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蓝海人类学在线 Ryan WEI's Forum of Anthropology

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从语言的角度看神州人群的形成

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发表于 2018-10-3 11:41 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

【编者注】 广义的“神州”大致包括中国上古传说《山海经》所指的大部分疆域(暂时不包括日本列岛)。在这个广袤的疆域上,存在着众多不同类型的语言,首当其冲,自然是人口规模最巨的汉白语(可能也包括土家语)、其次是壮侗语与藏缅语,再其次是苗瑶语、阿尔泰-通古斯语。人数较少的还有南岛语、朝鲜语与南亚语(尽管南岛语最终成为东亚语言中扩张最成功的语言)。

        本楼重新回顾一下早先国际语言学界主流专家的观点,他们从语言学的角度,多年孜孜不倦地探求神州人群的形成过程,今日看来,尽管存在一些明显的缺陷,但是依然是具有很大的启发性与参考价值的。



原标题:Stratification in the peopling of China: how far does the linguistic evidence match genetics and
archaeology?

作者:Roger Blench、Mallam Dendo、
http://www.rogerblench.info/RBOP.htm

1. Introduction
1.1 The problem: synthesising linguistics, archaeology and genetics

The concept of synthesising linguistics, archaeology and genetics in the reconstruction of the past is becoming a commonplace; but the reality is that each discipline largely pursues its own methods and what little interaction there is remains marginal. Hence many of the questions asked are internal to
the discipline, addressed to colleagues, not the larger sphere of understanding the past. China and East Asia in general are a particularly difficult case because so much of the linguistics and archaeology is driven by an emphasis on high culture. Major archaeological texts refer neither to linguistics nor
genetics and speculation about the identity of non–Chinese groups mentioned in the texts tends to be unanchored.  In addition, ideology surrounding the definition of minorities in China has confused the analysis in genetics papers. This situation has begun to change and a review of the current situation may be useful1
.
Figure 1. Elements in reconstructing China’s prehistory
中国-人群-形成-blench.png



What populations underlay the Sinitic/ Han Chinese?
The underlying population was probably ethnolinguistically highly diverse but would have consisted of Tungusic-Koreanic speakers in the North, Hmong-Mien in the centre, intertwined with other SinoTibetan groups, and Austroasiatic and Austronesian speakers in the south. There may well have been
more language isolates, especially in coastal areas representing the type of phylic diversity seen in Siberia. In the far northwest, where Chinese expansion is more recent, there would have been at least two different resident Indo-European groups.

Where next?
The paper sets out recent evidence for the distribution of the different language phyla in China and their possible archaeological and genetic correlates. But: ‰
The linkage between archaeological cultures and ethnolinguistic groupings remains sketchy.
The antiquity of these groupings is highly controversial.
The internal classification of Sino-Tibetan is very unsettled, although this is essential to making a rational model.
  Genetics input has been more effective a higher levels in establishing the overall affinities of the mainland populations and less in terms of particular language phyla. Indeed the evidence is that genetic variation is determined more by geography than by linguistic affiliation. This is probably to be expected, given the high levels of interaction between languages.

The reasons for this are:
‰ Historical linguistics has a very long way to go, especially in reconstructing lexical items that could be linked to subsistence and thence to archaeology. Some phyla remain very poorly served [and it is common for unsubstantiated proto-forms to be published].
‰ Archaeology remains very patchy with some areas well-known, others not.
‰ Genetics seems to be solving some large-scale problems about human settlement of the region. But it is difficult to know whether it can contribute to the problems of the interface of linguistics and archaeology. More reliable sampling frames would help.

     Genetics and archaeology are proceeding apace in China and the coming years are likely to generate significant new data which will certainly clarify some of the issues raised in this chapter.

Microsoft Word - Blench Geneva third revision.doc  http://www.rogerblench.info/Lang ... 202004%20submit.pdf
发表于 2018-10-10 18:11 | 显示全部楼层
进来膜拜一下英文大神。建议最好是翻译一下,不然这26个字母和一半单词虽然都认识,但排列组合在一起就不认识了。
 楼主| 发表于 2018-10-10 18:26 | 显示全部楼层
鹧鸪天 发表于 2018-10-10 18:11
进来膜拜一下英文大神。建议最好是翻译一下,不然这26个字母和一半单词虽然都认识,但排列组合在一起就不认 ...

这个是给具有一定语言学基础的票友做参考的,考虑到内容较多,以后有时间再慢慢解释给入门者…
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