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贝加尔湖7000年前新石器时代采集-狩猎人群的mtDNA

Journal of Archaeological Science 32 (2005) 619–634

Matrilineal affinities and prehistoric Siberian mortuary practices:a case study from Neolithic Lake Baikal

K.P. Moodera,*, A.W. Weberb, F.J. Bamfortha, A.R. Lieversec, T.G. Schurrd, V.I. Bazaliiskie, N.A. Savel’eve

Abstract
The ‘Lokomotiv’ cemetery in the Lake Baikal region of Siberia is considered to be the largest Neolithic cemetery in North Asia.
A large degree of mortuary variability has been documented at Lokomotiv including striking differences in grave architecture, body
treatment and grave good assemblages. The purpose of this study is to understand whether observed mortuary variability at
Lokomotiv was used to indicate differential biological affinity for those buried in this cemetery. To answer this, we compared the
distribution of matrilineally-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers retrieved from Lokomotiv skeletal remains against
various lines of archaeological evidence. Using a combined strategy of coding-region SNP and HVI sequence detection, we were able
to produce mtDNA profiles for 31 of 37 Lokomotiv individuals. Our results to date suggest that while matrilineal affinities did not
overtly shape the spatial organisation of Lokomotiv, they may have influenced the type of grave one was interred in and in certain
cases, the type of mortuary treatment given to an individual. The most compelling differences in matrilineal affinity were found
between group grave and single grave burials in one cluster of the cemetery and evoke a notion of intra-community power structure
shaped by matrilineally-ascribed group membership. The findings from this study will be further explored with future enhancements
to the archaeological and biological datasets for Lokomotiv as well as a contemporaneous Baikal region cemetery known as
Shamanka II. In doing so, we hope to further illuminate the social complexities governing these prehistoric Siberian communities.


发表, 阅读
Summary of Lokomotiv mtDNA and molecular sexing data.jpg
当时明月在,曾照彩云归
附图是这个新石器时代西伯利亚最大的墓葬各个区域的mtDNA分布。
可见,在当时西部欧亚的mtDNA的单倍群在人群中的比例极低。其中F的比例也极高,远高与现在的当地人群。这应该代表着历史上的迁徙事件。
此时,蒙古-通古斯一系的人群尚未西迁,他们的mtDNA单倍群C在这个墓葬中的人群几乎没有。

mtDNA D5的年代比D4早,但是相对分布在内陆地区,其最深的分支出现在古亚细亚人 Tubalar人中。这表明Y-SNP N系人群北上直到贝加尔湖期间,融合了原有的居民的mtDNA D5,并且在迁往北欧以后,D5和Z1成为遗传漂变之后仅存的mtDNA单倍群。
MtDNA haplogroup distribution by Lokomotiv cemetery sector.jpg
当时明月在,曾照彩云归
Shorians绍尔人和Ket人聚类,根据原始数据可以看出,完全是因为mtDNA 单倍群F的原因。



此外,Ust-ida还有23%(5例)的未判定类型。未判定的原因:

有2例在16311f发生了T to C 的突变,因此可能是H,A, D5, K, R, U4, U5a, and U5b,但是在已测的其他位点没有突变,因此排除其他并剩下H, R, or U4,这位着他们的mtDNA是西部欧亚类型。但因为Ror U4的判决位点在已测位点范围之外,因此没有最终判定具体是哪一单倍群。

另2例与同一遗址的G2a有相同的HVI Motif,但没有编码区突变,因此未能判定。

还有1例,根据编码区突变,属于M,有可能是G4和其他M下未知单倍群。

总的看来,Lokomotiv后期直至Ust-ida时期,发生了很大的人口结构变化,并持续到Eygin-Gol时代。我想,这就是Eygin-Gol中R1a1的来源。



从下图使用各个时期的mtDNA分布来看,800年间确实发生了一定程度的人口替换,其标志是后期东部起源的C 大比例增加(0%至28%)和西欧类型U5a的出现。 导致后来的Ust-ida人群和匈奴时代Eygin-Gol人群聚类,并且与 Lokomotiv分离。
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看别的文献,看到了以下引文:

Ishida and Dodo(1996)颅骨测量学的研究中关于面部扁平度的分析显示:阿尔泰和贝加尔湖西岸地区人群的面部扁平度随时间的不同而变化。新石器时代这一地区的人群面部非常扁平,到了青铜时代开始变得突起,而在早期铁器时代这一地区的人群面部又变得扁平起来。这暗示了在青铜时代来自欧洲的人群迁徙到了这里,甚至到达蒙古西部和中国,并与当地的居民发生了融合。

Ishida H and Dodo Y.1996.Cranial morphology of the Siberians and east Asians. In : Prehistoric Mongoloid Dispersals,eds.Akazawa T.&Szathmary,
EJE(Oxford Univ.Press,Oxford).pp:113-124.
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早期相关的一篇文章:


Anthropol Anz. 1998 Mar;56(1):1-6.

Siberian population of the New Stone Age: mtDNA haplotype diversity in the ancient population from the Ust'-Ida I burial ground, dated 4020-3210 BC by 14C.

Naumova O Y et al.

On the basis of analysis of mtDNA from skeletal remains, dated by 14C 4020-3210 BC, from the Ust'-Ida I Neolithic burial ground in Cis-Baikal area of Siberia, we obtained genetic characteristics of the ancient Mongoloid population. Using the 7 restriction enzymes for the analysis of site's polymorphism in 16,106-16,545 region of mtDNA, we studied the structure of the most frequent DNA haplotypes, and estimated the intrapopulational nucleotide diversity of the Neolithic population. Comparison of the Neolithic and modern indigeneous populations from Siberia, Mongolia and Ural showed, that the ancient Siberian population is one of the ancestors of the modern population of Siberia. From genetic distance, in the assumption of constant nucleotide substitution rate, we estimated the divergence time between the Neolithic and the modern Siberian population. This divergence time (5572 years ago) is conformed to the age of skeletal remains (5542-5652 years). With use of the 14C dates of the skeletal remains, nucleotide substitution rate in mtDNA was estimated as 1% sequence divergence for 8938-9115 years.
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