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洋流作为地球上最大的空调,戏剧性的转变,会带来翻天覆地的变化。谁知道末次冰期北极是什么样的气候呢?能支持很多种大型食草动物,起码植被不能太稀疏,冬季也不能完全被冰雪盖住。所有的研究都是管窥蠡测,已知的小圈子之外是未知的海洋。


Dramatic switch in the Earth's oceans 15,000 years ago released large amounts of CO2 that warmed the planet and ended the last Ice Age

  • Changes in the circulation of the North Pacific released huge amounts of CO2
  • This warmed up our planet enough to end the last Ice Age, new study finds
  • Ocean currents in the North Atlantic are currently slowing down
  • Study could help scientists predict how this will affect greenhouse gas levels
By Harry Pettit For Mailonline

Published: 16:02 BST, 23 April 2018 | Updated: 16:54 BST, 23 April 2018


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A switch in the movement of Earth's oceans 15,000 years ago helped end the last Ice Age, according to a team of British scientists.
Changes in the circulation of the North Pacific Ocean released large amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, helping warm the planet, researchers found.
Ocean currents in the North Atlantic are slowing down, and the new research could help scientists predict how this will affect Earth's greenhouse gas levels.
An injection of carbon dioxide into our atmosphere could accelerate the effects of climate change, drastically rising the planet's surface temperature.
Scroll down for video

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Changes in the circulation of the North Pacific Ocean released large amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, helping warm the planet and end the last Ice Age 15,000 years ago. Pictured is the circulation flow of Earth's oceans

Study lead author Dr Will Gray, from the University of St Andrews, said: 'Last week we saw worrying new studies showing us the ocean currents in the North Atlantic are slowing down.
'In our study we see very rapid changes in the climate of the North Pacific that we think are linked to past changes in ocean currents in the Atlantic.
'This gives us an example of the way that different parts of the climate system are connected, so that changes in circulation in one region can drive changes in CO2 and oxygen all the way over on the other side of the planet.
'The North Pacific Ocean is very big and just below the surface the waters are brimming with CO2; because of this, we really need to understand how this region can change in the future, and looking into the past is a good way to do that.'


Researchers at the University of St Andrews in Scotland measured the chemical composition of the shells of tiny fossil plankton called foraminifera.
They used to these measurements to reconstruct the exchange of CO2 between the North Pacific Ocean and atmosphere at the end of the last Ice Age.

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Researchers measured the chemical composition of the shells of tiny fossil plankton called foraminifera (stock image). They used to these measurements to reconstruct the exchange of CO2 between the North Pacific Ocean and atmosphere at the end of the last Ice Age

They found the North Pacific released large amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere about 15,000 years ago, a time when ocean currents in the Atlantic were also changing rapidly.
The new study also found that the changes in circulation resulted in a reduction of the amount of oxygen in the deep ocean.
Findings showed that the release of CO2 by the North Pacific was caused by a change in its circulation.
This ciruclation shift could also explain a drop in oxygen levels in the Pacific Ocean seen at the same time.
WHAT IS THE GLOBAL OCEAN CONVEYOR BELT?When it comes to regulating global climate, the circulation of the Atlantic Ocean plays a key role.
This is due to a constantly moving system of deep-water circulation often referred to as the Global Ocean Conveyor Belt which sends warm, salty Gulf Stream water to the North Atlantic where it releases heat to the atmosphere and warms Western Europe.
The cooler water then sinks to great depths and travels all the way to Antarctica and eventually circulates back up to the Gulf Stream.

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When it comes to regulating global climate, the circulation of the Atlantic Ocean plays a key role

This motion is fuelled by thermohaline currents - a combination of temperature and salt.
It takes 1,000 years for water to complete a continuous journey around the world.
Researchers believe that as the North Atlantic began to warm near the end of the Little Ice Age, freshwater disrupted the system, called the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).
Arctic sea ice, and ice sheets and glaciers surrounding the Arctic began to melt, forming a huge natural tap of fresh water that gushed into the North Atlantic.
This huge influx of freshwater diluted the surface seawater, making it lighter and less able to sink deep, slowing down the AMOC system.
Researchers found the AMOC has been weakening more rapidly since 1950 in response to recent global warming.

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Scientists are observing a similar loss of oxygen from the ocean as the climate changes today.
Study co-author Dr James Rae, also from the University of St Andrews, said: 'Although the CO2 rise caused by this process was dramatic in geological terms, it happened very slowly compared to modern man-made CO2 rise.
'Humans have driven CO2 rise in the atmosphere as large as the CO2 rise that helped end the last Ice Age, but the man-made CO2 rise has happened 100 times faster.


Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5647665/Earths-oceans-released-CO2-15-000-years-ago-warmed-planet-ended-Ice-Age.html#ixzz5DfFS5MLG
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欧美的光明会与共济会,虽然历史上偶尔有过交集,但根本不是一回事。



共济会吸纳世界各族的精英、尊古埃及几何学(尺规)为师。     光明会则是从古波斯拜火教一些极端派系演变成,以鹰翼为徽标,是名符其实的鹰派。





光明会信奉古雅利安的人种优越论,强调种族阶级、生存空间,排斥甚至企图消灭其他人种文明。



3K党、纳粹 都是光明会的壳,最终都被共济会压下去。
2# Pechenegs

这篇报道证实了我写《龙华起信论》之前的一个想法,这个想法包含在本人的史前研究中。本人通过好读书不求甚解,唯观大略而后深思熟虑冥思苦想,得出一个研究观点,就是史前人类人口迁徙最初主要是由西往东,由非洲到澳洲、美洲(出非洲都好几次),但人类文明却是由东往西,由巽他到欧洲,再到美洲(后来在临海岛屿大陆架上产生了亚特兰蒂斯文明),再到亚洲,再到印度、中东、欧洲,尤其是历史上的上帝之鞭,促使近代欧洲文明蜕变,然后又来个航海大发现,西进美洲,侵略亚洲、澳洲、非洲,这种文明冲击波也有好几度。如同潮汐,顺时针逆时针,阴阳大道,冥冥中如有天机。

写《龙华起信论》之前,我本想写一部更加包容涵盖囊括的书,从人类起源开始,思索人体独特机能和情感文化的演进,一直论述到人类文明各要素各古代文明的缘起和关系而止。论证方法也打算更多运用自然科学理论和实例,语言文化研究只是作为最后的补充论证。当时就考虑过冰期索虏特人沿北大西洋冰架迁徙美洲的可能性(Solutrean——肃慎(徐无申、许兀申)——索虏——梭罗)。但咱既不是什么家,也不算对口业,不伦不类,也谈不上有自己实际拿出手的证据,对于西洋考古学、基因学来说,咱的“研究认识”应算空想不算科学发现(其实俺也鄙夷类似马可死氏的“科研”,若非穷极无奈,咱还是希望干“实事”而求是的),不足道哉。雕虫考据,纯属务虚,拾人牙慧以夸夸其谈,非我所欲,标新立异而哗众取宠,本心必拒!

其实寻章摘句,我只看大略摘要而已,很少看整篇文献与报道,虽然除了个别生词和专业图表词汇,一般文献我能看懂,但是学习欲望不强,真正浑浑噩噩,还自命为“混沌学研究方法”。看到这篇报道不长,有人提出要求楼主没接着,我来了精神头儿,使出劲儿翻译这篇小文,可还是用了很长时间。希望对读英文吃力者有所帮助。如有翻译不当处,或如有疑问,愿内行人士不吝赐教,回复则个。

New archaeological evidence suggests that America was first discovered by Stone Age people from Europe – 10,000 years before the Siberian-originating ancestors of the American Indians set foot in the New World.
新考古证据认为在石器时代美洲是被从欧洲来的人率先发现的,早于现今印第安人的西伯利亚祖先落脚到美洲大陆一万年。


A remarkable series of several dozen European-style stone tools, dating back between 19,000 and 26,000 years, have been discovered at six locations along the US east coast. Three of the sites are on the Delmarva Peninsular in Maryland, discovered by archaeologist Dr Darrin Lowery of the University of Delaware. One is in Pennsylvania and another in Virginia. A sixth was discovered by scallop-dredging fishermen on the seabed 60 miles from the Virginian coast on what, in prehistoric times, would have been dry land.
The new discoveries are among the most important archaeological breakthroughs for several decades - and are set to add substantially to our understanding of humanity's spread around the globe.

时间早到1900026000年前的几十件明显带有欧洲风格的石器,在美国东海岸六个地点被发现。其中三处在马里兰州Delmarva半岛,由Delaware大学的考古博士Darrin Lowery发现,宾夕法尼亚州和弗吉尼亚州也各发现一处。第六个地点由捕捞扇贝的渔民在弗吉尼亚海岸线以东60英里的海床上发现——这里在史前应该是陆地。这些新发现属于几十年来最重要考古发现之列,对于我们探索人类全球迁徙史有实质意义。


The similarity between other later east coast US and European Stone Age stone tool technologies has been noted before. But all the US European-style tools, unearthed before the discovery or dating of the recently found or dated US east coast sites, were from around 15,000 years ago - long after Stone Age Europeans (the Solutrean cultures of France and Iberia) had ceased making such artefacts. Most archaeologists had therefore rejected any possibility of a connection. But the newly-discovered and recently-dated early Maryland and other US east coast Stone Age tools are from between 26,000 and 19,000 years ago - and are therefore contemporary with the virtually identical western European material.

以前就已经发现了年代晚些的北美东海岸与欧洲石器工艺的相似性。不过所有那些美洲欧式工具(此次之前出土的,最新测年研究的,已测年遗址)只是15000年前左右的——远晚于石器时代欧洲(法国和伊比利亚的Solutrean文化)类似手艺品消失时代。许多考古学家因此拒绝认可二者间有联系。不过马里兰及美国东海岸新发现并测年的这些石器工具是2600019000年之前的——也就是与西欧同类物品乃是同时代的。


What’s more, chemical analysis carried out last year on a European-style stone knife found in Virginia back in 1971 revealed that it was made of French-originating flint.

进一步的,去年化学分析结果表明1971年在弗吉尼亚州发现的欧式石刀是用法国产的燧石打造的。


Professor Dennis Stanford, of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington DC, and Professor Bruce Bradley of the University of Exeter, the two leading archaeologists who have analysed all the evidence, are proposing that Stone Age people from Western Europe migrated to North America at the height of the Ice Age by travelling (over the ice surface and/or by boat) along the edge of the frozen northern part of the Atlantic. They are presenting their detailed evidence in a new book - Across Atlantic Ice – published this month.

华盛顿Smithsonian学院Dennis Stanford教授和Exeter大学的Bruce Bradley
教授这俩考古界领袖人物分析了所有证据,提出冰河时代人类自西欧沿北大西洋冰封海域南缘经冰盖或船到达北美。他们在本月出版的合著新书《Across Atlantic Ice(冰坚可渡大西洋)》中列出了他们的详细证据。


At the peak of the Ice Age, around three million square miles of the North Atlantic was covered in thick ice for all or part of the year.

冰期鼎盛点,在北大西洋大概有300万平方英里整年或一年中部分时间被厚冰覆盖。


However, the seasonally shifting zone where the ice ended and the open ocean began would have been extremely rich in food resources – migrating seals, sea birds, fish and the now-extinct northern hemisphere penguin-like species, the great auk.

不管怎样,随季节变化的冰海交界处或许曾经富有食物资源——迁徙性的海豹、海鸟、鱼和今已灭绝的北半球企鹅样的大海雀。


Stanford and Bradley have long argued that Stone Age humans were quite capable of making the 1500 mile journey across the Atlantic ice - but till now there was comparatively little evidence to support their thinking.

Stanford Bradley 长期就冰河时代石器人类从大西洋冰上完成1500英里旅行的能力进行探讨——至今只有相当少证据支持他们的想法。


But the new Maryland, Virginia and other US east coast material, and the chemical tests on the Virginian flint knife, have begun to transform the situation. Now archaeologists are starting to investigate half a dozen new sites in Tennessee, Maryland and even Texas – and these locations are expected to produce more evidence.

不过马里兰、弗吉尼亚与美国东海岸其他地方新发现的这些物品,以及马里兰燧石刀的化学检测,正开始改变这个形势。现在考古学家正准备对六处分别位于田纳西州、马里兰州甚至德克萨斯州的新地点进行调查——这些地点有望提供更多证据。


Another key argument for Stanford and Bradley’s proposal is the complete absence of any human activity in north-east Siberia and Alaska prior to around 15,500 years ago. If the Maryland and other east coast people of 26,000 to 19,000 years ago had come from Asia, not Europe, early material, dating from before 19,000 years ago, should have turned up in those two northern areas, but none have been found.

Stanford Bradley的观点中另一个争论的关键点是西伯利亚东北部和阿拉斯加在15500年之前毫无人迹。若马里兰及美国东海岸2600019000年之前的人们来自亚洲,而不是欧洲,早于19000年的文物应当在上述两处北方地区出现,但至今毫无发现。


Although Solutrean Europeans may well have been the first Americans, they had a major disadvantage compared to the Asian-originating Indians who entered the New World via the Bering Straits or along the Aleutian Islands chain after 15,500 years ago.

虽然欧洲Solutrean人可能是首批美洲人,但他们比15500年前起经过白令海峡或阿留申岛链来到新大陆的亚洲系印第安人有一个主要劣势。


Whereas the Solutreans had only had a 4500 year long ‘Ice Age’ window to carry out their migratory activity, the Asian-originating Indians had some 15,000 years to do it. What’s more, the latter two-thirds of that 15 millennia long period was climatologically much more favourable and substantially larger numbers of Asians were therefore able to migrate.

冰河时代Solutrean人只有4500年的时间间隔可以进行那种迁徙,而亚洲系印第安人却有15000年时间之久都可以迁徙。更进一步说,后者那15000年之久的时间段还有三分之二都是气候更适宜的时光,使得相对数量更多的亚洲人便于迁徙而来。


As a result of these factors the Solutrean (European originating) Native Americans were either partly absorbed by the newcomers or were substantially obliterated by them either physically or through competition for resources.

因此通过体力竞争或资源竞争的方式,欧洲来的Solutrean系美洲人不是被新来者部分消化吸收就是被他们清扫抹除。


Some genetic markers for Stone Age western Europeans simply don’t exist in north- east Asia – but they do in tiny quantities among some north American Indian groups. Scientific tests on ancient DNA extracted from 8000 year old
from Florida have revealed a high level of a  key probable European-originating genetic marker. There are also a tiny number of  isolated Native American groups whose languages appear not to be related in any way to Asian-originating American  Indian peoples.

石器时代亚洲东北角没有某些西欧类型的人类基因标记是很简单的逻辑,但是北美土著却有少量这种基因。对佛罗里达州出土的8000年历史的骨骼的古DNA 的提取检测显示一种极可能是欧洲来源的基因标记高水平出现。现在还有很少量美洲土著群体的语言表现得与亚洲系印第安人八杆子打不着关系。


But the greatest amount of evidence is likely to come from under the ocean – for most of the areas where the Solutreans would have stepped off the Ice onto dry land are now up to 100 miles out to sea.

不过最大部分的证据似乎在大洋里面——Solutrean人离冰登陆的可能之地大部分都在离岸100英里的海中了。


The one underwater site that has been identified - thanks to the scallop dredgers – is set to be examined in greater detail this summer – either by extreme-depth divers or by remotely operated mini submarines equipped with cameras and grab arms.

那处已经确认水下遗址(感谢捕捞扇贝的渔民)被计划今夏进一步调查,或是采用超深潜水员,或是采用装备了相机和抓取臂的远程操作迷你潜水器。

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