返回列表 回复 发帖

转:PNAS:平等如何在人类中间进化

转自生物谷:
http://www.bioon.com/biology/Ecology/528177.shtml

作者:美国国家科学院 来源:美国国家科学院 2012-8-15 16:58:25
分享到: 0

关键词: 利他主义 社会等级
人类对平等的渴望的普遍性提示,这是一种古老的人类模式,但是它是如何进化的,则仍然是一个谜。Sergey Gavrilets使用一个数学模型探索了人类为何会结伙对抗威胁。在有强大的社会等级的动物群体中,高等级的个体比低等级的个体获得更多更好的资源,并且倾向于在交配的成功方面更有优势。这项研究揭示出,与其他人受到的的威胁作斗争——这是一种利他主义——对提供帮助者有风险,但是从长远来看能获得回报。如果适应度是根据一个个体相对于其他个体掌握的资源数量衡量的,提供帮助者将会通过确保大家的资源保持平等而获益,而当平等由全体成员强化的时候,群体层次上的平等将会发展。这组作者提出,一旦平等的倾向在基因中有了很好的基础,这些倾向可能被文化规范扩大。所提出的这种机制并不需要亲缘、群体选择、互惠或名声,而且它通过同盟的形成促进了合作,这在人类的许多层次中出现。(生物谷Bioon.com)

On the evolutionary origins of the egalitarian syndrome
Sergey Gavrilets
The evolutionary emergence of the egalitarian syndrome is one of the most intriguing unsolved puzzles related to the origins of modern humans. Standard explanations and models for cooperation and altruism—reciprocity, kin and group selection, and punishment—are not directly applicable to the emergence of egalitarian behavior in hierarchically organized groups that characterized the social life of our ancestors. Here I study an evolutionary model of group-living individuals competing for resources and reproductive success. In the model, the differences in fighting abilities lead to the emergence of hierarchies where stronger individuals take away resources from weaker individuals and, as a result, have higher reproductive success. First, I show that the logic of within-group competition implies under rather general conditions that each individual benefits if the transfer of the resource from a weaker group member to a stronger one is prevented. This effect is especially strong in small groups. Then I demonstrate that this effect can result in the evolution of a particular, genetically controlled psychology causing individuals to interfere in a bully–victim conflict on the side of the victim. A necessary condition is a high efficiency of coalitions in conflicts against the bullies. The egalitarian drive leads to a dramatic reduction in within-group inequality. Simultaneously it creates the conditions for the emergence of inequity aversion, empathy, compassion, and egalitarian moral values via the internalization of behavioral rules imposed by natural selection. It also promotes widespread cooperation via coalition formation.
这中文翻译得。
O3a3c* (M134+, M117-)
可能是机器翻译的,汉英机器翻译可能还需要若干年攻关才行,不过这篇文章讨论的现象很有意思~
物格而后知至,知至而后意诚,意诚而后心正,心正而后身修,身修而后家齐,家齐而后国治,国治而后天下平...
翻译就是一种创造!优秀的翻译家肯定是优秀的词汇发明者
返回列表
baidu
互联网 www.ranhaer.org