or sandals with a neighbouring tribe


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15-year-old Osama perches on a dead tree. A King's College London-based professor who spent time with the Hadza last year found that tribe members have 40 per cent more gut bacteria species than the average Westerner, which he claimed can help them fight off such diseases as diabetes and asthma


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Two young tribesmen: 14-year-old Manu (left) holds his bow and arrows as he rests after a long walk, with rain clouds gathering in the sky; 15-year-old Osama (right) wears feathers on his head. The Hadza do not grow food or keep livestock


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Two generations of Hadxa: 15-year-old Osama (right) with his father Gudo, 70, who has 12 children and said he was very happy that Osama will soon stay with a teacher to study English. Pictured is the father and son's first meeting for a year


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Osama (left), 15, prepares to shoot one of his arrows while Madenye (right), 46, holds an axe. Among the food eaten by the tribespeople is the fruit of the baobab tree, which is crushed and filtered to make a citrus-flavoured milkshake





发表于 2018-10-5 11:19 | 显示全部楼层
风水宝地,藏风聚水,其实就是把有用元素富集。下面这个雕像到底是两千年前还是四千年前的?


Unusual features of figure carved into 2,000-year-old tobacco pipe do NOT depict dwarfism as previously thought, but reveal iodine deficiency in ancient Ohio Valley, study claims
8-inch carved pipe was discovered in 1901 was thought to depict achondroplasia
  • This is a common form of dwarfism, characterized by short limbs, average torso
  • New study suggests features show conditions caused by iodine deficiency
PUBLISHED: 22:54 BST, 4 October 2018 | UPDATED: 22:55 BST, 4 October 2018

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New research on a 2,000-year-old tobacco pipe sculpture discovered in the Ohio Valley has upended a long-held theory on what it truly depicts.
The 8-inch carved pipe was discovered in 1901, and features what’s thought to be the likeness of a Native American with achondroplasia – a common form of dwarfism characterized by short limbs, an enlarged head, and an average-sized trunk.
But according to the new study, this may not be the case.
A bulge at the base of the figure’s neck is a tell-tale sign of thyroid disease, as is the short stature, researchers now say, and it appears even shorter due to the squatted position that likely represents a ceremonial dance.
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'What caught my eye on this pipe statue was an obvious tumor on the neck that looked remarkably like a goiter or thyroid tumor,' said anthropologist and geologist Kenneth Tankersley. This bulge can be seen in the neck of the figure, above


The statue was found in 1901 at the Adena Burial Mound in Ross County Ohio.
Its stunted appearance coupled with the discovery of achondroplastic human remains suggested the statue depicted an Ohio Valley Native American with the condition.
A closer look, however, suggests a different disorder may be behind its features.
‘During the early turn of the century, this theory was consistent with actual human remains of a Native American excavated in Kentucky, also interpreted by archaeologists as being an achondroplastic dwarf,’ says anthropologist and geologist Kenneth Tankersley, from the University of Cincinnati.
‘Here we have a carved statute and human remains, both of achondroplasia from the same time period.
‘But what caught my eye on this pipe statue was an obvious tumor on the neck that looked remarkably like a goiter or thyroid tumor.’
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The 8-inch carved pipe features what’s thought to be the likeness of a Native American with achondroplasia. But a new study suggests this may not be the case


In the new study, Tankersley teamed up with Frederic Bauduer, a visiting biological anthropologist and paleopathologist from the University of Bordeaux in Paris, to re-analyze the sculpture.
Radiocarbon dating indicated the tobacco pipe is about 4,000 years old.
Not only was the region particularly prone to goiter prior to the 1920, when iodized salt was introduced, but tobacco smoking is known to increase the risk in low iodine intake zones.
All of these factors point to iodine deficiency and a resulting thyroid disease as the underlying condition.
‘We found the tumor in the neck, as well as the figure’s squatted stance – not foreshortened legs as was formerly documented in the literature – were both signs and symptoms of thyroid disease,’ Tankersley said.
‘We already know that iodine deficiencies can lead to thyroid tumors, and the Ohio Valley area, where this artifact was found, has historically had iodine depleted soils and water relative to the advance of an Ice Age glacier about 300,000 years ago.’
WHAT IS HYPOTHYROIDISM AND GOITER?
Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
A condition in which the thyroid gland fails to produce enough of certain hormones.
Women, especially those over the age of 60, are more likely to be diagnosed with an underactive thryoid.
It upsets the normal balance of chemical reactions and over time, if untreated, can cause obesity, joint pain, infertility and heart disease.
Goiter
Is an abnormal enlargement of the thryoid, a butterfly-shaped gland at the base of the neck.
Although usually painless, the condition can cause a cough and make it difficult for a person' to breathe or swallow.

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According to the researchers, the lower limbs are not shorter than usual, and would actually be normal size.
The tilted squat position, which is common among people with hypothyroidism, and signs that the figure may be in the stance of a ceremonial dance can also explain their appearance.
‘The fact that the bones of the figure are all normal size leads us to believe the squat portrays more of an abnormal gait while likely in the stance of a typical Native American ritual dance,’ says Tankersley.
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The squat position, common among people with hypothyroidism, and signs that the figure may be in the stance of a ceremonial dance can explain the appearance


‘The regalia the figure is wearing is also strongly indicative of ancient Native Ohio Valley Shawnee, Delarare, and Ojibwa to the north and Miami Nation tribes in Indiana.
‘The traditional headdress, pierced ears with expanded spool earrings and loincloth with serpentine motif on the front and feathered bustle on the back are also still worn by local Native tribes during ceremonial events today.’
The researchers say the 2,000-year-old pipe is the first known example of a goiter in ancient Native American art on the continent.
It’s also one of the oldest known in the Western Hemisphere.
‘Art history is beginning to help substantiate many scientific hypotheses,’ says Tankersley.
‘Because artists are such keen students of anatomy, artisans such as this ancient Adena pipe sculptor could portray physical maladies with great accuracy, even before they were aware of what the particular disease was.’
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In the new study, Tankersley teamed up with Frederic Bauduer, a visiting biological anthropologist and paleopathologist from the University of Bordeaux in Paris, to re-analyze the sculpture





发表于 2018-10-5 20:25 | 显示全部楼层

亚马孙雨林一种植物的提取物能治肝癌?有没有人有兴趣投资研究,乙肝丙肝什么的,患者众多,亟需新药。某虽不才,也是化学本科,研究这个的兴趣杠杠的。


Could an Amazonian plant treat liver cancer? Botanical extract triggers 'suicide' in cancer cells without harming healthy tissue
  • Indigenous plant Vismia baccifera's leaf extract kills liver tumours in the lab
  • Triggers cells to 'commit suicide' without harming healthy tissue
  • Around 5,700 and 42,200 cases of liver cancer occur a year in the UK and US
PUBLISHED: 18:01 BST, 28 September 2018 | UPDATED: 15:23 BST, 29 September 2018

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An Amazonian plant has 'tremendous' potential in treating liver cancer, according to scientists from the University of the Basque Country.
The botanical extract of the indigenous Vismia baccifera leaf kills liver tumours in the lab, a Spanish study found.
V.baccifera triggers cancerous cells into 'suicide' without harming healthy tissue, which causes much of the grueling side effects of chemotherapy.
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The Amazonian plant Vismia baccifera (pictured) has 'tremendous' potential in treating liver cancer, according to scientists from the University of the Basque Country


Human liver cancer cells were treated with an extract of V.baccifera leaf in the lab.
Study author Dr Jenifer Trepiana said: 'Right now, there is huge interest in identifying compounds derived from plants that could be used as chemotherapeutic agents with the capacity to prevent tumours from growing, or to treat metastasis, for example.'
Metastasis occurs when cancer spreads due to the development of tumours away from the disease's original site in the body.
The plant was picked from the Amazonian forest of Florencia, Columbia.
'Indigenous populations use it for its anti-inflammatory properties or for urinary tract disorders or skin diseases, but we chose it because in previous studies we had seen that it is the one with the greatest antitumour capability in liver cancer cells that we have used,' Dr Trepiana said.
Inflammation is thought to cause cancer cells to spread.  
DO SEAT BELTS PREVENT LIVER DAMAGE IN CAR CRASHES?
Wearing a seat belt reduces people's risk of life-threatening liver damage by more than 20 per cent, research suggested in May 2018.
Among people involved in car crashes, seat-belt wearers are 21 per cent less likely to suffer severe liver injuries, which rises to 26 per cent when combined with an airbag, a study found.
The liver is one of the most commonly injured organs during motor-vehicle collisions, with severe damage killing around 15 per cent of sufferers, the research adds.
Lead author Audrey Renson, from the NYU Langone Hospital-Brooklyn, said: 'It has been known for some time that seat belt use is associated with lower mortality in a car crash.
'Although some may consider this common sense, there is still some controversy lingering around seat belts possibly being harmful and that having an airbag means you don’t have to wear a seat belt.'
The researchers believe their findings reinforce the importance of seat belts.
Dr Eileen Metzger Bulger, chair of the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma, who was not involved in the study, said the liver and spleen are the most commonly injured organs after motor-vehicle crashes.
She added: 'Both can cause severe bleeding, but the spleen can be removed if needed during surgery, which controls the bleeding.
'The liver (however) is critical for life and cannot be removed.'

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Healthy liver cells were also tested 'to see whether or not healthy cells are also affected', she added.
Results, published in the journal Heliyon, suggest V.baccifera is toxic to liver tumour cells.
The Amazonian plant produces substances, such as hydrogen peroxide, that stop these cancerous cells from dividing and damages their DNA.
V.baccifera also triggers such tumours to commit suicide in a process known as apoptosis.
When comparing the plant's effect in cancerous versus healthy cells, 'only the cancer cells were affected; we found that these effects do not take place in healthy human liver cells and, previously, in rat cells', Dr Trepiana said.
'This is of huge interest because the most important thing is that healthy cells should remain unaffected.'
Chemotherapy affects healthy tissues when cells are constantly growing or dividing.
This includes hair, which is always growing; bone marrow, which is constantly producing blood cells; and the skin and digestive lining; which continuously renew themselves.
Other cells are able to replace or repair the healthy cells that are damaged by chemotherapy, according to Cancer Research UK.
Dr Trepiana called the study's results 'tremendously positive', adding: 'The ideal thing would be to take the research further and move towards doing in vivo studies using animal models, to go on passing milestones until it can be used as a therapy against cancer.
'Although we are well aware that it will be a very long road.'
V.baccifera is traditionally used in indigenous populations to relieve disorders of the urinary tract, as well as snake bites.
Around 5,700 and 42,200 new cases of liver cancer occur every year in the UK and US, respectively.  
Approximately half of cases are thought to be preventable.
Most incidences occur due to alcohol abuse, or hepatitis B or C infections.
This comes after research released earlier this year suggested sunflower and fish oils can cause liver inflammation that could lead to cancer.
Having either of the two oils every day triggers damage to the organ and makes it susceptible to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASAH), according to a study by the University of Granada.   
NASH, considered a silent killer and dubbed 'human foie gras', can lead to scarring of the liver, which in turn causes cirrhosis. It can also result in cancer.





发表于 2018-10-6 15:05 | 显示全部楼层
卤水点豆腐,一物降一物。人类之进化,确实也唯物!


瑞士科学家研究发现葡萄可以用来对抗肺癌



来源: 神秘的地球  
  • 时间:2018年10月06日 13:06







瑞士科学家研究发现葡萄可以用来对抗肺癌

(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)瑞士科学家进行了一项研究,揭示了葡萄可以用来对抗肺癌。葡萄中的防癌物质是酚化合物白藜芦醇。

据《每日科学》网站报道,日内瓦大学的一组科学家对实验室老鼠进行了实验,将一些实验动物暴露于烟草烟雾中的致癌物质下。研究人员研究了白藜芦醇对受损细胞的影响,查明在接受"治疗"的实验鼠中,肿瘤的大小比起没有给予葡萄提取物的老鼠来,几乎减小了一半。

科学家们注意到,先前关于白藜芦醇的研究并没有表明它在预防肺癌方面的作用。专家们对此进行了解释,由于是口服给药,这些东西无法抵达肺部。因此他们决定通过鼻子注射来“加速”药剂的传输,并获得了证实其作用的结果。




发表于 2018-10-15 19:13 | 显示全部楼层
长寿秘诀已被诺贝尔奖得主破解,主因无关饮食烟酒和运动_【快资讯】  http://sh.qihoo.com/pc/detail?ur ... p;sign=360_0de6261f
发表于 2018-10-15 19:18 | 显示全部楼层
长寿秘诀已被诺贝尔奖得主破解,主因无关饮食烟酒和运动_【快资讯】  http://sh.qihoo.com/pc/detail?ur ... p;sign=360_0de6261f
发表于 2018-10-30 13:37 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-10-30 13:43 编辑

“无毒不丈夫,量小非君子”新解,毒品有荷尔蒙作用。

Sex hormone oestrogen makes women enjoy cannabis more than men, study finds

  • Women enjoy the cannabis high more than men because of oestrogen hormone
  • Women also have a higher chance of cannabis addiction than men, study finds
  • Study says men are FOUR times more likely to try cannabis and in higher doses
PUBLISHED: 00:25 GMT, 29 October 2018 | UPDATED: 02:00 GMT, 29 October 2018
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Women are more likely to become addicted to cannabis because the sex hormone oestrogen makes them enjoy the high more, a study has found.
Men are up to four times more likely to try cannabis and use higher doses, more frequently, due to their levels of testosterone, the review of studies into animal behaviour revealed.
Despite females using the drug less, they went from first hit to habit faster than males.
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Men are up to four times more likely to try cannabis and use higher doses, more frequently, researchers revealed [File photo]


This is due to being more sensitive to the drug’s effects and the release of the ‘pleasure’ and ‘reward’ brain chemicals.
The differences between how cannabis affects the sexes is important as more countries look to decriminalise or legalise cannabis.
This month, Canada became the second country to legalise the drug for recreational use.
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The findings could lead to gender-based drug addiction treatments. The differences between how cannabis affects the sexes is important as more countries look to decriminalise or legalise cannabis [File photo]


The research found the differences in response were down to the influence of sex hormones like testosterone, oestradiol (oestrogen) and progesterone on the endocannabinoid system.
This is a network of brain cells which communicate using the same family of chemicals found in cannabis.
Study co-author Dr Liana Fattore, of the National Research Council of Italy, said: ‘Male sex steroids increase risk-taking behaviour and suppress the brain’s reward system, which could explain why males are more likely to try drugs, including cannabis.’
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The research found the differences in response were down to the influence of sex hormones like testosterone [File photo]


She added: ‘Females seem to be more vulnerable, at a neurochemical level, in developing addiction to cannabis.’
The findings could lead to gender-based drug addiction treatments.
Professor Fattore told the journal Frontiers in Behavioural Neuroscience: ‘Identifying factors is critical for optimising evidence-based prevention and treatment protocols.’

药食同源,是药三分毒。非毒品的食物,有些具有神经兴奋作用,味美可口,也是促进人类进化的重要食物:

Is this the world’s oldest form of hot chocolate? Traces of drinks made from cacao are found in 5,300 year old pottery in South America
  • Researchers studied ceramic artefacts from Santa Ana-La Florida in Ecuador
  • People in the Amazon basin and lower Andes cultivated the plant in 3,400 BC
  • Evidence from 1,900 BC had suggested it was first domesticated in Mexico
  • Pottery fragments suggest that cacao was consumed as a beverage, experts say
PUBLISHED: 16:00 GMT, 29 October 2018 | UPDATED: 16:04 GMT, 29 October 2018


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Ancient people in South America may have developed a taste for hot chocolate 1,500 years before the Mexicans began growing the plant, a new study suggests.
It had been thought cacao was grown by people for food in central America around 1,900 BC.
New archaeological evidence suggests the tree was harvested by people living in the upper Amazon basin and foothills of the Andes around 3,400 BC, however.
Pottery found alongside the remnants of cacao suggest that they consumed the bean as beverage, experts say.
From there the love of chocolate spread north, researchers from the University of British Columbia claim.
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Ancient people in South America developed a taste for hot chocolate 1,500 years before the Mexicans, a new study suggests. Pottery found alongside remnants of cacao suggest that they consumed the bean as beverage, experts say (stock image)


THE CACOA TREE IN ANCIENT AMERICA
Theobroma cacao, known as the cacao tree, was a culturally important crop in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica.
This was a historical region and cultural area in North America that extends from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica.
Cacao beans were used both as currency and to make the chocolate drinks consumed during feasts and rituals.
But ceramic artefacts suggested it was highly prized by the Mayo-Chinchipe culture, which occupied the site at Santa Ana-La Florida, in Ecuador, from at least 5,450 years ago.

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Researchers studied ceramic artefacts from Santa Ana-La Florida, in Ecuador, the earliest known site of Mayo-Chinchipe culture, which was occupied from at least 5,450 years ago, to make the findings.
Previous archaeological evidence of cacao's use dating back 3,900 years planted the idea that the cacao tree was first domesticated in Central America.
New genetic evidence shows that the highest diversity of the cacao tree and related species is actually found in equatorial South America, where cacao is important to contemporary indigenous groups.
Researchers looked for clues in ceramic pieces unearthed at the archaeological site and found traces of cacao, which suggested it was used far earlier than thought.
'This new study shows us that people in the upper reaches of the Amazon basin, extending up into the foothills of the Andes in southeastern Ecuador, were harvesting and consuming cacao that appears to be a close relative of the type of cacao later used in Mexico - and they were doing this 1,500 years earlier,' said study co-author Professor Michael Blake, from the university's department of anthropology.
'They were also doing so using elaborate pottery that pre-dates the pottery found in Central America and Mexico.
'This suggests that the use of cacao, probably as a drink, was something that caught on and very likely spread northwards by farmers growing cacao in what is now Colombia and eventually Panama and other parts of Central America and southern Mexico.'





Theobroma cacao, known as the cacao tree, was a culturally important crop in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica.
This was a historical region and cultural area in North America that extends from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica.
Cacao beans were used both as currency and to make the chocolate drinks consumed during feasts and rituals.
But ceramic artefacts suggested it was highly prized by the Mayo-Chinchipe culture, which occupied the site at Santa Ana-La Florida, in Ecuador, from at least 5,450 years ago.
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New genetic evidence shows that the highest diversity of the cacao tree (pictured) and related species is actually found in equatorial South America, where cacao is important to contemporary indigenous groups (stock image)


Researchers used three lines of evidence to show the Mayo-Chinchipe culture used cacao between 5,300 and 2,100 years ago.
They found the presence of starch grains specific to the cacao tree inside ceramic vessels and broken pieces of pottery.
There were also residues of theobromine, a bitter alkaloid found in the cacao tree and fragments of ancient DNA with sequences unique to the tree.
The findings suggest that the Mayo-Chinchipe people domesticated the cacao tree at least 1,500 years before the crop was used in Central America.
As some of the artefacts from Santa Ana-La Florida have links to the Pacific coast, this suggested the trade in goods, including culturally important plants, could have started cacao's voyage north.
IS CHOCOLATE GOOD FOR YOU?
Chocolate is undoubtedly the nation's favourite dietary vice but lots of research over the years has found that it could actually be good for us.
With more than 300 chemicals in chocolate, scientists are investigating a whole range of health benefits linked to the food.
Researchers at Harvard University studied 8,000 men aged over 65 and found that those who ate modest amounts of chocolate lived almost a year longer than those who ate none.
Dr Neil Martin of the Cognition and Research Centre at Middlesex University exposed people to different smells and measured their brain activity.
The results showed that smell receptors in the nasal passages reacted so strongly to the chemical mix in chocolate that it left people on an emotional high.
A 100g bar of dark chocolate gives you 2.4mg of iron and 90mg of magnesium, around one third of the recommended daily amounts.
White chocolate, on the other hand, contains no cocoa solids, just cocoa butter, and is relatively high in fat. A 100g white Toblerone bar has a whopping 540 calories and 30.7g of fat.
Yet, despite its sugar content, chocolate is said by dentists to be less damaging to the teeth than many other sweets because it tends to be chewed quickly, not sucked.
There are also naturally-occurring tannins in chocolate that help to inhibit the growth of dental plaque.
And there is known to be a substance in all chocolate called phenylethamine (PEA), which is produced naturally by the brain and thought to increase levels of the mood-enhancing chemicals, serotonin and endorphins.
In theory, the more PEA you eat, the more amorous and aroused you feel, which is why chocolate has gained a reputation as an aphrodisiac.
A TV series on the Food Network called Food: Fact or Fiction? looks at how eating chocolate affects the brain.
Researchers found sharing chocolate with a loved one increased oxytocin levels.
This much-loved sweet treat also stimulates theobromine and phenylethylamine.
Phenylethylamine stimulates the release of B-endorphin which stokes the production of dopamine and norepinephrine.
These chemicals flood your system when you're feeling loving.
Theobromine is chemically similar to caffeine and like its chemical cousin it stimulates the central nervous system and also has mood enhancing effects.

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Lead author adjunct assistant professor Sonia Zarrillo at the University of Calgary added: 'For the first time, three independent lines of archaeological evidence have documented the presence of ancient cacao in the Americas: starch grains, chemical biomarkers, and ancient DNA sequences
'These three methods combine to definitively identify a plant that is otherwise notoriously difficult to trace in the archaeological record because seeds and other parts quickly degrade in moist and warm tropical environments.'
Prof Blake added discovering the origins of food we rely on today is important because it helps us understand the complex histories of who we are today.
He said: 'Today we all rely, to one extent or another, on foods that were created by the Indigenous peoples of the Americas
'And one of the world's favourites is chocolate.'
The study was published in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution.




发表于 2018-10-30 13:48 | 显示全部楼层
酒还真能解忧消愁呢:
You CAN drink away your troubles, study says: Alcohol affects a gene making your brain forget the bad times and only remember the good ones
A new study from Brown University has found alcohol affects a gene making you only remember good times. But addiction experts warn that you should not drink to forget your troubles.




发表于 2018-10-30 13:57 | 显示全部楼层

魔幻蘑菇,我觉得中国梦需要它:



Tiny doses of magic mushrooms can improve your problem-solving skills and make you more creative - without the 'bad-trip', study claims

  • 'Microdoses' of psychedelics could induce a state of unconstrained thought
  • This is without the 'bad trips' that can come with high doses of such substances
  • People who took a small amount of the substance had more original ideas
PUBLISHED: 14:12 GMT, 25 October 2018 | UPDATED: 15:35 GMT, 25 October 2018

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Tiny doses of magic mushrooms can improve a person's problem-solving skills, research suggests.
A study has found that 'microdoses' of psychedelics could induce a state of unconstrained thought without the so-called 'bad trips' that often come with high doses of such substances.
According to research, people who took a small amount of the substance had more ideas about how to solve problems and came up with more original ideas.
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Tiny doses of magic mushrooms can improve a person's problem-solving skills, research suggests (stock image)


The research was led by Luisa Prochazkova from Leiden University in the Netherlands.
It is the first study of its kind to experimentally investigate the cognitive-enhancing effects of microdosing.
Researchers looked at how a microdose of a psychedelic substance affected the cognitive brain function of 36 people.
During the experimental phase, participants were set three tasks before and after they consumed on average 0.37 grams of dried truffles - less than half the weight of a paperclip, which weigh around one gram on average.
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The tests assessed their convergent thinking (the identification of a single solution to a problem), their fluid intelligence (the capacity to reason and solve new problems) and their divergent thinking (the ability to recognise many possible solutions).
After taking the microdose of truffles, scientists found that participants' convergent thinking abilities were improved.
Participants also had more ideas about how to solve a presented task, and were more fluent, flexible and original in the possibilities they came up with.
These findings are in line with earlier studies that found high doses of psychedelics can enhance creative performance.
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Researchers looked at how a microdose of a psychedelic substance affected the cognitive brain function of 36 people (stock image)


HAVE SCIENTISTS UNRAVELED THE 'RECIPE' FOR 'MAGIC SHROOMS'?
Research over the last few decades has suggested that the compound psilocybin may have a number of therapeutic benefits, with potential to help treat anxiety, depression, and even addiction.
But until now, the ‘recipe’ for psilocybin has remained a mystery.
In a new study, scientists have characterized the four enzymes mushrooms use to make this compound for the first time, setting the stage for pharmaceutical production of the ‘powerful psychedelic fungal drug.’


Scientists have characterized the four enzymes mushrooms use to make psilocybin


After identifying and characterizing the enzymes behind psilocybin, the team from Friedrich Schiller University Jena was able to develop the first enzymatic synthesis of the compound, reports C&EN, a publication from the American Chemical Society.
To get to the correct ‘recipe,’ the team in the new study sequenced the genomes of two mushroom species.
Then, they used engineered bacteria and fungi to confirm gene activity and the order of the synthetic steps, according to C&EN.
Their efforts revealed a new enzyme, dubbed PsiD strips carbon dioxide from the tryptophan, while another adds a hydroxyl group – or, oxygen and hydrogen.  
Another enzyme, known as PsiK acts as a catalyst for phosphotransfer.
Then, an enzyme known as PsiM catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups.
Based on their discovery, the researchers developed a 'one-pot reaction' to create psilocybin from 4-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, using three of the enzymes: PsiD, PsiK, and PsiM.
According to the team, the results could now ‘lay the foundation’ for the production of pharmaceutical drugs based on psychedelic mushrooms.

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The fact that participants' intelligence scores and general analytical abilities did not change suggests that the effect of the truffles is rather selective.
Experts believe it has the most benefit on a person's creative domain.
'Taken together, our results suggest that consuming a microdose of truffles allowed participants to create more out-of-the-box alternative solutions for a problem, thus providing preliminary support for the assumption that microdosing improves divergent thinking,' said Dr Prochazkova.
'Moreover, we also observed an improvement in convergent thinking, that is, increased performance on a task that requires the convergence on one single correct or best solution.'
Prochazkova hopes that these findings will stimulate further research into the beneficial effects of microdosing psychedelics.
'Apart from its benefits as a potential cognitive enhancement technique, microdosing could be further investigated for its therapeutic efficacy to help individuals who suffer from rigid thought patterns or behavior such as individuals with depression or obsessive-compulsive disorder,' she said.


发表于 2018-10-30 16:45 | 显示全部楼层
癯鹤 发表于 2018-10-5 11:16
物华天宝,地灵人杰。味道,舌尖上的世界,最健康的肠道在哪里?民以食为天,食物,对人类进化的影响实在是 ...

肠道微生物影响人类进化!何止呀,可以说动物的进化历程都与消化食物的微生物息息相关。而且,同为异养型生物,分解营养物质消化吸收新陈代谢产生能量,菌类与动物有很多关联,难怪说线粒体可能就是被整合进动物细胞基干的古菌。肠道细菌是母系遗传,跟线粒体一样,呵呵!妹妹哟,想多君子?这首歌是有道理的!


哺乳动物肠道内细菌的独特组成是从其母亲那里继承的



来源: 神秘的地球  
  • 时间:2018年10月26日 11:05







哺乳动物肠道内细菌的独特组成是从其母亲那里继承的

(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据EurekAlert!:新的研究披露,驻留在小鼠肠道内细菌的独特组成是从其母亲那里继承的,它们在多个世代中或多或少保持着相同的组成。这些结果提示,垂直继承是哺乳动物肠道微生物群的主导性传播模式,它表明,某些人类的细菌性病原体属于非常适合于在室内环境中进行水平传播的细菌属。栖息在哺乳动物肠道中的细菌的宏大的多样性会影响其宿主的消化、免疫和神经内分泌系统。然而,人们对创建这些微生物组的特定菌群是如何在宿主间传播的不甚了解。梳理具体细菌复杂的世系,区分多个细菌世代中不同的传播模式仍然是一个挑战。

为了迎接这些挑战,Andrew Moeller和同事对哺乳动物肠道中微生物组的传播进行了长期、多世代评估。Moeller等人从亚利桑那和加拿大的阿尔伯塔抓了2群具有不同微生物组的野生小鼠,并对它们及它们后代的微生物组进行了为期3年的监测。作者发现,在每一小鼠世系中,个体和群体水平的微生物群组成得到维持,而且在10个世代之后,它们之间的组成仍然维持不同,这表明微生物组主要是以垂直方式继承的。然而,某些细菌被证明可能会通过实验室环境以水平方式进行传播。

据作者披露,那些被证明通过共有环境而以水平方式传播的细菌类型往往会比那些垂直传播的细菌有更强的毒性,这表明人类的病原菌属于非常适合于在室内环境中传播的菌属,它们也许得到了对氧气耐受增加的帮助。





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