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东亚人群起源的常染分析

Use of autosomal loci for clustering individuals and populations
of East Asian origin
Jong-Jin Kim Æ Paul Verdu Æ Andrew J. Pakstis
William C. Speed Æ Judith R. Kidd Æ Kenneth K. Kidd
Abstract We studied the genetic relationships among
East Asian populations based on allele frequency differences
to clarify the relative similarities of East Asian
populations with a specific focus on the relationships
among the Koreans, the Japanese, and the Chinese
populations known to be genetically similar. The goal is
to find markers appropriate for differentiating among
the specific populations. In this study, no prior data
existed for Koreans and the markers were selected to
differentiate Chinese and Japanese. We typed, using AB
TaqMan assays, single-nucleotide polymorphisms
(SNPs) at 43 highly selected mostly independent diallelic
sites, on 386 individuals from eight East Asian populations
(Han Chinese from San Francisco, Han Chinese
from Taiwan, Hakka, Koreans, Japanese, Ami, Atayal,
and Cambodians) and one Siberian population (Yakut).
We inferred group membership of individuals using a
model-based clustering method implemented by the
STRUCTURE program and population clustering by
using computer programs DISTANCE, NEIGHBOR,
LSSEARCH, and DRAWTREE, respectively, calculating
genetic distances among populations, calculating
neighbor-joining and least-squares trees, and drawing
the calculated trees. On average 52% of individuals in
the three Chinese groups were assigned into one cluster,
and, respectively, 78 and 69% of Koreans and Japanese
into a different cluster. Koreans differentiated from the
Chinese groups and clustered with the Japanese in the
principal component analysis (PCA) and in the best
least-squares tree. The majority of Koreans were difficult
to distinguish from the Japanese. This study shows that
a relatively few highly selected markers can, within
limits, differentiate between closely related populations.

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