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酒,尖底瓶

本帖最后由 反恐 于 2016-6-21 20:43 编辑

米家崖仰韶文化谷芽酒的科学鉴定问题
发布时间: 2016-05-30


  长期以来有不少学者推测仰韶文化的陶漏斗和尖底瓶与酿酒有关,但缺少科学证据(见包启安、周嘉华主编《酿造》2007,郑州:大象出版社; 李仰松,《我国谷物酿酒起源新论》《考古》1993.6:534-542)。最近我们的研究团队和陕西考古研究院联合发表的关于陕西米家崖仰韶晚期陶器(包括漏斗和尖底瓶)用来酿造谷芽酒的证据,提供了新的科学手段追溯中国酿酒的起源(Wang et al. “Revealing a 5,000-y-old beer recipe in China” ,PNAS 2016)。文章发表后引起了热烈的讨论,其中也包括一些对研究方法和酒的鉴定的疑问。其间有些是关于酒的定义问题,有些是对大麦植硅体鉴定问题。对此我们试作如下解释。

  一.米家崖 “Beer” 是啤酒吗?

  看到文章及媒体加上的青岛啤酒照片,许多中国读者的第一印象是 “5000年前的啤酒配方”。但这是一个误解,是翻译问题。


  中文的“酒”是对含有酒精饮料的总称,相对应的英文是“alcoholic beverage”。根据牛津词典,现代工业体系下的西方的”酒“包括有两大类。第一类是 wine,定义为 “An alcoholic drink made from fermented grape juice”,是从发酵的葡萄汁制成的酒精饮料,即葡萄酒。第二类是beer,定义为 “An alcoholic drink made from yeast-fermented malt flavored with hops”,是从酵母发酵麦芽并加入啤酒花调味而制成的酒精饮料,其主要成分是发酵的麦芽。这两种酒使用不同的原料,运用不同的酿造方法,其早期历史可以追溯到古代埃及和两河流域,而最早的直接证据来自伊朗,年代为3500-2900BC。早期beer并不加啤酒花,质地也很混浊,并未使用现代超细过滤技术。这种早期beer的外观,和现代酒厂生产的瓶装罐装啤酒不可同日而语。


  不少学者根据文献资料已指出,在酒曲酒和更晚的蒸馏酒发明之前,中国古代就已用发芽的谷物酿造谷芽酒,即所谓的蘖法酿醴。这种方法的核心即是依靠发芽谷物中的自然淀粉酶来进行淀粉分解,而非人工酒曲(yeast)。因此,从酿造原理上讲,醴类似于中东地区早期的beer。而现代中文的“啤酒”一词在中国古代并不存在,应为近代对 “beer”的音译。我们在米家崖陶器上测试出的酒应为谷芽酒,而不是现代中文意义上的啤酒。


  也正是由于早期谷芽酒的特殊发酵方式,提供过了通过微植物遗存将其检出的可能性。首先,要用未脱壳的谷物发芽,而后粉碎酿造。如此,酒浆(非酒糟)中会余留有大量谷壳。因此会在米家崖酿酒陶器内壁留下有谷壳植硅体,其中包括有黍和大麦。同时,也由于仅依靠发芽时形成的自然淀粉酶对淀粉进行水解,会造成用于发酵的淀粉分解不完全,最终残留于酒浆。



 二.可以用植硅体鉴定大麦吗?

  本文运用的植硅体鉴定方法在西方已建立较为成熟的体系。从1996年开始,Terry Ball 教授(PNAS 文第三作者)就开始利用形态测量学(morphometric analysis)的方法来鉴定禾本科植物稃壳中的分枝型植硅体(dendritic phytolith)(Ball et al. 1996, 1999, 2009, 2015a, 2015b)。到目前为止,此方法能够较为准确的将大麦与其向邻近的物种区分开来。实验证明,若植硅体样本中的分枝型植硅体包含高于30个可测量的波浪形结构(wave lobe),就有高达90%的置信度来区分数种重要的野生和栽培的小麦族(具体方法见Ball et al. 2015a)。此鉴定方法已成功运用于若干考古遗址的植硅体鉴定工作。例如,Marco Madella et al (2014) 和Welmoed A. Out et al. (2016) 在位于北非距今大约7000年的Ghaba和R12墓葬中鉴定出大麦和小麦的栽培种,将栽培麦类在此区域出现的时间提前了约 500年。


  在对米家崖遗址的植硅体分析中,我们第一次将Terry Ball教授的方法运用至中国的考古材料当中。我们在米家崖的器物组合残留物中发现了大量的分枝型植硅体。我们对6个残留物样品中的115个植硅体进行形态测量学的分析。通过与现代标本对比,我们的发现米家崖分枝型植硅体各类形态数据均与大麦(Hordeum vulgare)相符合。同时,我们也与中国常见的野生小麦族植物进行了对比,包括冰草属、赖草属、鹅观草属、偃麦草属(详见文章的Supporting Information的Table S3至S6),发现有很大差别,故排除了野生种的可能。 我们认为,大麦早期传入中原之时数量较少,且如果最初主要用于酿酒的话,那么相对于日常经灶火炊煮的粟黍来说,被碳化的几率极低,导致至今未发现大植物遗存也并不奇怪。


  其实,类似的形态测量学的植硅体鉴定方法在中国并不陌生。例如,在之前,吕厚远教授的团队成功建立了鉴定粟、黍、狗尾草和稗子植硅体的鉴定方法 (Lu, Zhang, Wu, et al. 2009; Zhang et al. 2011; Ge et al. 2016),并将其有效的用于考古材料中,取得了突破性进展 (Lu et al. 2005; Lu, Zhang, Liu, et al. 2009; Yang et al. 2015)。同时,和大植物相比较,由于微植物的保存概率受环境影响相对较少,微植物遗存早于大植物的例子在在世界其它地区也是屡见不鲜。例如,在中南美较为湿热的雨林地区,大植物保存缺乏。Dolores Piperno和Deborah Pearsall等人的植硅体研究发现了栽培的玉米,早于大植物遗存的发现。这些研究均说明,在缺乏大植物遗存信息的情况下,植硅体分析可以有效并且较为确切提供考古植物遗存种属的鉴定。我们相信,在今后的研究中,随着更多资料的积累,科技方法的创新,以及各领域专家的合作,对大小麦传入中国的途径和动因会有更加全面的理解。



http://www.kaogu.cn/cn/xueshuyanjiu/yanjiuxinlun/kejikaogu/2016/0530/54102.html
过去这一年美国斯坦福大学的一个课的小组作业就是按考古研究得到的陕西米家崖5000年前的酿酒配方试制酒。图中一个学生正在尝她酿成的酒。
ancient-beer.jpg
2017-2-12 02:42
一楼提到的文章:

Revealing a 5,000-y-old beer recipe in China

Jiajing Wang, Li Liu, Terry Ball, Linjie Yu, Yuanqing Li, and Fulai Xing
PNAS  vol. 113 no. 23 6444–6448,  doi: 10.1073/pnas.1601465113

Abstract:  The pottery vessels from the Mijiaya site reveal, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence of in situ beer making in China, based on the analyses of starch, phytolith, and chemical residues. Our data reveal a surprising beer recipe in which broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), Job’s tears (Coix lacryma-jobi), and tubers were fermented together. The results indicate that people in China established advanced beer-brewing technology by using specialized tools and creating favorable fermentation conditions around 5,000 y ago. Our findings imply that early beer making may have motivated the initial translocation of barley from the Western Eurasia into the Central Plain of China before the crop became a part of agricultural subsistence in the region 3,000 y later.

全文链接:http://www.pnas.org/content/113/23/6444.full
二楼照片所出自的海外报纸网站文章。

Would YOU drink 'spit beer' that you chew yourself (and stinks of cheese) or a Chinese brew that looks like porridge? Stanford students recreate 5,000 year old alcohol recipes

--    Stanford students recreated an ancient 5000-year old Chinese beer brew
--    The beer looked like porridge and tasted sweeter than the clear beers of today
--    They also tried to replicate making beer with a vegetable root called manioc
--    That involved chewing and spitting manioc, then boiling and fermenting the mix

By Cecile Borkhataria For Dailymail.com
Published: 11:59 EST, 8 February 2017 | Updated: 02:46 EST, 9 February 2017

Stanford students have recreated an ancient 5000-year old Chinese beer brew.

The ancient Chinese beer looked like porridge and tasted sweeter and fruitier than the clear, bitter beers of today.

The students made more than one type of ancient brew, which they made using ancient brewing techniques from early human civilizations.  

Professor Li Liu, a professor of Chinese archaeology at Stanford University, taught the class that brewed the beers.

She said: 'We include two different kinds of beer making – one is by chewing, and the other one is by sprouting the cereals.

'We want students to understand how things were made and really have their hand on.

'Archaeology is not just about reading books and analyzing artifacts.'

The students brewed the ancient beers as part of a course called Archaeology of Food: Production, Consumption and Ritual.

Professor Liu and other researchers discovered the ancient recipe by analyzing the residue on inner walls of pottery vessels found in a site in northeast China.

The ancient Chinese made beer mainly with cereal grains, including millet and barley, as well as with Job’s tears, a type of grass in Asia, according to the research.

Traces of yam and lily root parts also appeared in the concoction.

At the end of Professor Liu’s class, each student tried to imitate the ancient Chinese beer using either wheat, millet or barley seeds.

The students first covered their grain with water and let it sprout, in a process called malting.

After the grain sprouted, they crushed the seeds and put them in water again.

The container with the mixture was then placed in the oven and heated to 65 degrees Celsius (149 F) for an hour, in a process called mashing.

Afterward, the students sealed the container with plastic and let it stand at room temperature for about a week to ferment to become alcoholic.

Alongside that experiment, the students tried to replicate making beer with a vegetable root called manioc.

That type of beer-making, which is indigenous to many cultures in South America where the brew is referred to as 'chicha,' involves chewing and spitting manioc, then boiling and fermenting the mixture.

Madeleine Ota, an undergraduate student at Stanford University who took the class, said: 'It was a strange process.

'People looked at me weird when they saw the "spit beer" I was making for class.

'I remember thinking, "How could this possibly turn into something alcoholic?"

'But it was really rewarding to see that both experiments actually yielded results.'

She said that everybody had different results because they were all using different grains.

Ota used red wheat to brew her ancient beer - which had a fruity smell and citrus taste similar to cider.

But the manioc 'spit' beer smelled like bad cheese and Ota didn't want to taste test it.

The result of the experiments will be used in further research on ancient alcohol-making that Professor Liu and her colleagues are working on.  

Throughout history, the consumption of alcohol may have helped people become more creative, advancing the development of language, art and religion.

This is because alcohol lowers inhibitions and makes people feel more spiritual.  

All alcoholic drinks are made by yeasts - tiny single-celled life forms that consume sugar and break it down into carbon dioxide and ethanol.

There are many different types of yeast, and they've probably been fermenting fruit for 120 million years - when fruits first arose on Earth.

Many human enjoy drinking alcohol because it makes us feel good - it releases serotonin and dopamine in the brain which reduces anxiety and make us feel happy.

But our primate ancestors who relied on a largely fruit based diets had other reasons to seek out alcohol.

The alcohol smelled strong, which helped them find fruit more easily,

We've adapted to consuming alcohol over many years, and there's evidence of that in different human civilizations in history.

For example, the origin of wine grapes can be traced back to the Caucus mountains in Georgia and the Zagros Mountains of Iran.

Professor Liu isn't the only researcher re-creating ancient brews.  

Dr Patrick McGovern, an 'alcohol archaeologist' at the University of Pennsylvania, has been tracing back some of the world’s most ancient brews.

By analyzing the residues found on fragments of pottery and studying references in texts, he has managed to recreate a number of ancient beers and wines that were all but lost to history.

The beverages were brewed by Dogfish Head Brewery in Delaware, who worked with Dr Patrick McGovern of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.

To reveal what ingredients were needed, Dr McGovern analysed residues found at various archaeological sites around the world.

He detected traces of various ingredients left by the drinks - including barley, honey, herbs and spices - using a number of methods including liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

The first drink that he recreated is named the Midas Touch, and is based on molecular evidence from residues found inside a Turkish tomb, believed to have belonged to King Midas, dating back to 700 BC.

A variety of alcoholic residues have been found inside important tombs around the world - suggesting that they were drinks used during celebrations or rituals and perhaps even to wish good luck to the dead in the afterlife.

The sweet and dry Midas Touch beer is made using honey, barley malt, white muscat grapes and saffron.

The oldest beer that Dr McGovern brewed is entitled Chateau Jiahu, the ingredients for which were discovered inside a 9,000-year-old tomb in China.

It is made using hawthorn fruit, Chinese wild grapes, rice and honey, and is the oldest known fermented beverage in history - older even than wine.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
ALCOHOL CAN BE MADE FROM GRASS, FRUIT, TREES AND EVEN MILK  

--    Cacao Wine: Mesoamericans made wine using the cacao fruit, drinking it by blowing air into a pot and drinking the liquid froth at the top.

--    Cassava beer: Ancient brewers in 4,000 BC made a strong brew from cassava by chewing the starchy root first - an enzyme in saliva converts starch into fermentable sugar.
  
--    Pepper berry wine: In AD 600 Peru, a red fruit that grows on the Peruvian pepper tree was fermented into a strong wine.

--    Potato chicha: The Mapuche people of Chile fermented potatoes into a strong brew in 13,000 BC.

--    Gruit beer: In AD 500, Europeans made a brew from native fruits, barley, honey, wine, herbs and tree sap.

--    Sorghum beer: The sorghum grain was used to make beer in 6000 BC in Africa - and it's gluten free.

--    Palm wine: In 16,000 BC, the sap of different types of palm trees was feremented to make palm wine, and it's still popular in Africa and in tropical regions in Asia.
  
--    Koumiss: In 4500 BC, central Asian nomads didn't have access to crops, so they used fermented milk from a horse to make a mild alcoholic beverage.
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