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转: 科学家在印尼发现比"霍比特人"更古老小矮人

本帖最后由 Ryan 于 2016-6-9 20:47 编辑

Nature 534, 249–253 (09 June 2016) doi:10.1038/nature17663        Published online 08 June 2016                                                        

Age and context of the oldest known hominin fossils from Flores

Adam Brumm et al.

Recent excavations at the early Middle Pleistocene site of Mata Menge in the So’a Basin of central Flores, Indonesia, have yielded hominin fossils1 attributed to a population ancestral to Late Pleistocene Homo floresiensis2. Here we describe the age and context of the Mata Menge hominin specimens and associated archaeological findings. The fluvial sandstone layer from which the in situ fossils were excavated in 2014 was deposited in a small valley stream around 700 thousand years ago, as indicated by 40Ar/39Ar and fission track dates on stratigraphically bracketing volcanic ash and pyroclastic density current deposits, in combination with coupled uranium-series and electron spin resonance dating of fossil teeth. Palaeoenvironmental data indicate a relatively dry climate in the So’a Basin during the early Middle Pleistocene, while various lines of evidence suggest the hominins inhabited a savannah-like open grassland habitat with a wetland component. The hominin fossils occur alongside the remains of an insular fauna and a simple stone technology that is markedly similar to that associated with Late Pleistocene H. floresiensis.

发表于:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v534/n7606/full/nature17663.html
人类之子全都是为死而生。
              --------《阙特勤碑》
Nature 534, 245–248 (09 June 2016) doi:10.1038/nature17999

Homo floresiensis-like fossils from the early Middle Pleistocene of Flores
Gerrit D. van den Bergh et al.

The evolutionary origin of Homo floresiensis, a diminutive hominin species previously known only by skeletal remains from Liang Bua in western Flores, Indonesia, has been intensively debated. It is a matter of controversy whether this primitive form, dated to the Late Pleistocene, evolved from early Asian Homo erectus and represents a unique and striking case of evolutionary reversal in hominin body and brain size within an insular environment1, 2, 3, 4. The alternative hypothesis is that H. floresiensis derived from an older, smaller-brained member of our genus, such as Homo habilis, or perhaps even late Australopithecus, signalling a hitherto undocumented dispersal of hominins from Africa into eastern Asia by two million years ago (2 Ma)5, 6. Here we describe hominin fossils excavated in 2014 from an early Middle Pleistocene site (Mata Menge) in the So’a Basin of central Flores. These specimens comprise a mandible fragment and six isolated teeth belonging to at least three small-jawed and small-toothed individuals. Dating to ~0.7 Ma, these fossils now constitute the oldest hominin remains from Flores7. The Mata Menge mandible and teeth are similar in dimensions and morphological characteristics to those of H. floresiensis from Liang Bua. The exception is the mandibular first molar, which retains a more primitive condition. Notably, the Mata Menge mandible and molar are even smaller in size than those of the two existing H. floresiensis individuals from Liang Bua. The Mata Menge fossils are derived compared with Australopithecus and H. habilis, and so tend to support the view that H. floresiensis is a dwarfed descendent of early Asian H. erectus. Our findings suggest that hominins on Flores had acquired extremely small body size and other morphological traits specific to H. floresiensis at an unexpectedly early time.

发表于:
http://www.nature.com/nature/jou ... ll/nature17999.html
人类之子全都是为死而生。
              --------《阙特勤碑》
本帖最后由 Ryan 于 2016-6-9 20:52 编辑

Nature | News

‘Hobbit’ relatives found after ten-year hunt

Jaw and teeth discovered in Indonesia are triumph for team that almost gave up hope.

Ewen Callaway

08 June 2016

配合论文发布的新闻介绍:
http://www.nature.com/news/hobbit-relatives-found-after-ten-year-hunt-1.20045

                 
                 
G. D. van den Bergh et al.
The jaw bone found on Flores is from an adult who was even smaller than the hobbit.
               
        
                                                                                          

化石出土地:
   
人类之子全都是为死而生。
              --------《阙特勤碑》
本帖最后由 Ryan 于 2016-6-9 20:54 编辑

新华网报道:
http://news.xinhuanet.com/world/2016-06/09/c_1119017335.htm

科学家发现比“霍比特人”更古老小矮人2016年06月09日 16:25:09来源:新华社


    新华社伦敦6月8日电(记者张家伟)印度尼西亚岛屿上曾出土引起科学界极大关注的古人类弗洛勒斯人骨骼化石,围绕其演化历史的学术争论一直不断,如今新的考古发现或许能为这一谜团带来新的启示。
  2003年发现的化石显示,成年弗洛勒斯人身高仅110厘米左右,被科学家昵称为“霍比特人”。最新观点认为,他们距今约19万至5万年前生活在印尼弗洛勒斯岛的梁布亚岩洞。
  两个国际团队8日分别在英国《自然》杂志网络版上发表论文说,研究人员在弗洛勒斯岛上新发现了比“霍比特人”年代更久远的古人类骨骼化石,可追溯至大约70万年前。从考古证据推测,这些古人类的体型甚至比“霍比特人”还要矮小。
  来自澳大利亚、日本和印尼的研究人员在第一篇论文中说,他们2014年从距梁布亚岩洞东侧70公里处的苏阿盆地中一处名为马塔门格的地方发现了新的古人类化石。这些化石包含了颌骨碎片和6颗牙齿,至少来自3个小型古人类个体。其中下颌骨碎片来自一名成年人,经分析发现,他比此前发现的最小的“霍比特人”下颌骨还要小20%;牙齿化石则是两名古人类幼童的“乳牙”。
  在第二篇论文中,澳大利亚学者领衔的一个国际团队对这些化石样本进行了深入分析。他们认为,这些古人类当时的生活环境是炎热干燥、类似稀树草原的地区,但也拥有一些湿地环境,与弗洛勒斯人的生活环境类似。
  这个团队说,目前收集的考古学证据还不足以为这次新发现的古人类指定一个分类单元,但基于化石的大小和形状,他们推测这些古老的小矮人或许是“霍比特人”的祖先
  至今,对于梁布亚岩洞中古人类的演化历史还没有一个清晰结论。一个假说认为,他们来自一个身体高大的直立人群落,迁至弗洛勒斯岛后逐渐演化出矮小的身材。
  第一篇论文作者之一、澳大利亚伍伦贡大学学者格里特·范登伯格说,这些小矮人的进化过程非常快,在其他岛屿上还没有找到类似的化石可与之比较。
  研究人员目前推测,直立人抵达这座岛屿后为了适应岛上资源稀缺的环境,在进化过程中不断“缩小”体型。然而,最大的疑问是这些最早的直立人如何抵达这座岛屿?直立人没有建造船只的能力,也不可能游泳游到岛上。一种观点认为,他们可能是被巨浪冲到岛上。
  范登伯格表示,新发现至少排除了“霍比特人”是由于疾病导致体型不断缩小的说法。
人类之子全都是为死而生。
              --------《阙特勤碑》
4# Ryan  人是猴子演变来的?
柱镇僮 发表于 2016-6-10 13:49
你确信不是来搞笑的?
极品猥琐凤凰眼镜生物党棍左棍五毛愤青爱国
eight代 poor农 root正 shoot
确实是来搞娱乐的。
极品猥琐凤凰眼镜生物党棍左棍五毛愤青爱国
eight代 poor农 root正 shoot
直立人抵达这座岛屿并不很难,有大型漂浮物即可,当然人数肯定是很少的,所以造成近亲繁殖有害基因积累身材越来越小.
物变天汰,余者生存
9# 谜雾  佛罗勒斯岛上还有侏儒象与科莫龙,是否可能是跟着龙象共同进化的?
柱镇僮 发表于 2016-6-28 23:26
这些比人类早得多吧,还有近一万年前东南亚很多小岛还有陆生鳄鱼呢.生存到现在就好了.
物变天汰,余者生存
11# 谜雾  Really?作为动物爱好者的我孤陋寡闻了。关于万年前的陆生鳄鱼有什么资料吗?
柱镇僮 发表于 2016-6-29 12:46
这方面资料不多,只知道习性和巨蜥类似.
物变天汰,余者生存
据说是这些小岛在某一时期海水下降时与大岛相连人类抵达,后来海水抬升,留在岛上的人只有个体小食量小的人才生存下来
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