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The genome of the offspring of a Neanderthal mother and a Denisovan father

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发表于 2018-8-23 11:11 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Viviane Slon et al.
Published: 22 August 2018
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0455-x

Abstract:  Neanderthals and Denisovans are extinct groups of hominins that separated from each other more than 390,000 years ago. Here we present the genome of 'Denisova 11', a bone fragment from Denisova Cave (Russia) and show that it comes from an individual who had a Neanderthal mother and a Denisovan father. The father, whose genome bears traces of Neanderthal ancestry, came from a population related to a later Denisovan found in the cave. The mother came from a population more closely related to Neanderthals who lived later in Europe than to an earlier Neanderthal found in Denisova Cave, suggesting that migrations of Neanderthals between eastern and western Eurasia occurred sometime after 120,000 years ago. The finding of a first-generation Neanderthal–Denisovan offspring among the small number of archaic specimens sequenced to date suggests that mixing between Late Pleistocene hominin groups was common when they met.
 楼主| 发表于 2018-8-23 11:23 | 显示全部楼层
关于此文章的新闻报导:
https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-06004-0

新闻报导中使用的尼人头像:



Neanderthal.jpg
 楼主| 发表于 2018-8-23 11:27 | 显示全部楼层
新闻报导中的示意图:


tree.jpg
 楼主| 发表于 2018-8-23 11:39 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 cpan0256 于 2018-8-23 11:54 编辑

新闻报导中的一些话:
    A female who died around 90,000 years ago was half Neanderthal and half Denisovan, according to genome analysis of a bone discovered in a Siberian cave. This is the first time scientists have identified an ancient individual whose parents belonged to distinct human groups. The findings were published on 22 August in Nature.
    ··· ···
    The team, led by palaeogeneticists Viviane Slon and Svante Paabo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, conducted the genome analysis on a single bone fragment recovered from Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains of Russia.
    ··· ···
    Paabo’s team first uncovered Denny’s remains several years ago, by looking through a collection of more than 2,000 unidentified bone fragments for signs of human proteins. In a 2016 paper, they used radiocarbon dating to determine that the bone belonged to a hominin who lived more than 50,000 years ago (the upper limit of the dating technique; subsequent genetic analysis has put the specimen at around 90,000 years old, according to Paabo). They then sequenced the specimen’s mitochondrial DNA — the DNA found inside cells’ energy converters — and compared that data to sequences from other ancient humans. This analysis showed that the specimen’s mitochondrial DNA came from a Neanderthal.
    ··· ···
    In the latest study, the team sought to get a clearer understanding of the specimen’s ancestry by sequencing its genome and comparing the variation in its DNA to that of three other hominins — a Neanderthal and a Denisovan, both found in Denisova Cave, and a modern-day human from Africa. Around 40% of DNA fragments from the specimen matched Neanderthal DNA — but another 40% matched the Denisovan. By sequencing the sex chromosomes, the researchers also determined that the fragment came from a female, and the thickness of the bone suggested she was at least 13 years old.
    With equal amounts of Denisovan and Neanderthal DNA, the specimen seemed to have one parent from each hominin group. But there was another possibility: Denny's parents could have belonged to a population of Denisovan–Neanderthal hybrids.
    To work out which of these options was more likely, the researchers examined sites in the genome where Neanderthal and Denisovan genetics differ. At each of these locations, they compared fragments of Denny's DNA to the genomes of the two ancient hominins. In more than 40% of cases, one of the DNA fragments matched the Neanderthal genome, whereas the other matched that of a Denisovan, suggesting that she had acquired one set of chromosomes from a Neanderthal and the other from a Denisovan. That made it clear that Denny was the direct offspring of two distinct humans, says Paabo. “We’d almost caught these people in the act.”
发表于 2018-8-23 13:14 | 显示全部楼层
我用百度翻译了下
根据对一块在西伯利亚洞穴中发现的骨骼的基因组分析,一位大约90000年前死亡的女性是半个尼安德特人,半个丹尼索瓦人。这是科学家首次鉴定出其父母属于不同人类群体的远古个体。这些发现发表在8月22日的《自然》杂志上。

··················

该小组由德国莱比锡马克斯·普朗克进化人类学研究所的古生物学家维维安·斯隆和斯万特·帕博带领,对从俄罗斯阿尔泰山的丹尼索瓦洞穴中找到的单个骨碎片进行了基因组分析。

··················

帕博的研究小组在几年前首次发现了丹尼的遗骸,他们搜集了2000多块不明的骨骼碎片,寻找人类蛋白质的迹象。在2016年的一篇论文中,他们用放射性碳年代测定法确定这块骨头属于生活在50000多年前的人类(年代测定技术的上限;根据Paabo的说法,随后的基因分析将样本置于90000年前)。然后他们测序了样本的线粒体DNA——在细胞的能量转换器中发现的DNA——并将这些数据与其他古代人类的序列进行比较。分析表明,标本的线粒体DNA来自尼安德特人。

··················

在最新的研究中,研究小组试图通过测序样本的基因组,并将其DNA的变异与另外三个原始人——尼安德特人和丹尼索瓦人(两者都发现于丹尼索瓦洞穴)以及现代非洲人——进行比较,来更清楚地了解样本的祖先。样本中约40%的DNA片段与尼安德特人的DNA相匹配,但另外40%个与Denisovan相匹配。通过对性染色体的测序,研究人员还确定片段来自女性,骨骼的厚度表明她至少13岁。

用等量的Denisovan和尼安德特人DNA,样本似乎有一个父母从每个人群。但是还有另一种可能:丹尼的父母可能属于丹尼索万和尼安德特人的杂交后代。

为了找出这些选择中哪一个更有可能,研究人员检查了尼安德特人和丹尼索瓦人基因不同的基因组位点。在每一个地点,他们比较了丹尼的DNA片段和两个古人类的基因组。在40%以上的病例中,其中一个DNA片段与尼安德特人的基因组匹配,而另一个与丹尼索瓦人的基因组匹配,这表明她从尼安德特人那里获得了一组染色体,而另一个则从丹尼索瓦人那里获得了一组染色体。这表明丹尼是两个不同的人类的直接后代,Paabo说。“我们几乎在行动中抓住了这些人。”
发表于 2018-8-23 13:14 | 显示全部楼层
hehe, really interesting…
发表于 2018-8-23 13:19 | 显示全部楼层
女的话,怎么知道父亲是哪个人群呢。
发表于 2018-8-23 13:21 | 显示全部楼层
Viviane Slon et al.
Published: 22 August 2018
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0455-x

Abstract:  Neanderthals and Denisovans are extinct groups of hominins that separated from each other more than 390,000 years ago.  ...
cpan0256 发表于 2018-8-23 11:11
.
    did they really separate from each other ever since? hehe~
发表于 2018-8-23 13:45 | 显示全部楼层
Viviane Slon et al.
Published: 22 August 2018
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0455-x

…. The mother came from a population more closely related to Neanderthals who lived later in Europe than to an earlier Neanderthal found in Denisova Cave, suggesting that migrations of Neanderthals between eastern and western Eurasia occurred sometime after 120,000 years ago. The finding … suggests that mixing between Late Pleistocene hominin groups was common when they met. ...
cpan0256 发表于 2018-8-23 11:11
.
       特朗普与云谢步估计会哭晕在御手洗…
发表于 2018-8-23 13:53 | 显示全部楼层
The team, led by palaeogeneticists Viviane Slon and Svante Paabo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology ...
cpan0256 发表于 2018-8-23 11:39


.   
     马普所的aDNA技术的确实至名归,令人佩服! 老将Paabo亦是老当益壮,令人佩服吖~
发表于 2018-8-23 14:19 | 显示全部楼层
女的话,怎么知道父亲是哪个人群呢。
大凌河 发表于 2018-8-23 13:19



e应该是排除法,她的mt是尼人…
发表于 2018-8-23 14:24 | 显示全部楼层
11# imvivi001

仔细想想也不对,完全可以父母都是尼人,但是父母都是 尼人和丹人混血,或者父亲是纯尼人,母亲是尼丹混血(但线粒体为尼人线粒体,但常染偏丹人)
发表于 2018-8-23 14:49 | 显示全部楼层
11# imvivi001  

仔细想想也不对,完全可以父母都是尼人,但是父母都是 尼人和丹人混血,或者父亲是纯尼人,母亲是尼丹混血(但线粒体为尼人线粒体,但常染偏丹人)
大凌河 发表于 2018-8-23 14:24
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      你显然没有认真的看原文。关于他的父母是否都是尼人丹人混血这个问题,研究团队专门做了反复的测试,结论是不太可能。
      至于会不会是一方是尼人,另一方是尼人丹人混血? 这个研究团队的数据其实也提供了答案,我先不告诉你,请你自己想一想…
发表于 2018-8-23 18:29 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 lindberg 于 2018-8-23 18:42 编辑

作者还发现,她的母亲是一名尼安德特人,父亲是一名丹尼索瓦人,后者同时也带有部分尼安德特人血统。进一步的遗传分析表明,“丹尼索瓦人11号”的母亲在血源上更接近于比生活在丹尼索瓦洞穴的本地尼安德特族群晚2万年左右、生活在西欧的尼安德特人。

尼人和丹人向阿尔泰地区的迁徙看来是沿着不同的路线。

还有一个可能,欧洲尼人也有可能是阿尔泰迁过去的,和丹11的母系来自于一个族群,这个族群被后来的丹人覆盖了,而更早的阿尔泰尼人也是被之后的人群覆盖的。

丹人和尼人也存在竞争覆盖和融合,和后世的智人一样。
发表于 2018-8-23 21:58 | 显示全部楼层
新闻报导中的示意图:


cpan0256 发表于 2018-8-23 11:27
.

   本次科研成果最令人震撼的是,P教授团队居然发现了有可能是一百万年前的神秘人类远亲的基因,而且这种基因成分居然传给了咱们东亚人~~
发表于 2018-8-23 22:08 | 显示全部楼层
古人类活动受天气影响极大,温暖期时人口扩张,活动范围大,人种之间容易相遇的几率大。

等到天气转寒冷,活动范围小,一个自然环境较好的小范围内的人群会进行优胜劣汰(有可能会融合),由于时间长和其他地区的人类发生基因隔离。
发表于 2018-8-23 23:39 | 显示全部楼层
.
      你显然没有认真的看原文。关于他的父母是否都是尼人丹人混血这个问题,研究团队专门做了反复的测试,结论是不太可能。
      至于会不会是一方是尼人,另一方是尼人丹人混血? 这个研究团队的数据其实也提 ...
imvivi001 发表于 2018-8-23 14:49
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   修正一下,这句话说的不严谨,因为她那个来自东亚的丹人父亲其实是混有一些尼人血统的,尽管极少,不过大体上可以视为一个‘纯种的’丹人~
发表于 2018-8-24 00:00 | 显示全部楼层
.

   本次科研成果最令人震撼的是,P教授团队居然发现了有可能是一百万年前的神秘人类远亲的基因,而且这种基因成分居然传给了咱们东亚人~~
imvivi001 发表于 2018-8-23 21:58

不过这种百万年前的古人基因是通过传给丹尼索瓦人再传给东亚人的,丹尼索瓦人也通过尼安德特人再把这种百万年前的古人基因传给欧洲人
发表于 2018-8-24 00:13 | 显示全部楼层
18# lll
估计传给现代欧洲人的比例极低(目前算法恐怕还无法观测到,那个4万年前的罗马尼亚古人就不好说,期待更新的科研数据),但是传给现代东亚人的应该现在就可以观测到,如果跑一次f3或f4的话~
发表于 2018-8-24 06:46 | 显示全部楼层
19# imvivi001 这个一百万年前的未知古人类基因有没有可能是来自北京人那样的东亚古直立人?
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