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20# 癯鹤 被鬼控制了?没法编辑了!多么气人,我就是看考古、科技新闻,半点也不敏感,破网络都慢得要死!大半时间都浪费了,愚民至此,就是希望我华人落后挨打呀!呜呼!眈眈无理恪!

上一楼图片里那些穿着丽皮古装的演员挺河北的,王宝强、王莎莎一样看起来笨笨的,莫见笑!河北也出咱这样的文化人儿!

还有则新闻也跟这里有关:

阳原发现2万至5万年前人类活动场所

为探寻泥河湾古人类生存模式提供重要资料


2017年06月05日 09:53 来源:河北日报 作者:龚正龙 [url=]字号[/url]
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内容摘要:5月31日 , ,阳原县泥河湾遗址群又有考古新发现,考古工作者们近日在该遗址群西白马营遗址发现了两处距今2万至5万年人类活动场所,出土石制品、化石等近万件,这为进一步探寻泥河湾古人类生存模式提供了重要资料。
关键词:人类活动;遗址;阳原县;古人类;白马
作者简介:
  本报讯(记者龚正龙)5月31日,记者从省文物局获悉,阳原县泥河湾遗址群又有考古新发现,考古工作者们近日在该遗址群西白马营遗址发现了两处距今2万至5万年人类活动场所,出土石制品、化石等近万件,这为进一步探寻泥河湾古人类生存模式提供了重要资料。
  西白马营遗址位于阳原县西白马营村南。1985年,省文物研究所曾对该遗址进行过发掘。2015年,省文物研究所、中国社会科学院考古研究所和阳原县文管所共同对该遗址进行小规模试掘。今年4月起,中国社会科学院考古研究所继续对该遗址进行发掘,发掘面积近100平方米。
  记者了解到,此次发掘最大收获是发现的古人类生活场所,既有用火遗迹,也有肢解、处理动物的场所。在距今2万至5万年的文化层里,发现了多件大型砍砸器及带有砍砸痕迹的动物骨骼。据中国社会科学院考古研究所副研究员周振宇介绍,今后,还将继续对该遗址不同地点进行发掘,以便采集多学科研究样品,复原当时古环境,并深入研究古人类如何应对这种生存环境。
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2017-6-23 22:07 编辑

昨天看到凤凰周刊一篇文章霍比特人再可爱,也敌不过人类祖先的残忍屠杀_凤凰资讯,勾起了我对佛罗勒斯人的兴趣,特地搜录一篇新闻:

研究称真实“霍比特人”或是最早人种之一
http://www.CRNTT.com 2017-04-25 10:57:23


网络图片:电影《霍比特人》海报
  中评社北京4月25日电/外媒称,新研究显示,由于身材矮小而被称为“霍比特人”的已灭绝佛罗勒斯人也许是最古老人种之一。

  据英国《独立报》网站4月21日报道,自2003年在印度尼西亚弗洛勒斯岛发现其遗骸后,关于他们在进化树上位居何处,学界一直争论不休。甚至有人提出,他们不过是一些身材矮小的智人。

  但澳大利亚研究人员如今表示,已最终确认佛罗勒斯人实际上与大约175万年前生活在非洲的能人有关,因此是已知最早人种之一。

  这一人种大约1米高,使用石器,到迄今大约5万年前一直存在,但后来神秘消失。此前一些研究认为,也许是现代人将他们消灭了。

  新研究的带头人、澳大利亚国立大学的黛比·阿格博士说:“分析显示,在家族树上,佛罗勒斯人可能是能人的一个姐妹人种,意味着这两个人种有共同祖先。一种可能性是,佛罗勒斯人在非洲进化,然后迁移至别处;另一种可能性是,他们的共同祖先走出非洲,然后在别处进化成佛罗勒斯人。”

  她说,佛罗勒斯人可能在最早期能人之前就已进化出现。这样的话,他们就是一个非常古老的人种。

  另一种对立的观点是,这些“霍比特人”从直立人进化而来。直立人存在于180多万年前至大约3.5万年前。

  然而,阿格说,他们的研究——包括观察佛罗勒斯人的骨头——并未发现佛罗勒斯人是从直立人进化而来的证据。

  另一位研究者、弗林德斯大学和南澳大利亚博物馆的迈克·李教授说,对佛罗勒斯人遗骸的统计学分析以及与其他人种进行的比较表明,佛罗勒斯人几乎完全不可能是身材矮小的现代人。他说:“有非常明显的证据支持他们与能人之间的关系。我们可以百分之九十九地断定,他们与直立人无关,而且绝对不是一种畸形智人。”

  研究成果刊登在英国《人类进化杂志》双月刊上。

  (来源:参考消息网)

(自:http://www.crntt.com/doc/1046/5/6/8/104656837.html?coluid=61&kindid=1290&docid=104656837&mdate=0425105723

忽然想到佛罗勒斯人遗骸出土了很多具,虽然热带地区不利于保存有机物,但既然骨骸都那么完整,应该也还会有遗传物质封存在其中吧!至今未见有机构测试分析佛罗勒斯人的基因,真是奇怪!
虽是矮人,但是对于人类演化史绝对意义非凡,测试基因说不定会有石破天惊的发现呢!
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
哟西,天人感应每如此。贫道一关注,相关领域就出大发现!

Nature: Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago

The time of arrival of people in Australia is an unresolved question. It is relevant to debates about when modern humans first dispersed out of Africa and when their descendants incorporated genetic material from Neanderthals, Denisovans and possibly other hominins. Humans have also been implicated in the extinction of Australia’s megafauna. Here we report the results of new excavations conducted at Madjedbebe, a rock shelter in northern Australia. Artefacts in primary depositional context are concentrated in three dense bands, with the stratigraphic integrity of the deposit demonstrated by artefact refits and by optical dating and other analyses of the sediments. Human occupation began around 65,000 years ago, with a distinctive stone tool assemblage including grinding stones, ground ochres, reflective additives and ground-edge hatchet heads. This evidence sets a new minimum age for the arrival of humans in Australia, the dispersal of modern humans out of Africa, and the subsequent interactions of modern humans with Neanderthals and Denisovans.

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v547/n7663/full/nature22968.html?foxtrotcallback=true

激动呀,假如现代人类出非洲说正确,可见最初那波很可能是岛夷——另有塞人北上。
但是,一个问题,基因古老型和遗传多样性到底怎么说?澳洲可是有非洲现代人型、尼安德特型、丹尼索瓦型以及其他未知人种的基因混合。为什么不可能是东亚进化出现代人类?然后其一支小分支——非洲型现代人因为自然淘汰和进化选择一支独大,并西进非洲成了主宰?让人科的几个远亲的真正的种级的种混交容易,还是人科的某亚种去开辟新大陆容易(美洲不就是例子嘛)?虽然难点是东亚的石器和人骨化石不如非洲的古老、丰富和长期地质历史上的相对先进,但万一真相真像古人说的那样“上帝”灭过几次本来繁盛的人族,而选择的新人都如亚当夏娃那样,僻处伊甸园呢?上帝神创当然可以不值一哂,但若人类进化确实是出于这种偶然呢?
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
哟西,天人感应每如此。贫道一关注,相关领域就出大发现!

Nature: Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago

The time of arrival of people in Australia is an unresolved question. It ...
癯鹤 发表于 2017-7-20 13:36
呵呵,赫赫!看链接里那些石器,非常明显现代智人的工具。然而对于抱着非洲爹地不放的兰筛海来说,可该吓成什么样子,估计脸都蓝了:
Tocharian_2

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Tocharian_2 当前离线
UID8523 帖子156 精华0 积分250 贡献250 威望242 Y HGOα2a Y-SNPF666,F2781+ mt HGF2c mt突变姓氏彭 族裔方言/支系出生地籍贯阅读权限50





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帖子156 精华0 Y HGOα2a Y-SNPF666,F2781+ mt HGF2c mt突变族裔籍贯
1# 打印 字体大小: tT

发表于 2017-7-20 12:57 | 只看该作者





Nature: Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago
The time of arrival of people in Australia is an unresolved question. It is relevant to debates about when modern humans first dispersed out of Africa and when their descendants incorporated genetic material from Neanderthals, Denisovans and possibly other hominins. Humans have also been implicated in the extinction of Australia’s megafauna. Here we report the results of new excavations conducted at Madjedbebe, a rock shelter in northern Australia. Artefacts in primary depositional context are concentrated in three dense bands, with the stratigraphic integrity of the deposit demonstrated by artefact refits and by optical dating and other analyses of the sediments. Human occupation began around 65,000 years ago, with a distinctive stone tool assemblage including grinding stones, ground ochres, reflective additives and ground-edge hatchet heads. This evidence sets a new minimum age for the arrival of humans in Australia, the dispersal of modern humans out of Africa, and the subsequent interactions of modern humans with Neanderthals and Denisovans.

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v547/n7663/full/nature22968.html





本主题由 Ryan 于 2017-7-20 16:17 移动
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发表于 2017-7-20 16:20 | 只看该作者





6.5万年,这么古老? 有可能并不是 现代智人的遗址。




人类之子全都是为死而生。
--------《阙特勤碑》


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http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2017-7-23 23:16 编辑
哟西,天人感应每如此。贫道一关注,相关领域就出大发现!

Nature: Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago

The time of arrival of people in Australia is an unresolved question. It ...
但是,一个问题,基因古老型和遗传多样性到底怎么说?澳洲可是有非洲现代人型、尼安德特型、丹尼索瓦型以及其他未知人种的基因混合。为什么不可能是东亚进化出现代人类?然后其一支小分支——非洲型现代人因为自然淘汰和进化选择一支独大,并西进非洲成了主宰?让人科的几个远亲的真正的种级的种混交容易,还是人科的某亚种去开辟新大陆容易(美洲不就是例子嘛)?虽然难点是东亚的石器和人骨化石不如非洲的古老、丰富和长期地质历史上的相对先进,但万一真相真像古人说的那样“上帝”灭过几次本来繁盛的人族,而选择的新人都如亚当夏娃那样,僻处伊甸园呢?上帝神创当然可以不值一哂,但若人类进化确实是出于这种偶然呢?
癯鹤 发表于 2017-7-20 13:36
本帖最后由 guwei0001 于 2017-7-23 14:35 编辑
感觉k值高一些比较真切.
52261


明显可以看出,东亚人包括南岛人与尼格立坨人(小黑人)差别巨大,尽管二者的主成分都是EE衍生而来的。

有意思的是,夏威夷土著尽管外表上与大多数东亚人差别不大,但是他们的 ...
imvivi001 发表于 2017-7-14 01:31

k值高低都一样表明Agta是混血尼格利托。
泛亚一文采样了5菲律宾尼格利托人群,只有mamanwa受南岛人影响小些。其他4个群体混合不少南岛血统。European admixture in Chinchorro DNA 从K=5到K=13也表明Agta是混血尼格利托。

关于田园洞人,从K=5到K=13都显示最接近他的现代人是印度人。K=5,田园洞人的类澳美成份和Agta一样多。田园洞人常染上是比较南的。古人类所要找北方本地人的话可能要失望了。
K=5-2.png (133.44 KB)
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2017-7-23 14:16





K=13 -4.jpg (30.84 KB)
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guwei0001 发表于 2017-7-23 14:16
(自:http://www.ranhaer.org/viewthread.php?tid=35460&page=16#pid512195
可见,古老型人类的基因多样性更丰富(尤其是那些成为多个族群祖先的古人,更显出各后裔族群的基因比例——这当然不能孙子决定爷爷,说古人是今人基因交流的结果),而新近型人类的相对单纯(除非混血儿)。不能因为基因类型多样就说是晚近混合的结果(当然史前和历史时期大部分族群可能经历多次异族混血,历史时期的还好说,史前的则不好说了),说不定有些是远古孑遗呢。另外南美洲五六千年前发现欧洲型基因比例较高的人种的遗骸,应该是史前全球化的证据,但也可能是更古老的小族群经过遗传漂变把祖先携带的“欧洲基因”给富集了(当然基因检测应该能看出来到底是哪种情况,本人对基因了解不多,无能力判断)。
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
史前一万年真是一个奇特的节点,不但旧新大陆各自开始了农业,并加速了技术进步,连巴布亚新几内亚人这种相对孤立的人群也是在那时产生了明显的分化。量子纠缠一样的心灵感应?还是天地发生特殊大事件导致各地的人类不约而同?

巴布亚新几内亚人展示了极大的基因多元性


来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2017年9月15日 10:39






巴布亚新几内亚人展示了极大的基因多元性


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据EurekAlert!:对巴布亚新几内亚人进行基因分析后揭示:从1万至2万年前,居住在高地与低地的人之间出现了明显的基因分别。该分水岭出现的时间大约与人们开始在岛上培植作物的时间相同,这表明,种群结构受到向新石器生活方式过渡的影响。基于巴布亚新几内亚可能是人类从亚洲向澳大利亚迁徙的踏脚石这一事实,因此,该种群结构从种群遗传及考古的角度看都令人十分感兴趣。但是,来自现今人群的样本大体上一直颇为有限。

Anders Bergström和同事在这里对整个PNG上的85个语言群组的381位个人的基因型进行了检测,他们还分析了39个先前得到的高度覆盖的全基因组序列。数据表明,高地居民和塞皮克(Sepik)低地居民在1万至2万年前分开,而在高地人群中的所有分离都出现在最近的1万年内。分别在欧亚大陆西部和非洲所见的青铜器时代和铁器时代的人类创新和迁徙事件驱动了基因的多样性,其特征是Y染色体谱系的快速扩展,但作者们在这些PGN数据中却没有发现这样的证据。不管怎样,高地和低地种群都显示了程度强烈且出乎意料的基因分化。


因此,作者提出,在PNG,所观察到的分化可能是遗传学、语言学及文化多元性的结果,而久坐型人类社会可在没有大规模技术驱动扩张的情况下就能取得这种多元性。

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2017-11-3 19:58 编辑

尼安德特人时代似乎已经有过一次全球化了!而澳洲已经有六七万年前晚期智人的遗迹,比这个年代晚的蒙戈湖人是不是现代智人还不能确定。美洲不是据说发现了十几万年前屠宰乳齿象的遗迹了吗?这么来说,东亚偶见的十几万年到几万年前的莫斯特式石器也说不定是遗迹。不要抱着现在的国界洲籍刻舟求剑,以为自己应该是万古一系土著什么的!

内蒙古金斯太遗址石制品组合具有明确的旧石器时代中期莫斯特技术特征




来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2017年11月03日 12:45






金斯太遗址的地理位置



金斯太遗址的地层与年代



金斯太遗址出土的石制品


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所(李锋 供图、供稿):近日,高星课题组对内蒙古金斯太遗址下部第7-8层的年代、动物化石和石制品等进行了详细分析和报道。新的研究表明,出自上述层位的石制品组合具有明确的旧石器时代中期(莫斯特)技术特征,此项研究成果将莫斯特技术遗存在欧亚大陆的分布从西伯利亚往东推进了近2000公里。这一方面对我们研究旧石器时代中期人群与技术的扩散、互动具有重要意义,另一方面也有助于我们理解中国旧石器时代文化遗存的阶段性和区域性特征。《Journal of Human Evolution》于2017年10月31号在线发表了该项研究成果。


金斯太遗址位于内蒙古东乌珠穆沁旗阿拉坦合力苏木,2000-2001年内蒙古考古研究所与吉林大学对该遗址进行了发掘。2012-2013年中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所与内蒙古博物院合作对该遗址进行了再发掘,最大发掘面积约10平方米。遗址分为9个层位,其中第1-8层出土文化遗物:第1-2层出土青铜时代及新石器时代文化遗存,第3-8层出土旧石器时代文化遗存。本次研究重点分析了第7-8层的年代、动物化石和石制品。碳十四年代分析显示遗址第8层为距今约4.7-4.2万年,第7层年代为距今约4.0-3.7万年。第7-8层出土的动物化石数量较少且破碎,主要以普氏野马为主。两层出土的石制品比较类似,皆存在典型的勒瓦娄哇产品,如勒瓦娄哇尖状器(Levallois Point),比例较高的盘状石核,以及旧石器时代中期典型石器组合,如较高比例的刮削器(陡刃加工的横刃刮削器、斜轴刮削器等)。与中国相近时段石制品组合的对比研究表明,其与晚更新世早期(如泥河湾板井子遗址)、旧石器时代晚期初段遗址(如宁夏水洞沟遗址第1地点)的石制品组合大不相同,而更接近于欧亚大陆西侧、中亚等地的旧石器时代中期莫斯特石制品组合,尤其与俄罗斯西伯利亚Okladnikov、Chagyrskaya洞穴发现的莫斯特遗存类似。


金斯太遗址的莫斯特石制品组合的认定对于我们理解旧石器时代中期人群的迁徙和技术的扩散具有重要启示。虽然在未发现人类化石的情况下,界定石制品遗存的人群归属存在较强的不确定性。然而除了极个别区域,如以色列、北非等地,莫斯特石制品组合一般与尼安德特人共存。欧洲、中亚和西伯利亚阿尔泰地区等出土莫斯特遗存的多个遗址中出土尼安德特人化石,尤其是西伯利亚的Okladnikov、Chagyrskaya洞穴的莫斯特遗存为尼安德特人所制作。据此,我们提出金斯太遗址出土的莫斯特遗存很可能也为尼安德特人所遗留。若此假设成立,那么金斯太的发现将尼安德特人的分布范围从西伯利亚往东推进了2000公里,这大大扩散了尼人可能的分布范围,对讨论该人群对不同区域的适应能力及其消亡的原因等具有重要意义。当然,此假说需要将来人类化石的发现或者古DNA研究的确认。


如若金斯太的莫斯特石制品遗存并非尼安德特人所制作,此发现也极具启发意义。首先,可为我们研究石制品和人群的对应关系提出理论性的思考;其次,考虑到金斯太与西伯利亚阿尔泰地区的距离,这反映了距今约4-5万年间不同人群间远距离的技术和思想交流远比我们从前预想的频繁和广泛。同时也预示着晚更新世不同人群(如尼安德特人、现代人或东亚人群)的行为(文化)差别并不大。然而,为什么尼安德特人却最终大面积消亡?这是一个颇值得我们思考的问题。


中国旧石器时代中期遗存的研究长期以来是个极具争议的问题,学者们一般认为中国境内不存在具有欧亚大陆西方旧石器时代中期技术的考古学遗存,故而建议中国乃至东亚旧石器时代分为早、晚两期。金斯太的发现表明东亚地区的确存在具有明确旧石器时代中期技术特征的石制品组合。但此类旧石器时代中期遗存的分布仍局限在中国北方的北部,所以目前中国其他地区的旧石器考古学材料仍可应用“两期法”。金斯太的发现揭示出了晚更新世复杂多样的人类和技术的扩散证据,为我们理解欧亚大陆不同类型古人类的生存适应策略及互动关系提供了材料,同时也提醒我们看待中国旧石器时代人类行为的演化应具有区域视角。


该研究获得国家自然科学基金、中科院古脊椎所化石发掘经费、中国科学院战略性先导科技专项、中国科学院青年促进会等的资助。


原文链接:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047248417303032

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
感觉这则旧新闻很有意思:
巴卡俾格米人幽门螺杆菌
Recent Acquisition of Helicobacter pylori by Baka Pygmies

Sandra Nell etc.

AbstractBoth anatomically modern humans and the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori originated in Africa, and both species have been associated for at least 100,000 years. Seven geographically distinct H. pylori populations exist, three of which are indigenous to Africa: hpAfrica1, hpAfrica2, and hpNEAfrica. The oldest and most divergent population, hpAfrica2, evolved within San hunter-gatherers, who represent one of the deepest branches of the human population tree. Anticipating the presence of ancient H. pylori lineages within all hunter-gatherer populations, we investigated the prevalence and population structure of H. pylori within Baka Pygmies in Cameroon. Gastric biopsies were obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy from 77 Baka from two geographically separated populations, and from 101 non-Baka individuals from neighboring agriculturalist populations, and subsequently cultured for H. pylori. Unexpectedly, Baka Pygmies showed a significantly lower H. pylori infection rate (20.8%) than non-Baka (80.2%). We generated multilocus haplotypes for each H. pylori isolate by DNA sequencing, but were not able to identify Baka-specific lineages, and most isolates in our sample were assigned to hpNEAfrica or hpAfrica1. The population hpNEAfrica, a marker for the expansion of the Nilo-Saharan language family, was divided into East African and Central West African subpopulations. Similarly, a new hpAfrica1 subpopulation, identified mainly among Cameroonians, supports eastern and western expansions of Bantu languages. An age-structured transmission model shows that the low H. pylori prevalence among Baka Pygmies is achievable within the timeframe of a few hundred years and suggests that demographic factors such as small population size and unusually low life expectancy can lead to the eradication ofH. pylori from individual human populations. The Baka were thus either H. pylori-free or lost their ancient lineages during past demographic fluctuations. Using coalescent simulations and phylogenetic inference, we show that Baka almost certainly acquired their extant H. pylorithrough secondary contact with their agriculturalist neighbors.

http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1003775


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198401 发表于 2013-9-24 09:43 [url=http://www.ranhaer.org/viewthread.php?tid=25849&page=1#pid355749][/url]
俾格米人的幽门螺杆菌历史很晚近。却又说非洲的幽门螺杆菌类型古老。我怎么感觉有点……,莫非非洲古人在几万年中一直都是老死不相往来(这样的确也会使基因库离散而多样化,造成古老表象呀?),然后在最近两千年尤其是欧洲人大航海奴隶贸易才使得人口混合变得普遍?但是科伊桑人的菌株又是最古老的类型。纷乱哟!感觉有某种故意的亲非洲起源论在作怪!学术里面莫非也有尚黑大幕?
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2017-11-17 11:53 编辑

为啥我每次提出重大科学命题,就天人感应般给出这样让人激动的回应?只遗憾,买彩票总不中,是我难于立业成事保家为民!


外媒称中国古人类头骨或改写人类起源:也可能来自亚洲

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2017年11月17日00:46 参考消息
外媒称中国古人类头骨或改写人类起源:也可能来自亚洲
参考消息网11月17日报道 英媒称,人类的起源恐怕有待重新思考。科研人员对中国一个古代头骨的分析显示,它与在西面大约1万公里开外的摩洛哥发现的已知最早现代人类化石惊人类似。这具头骨表明,现代人类并非普遍认为的那样,全部是非洲祖先的后裔。
据英国《新科学家》网站11月14日报道,根据化石证据,大多数人类学家认为,大约20万年前我们这个人种在非洲兴起。另外,对现代人的遗传学研究表明,我们来自一个共同的族群,这个族群在过去12万年间离开非洲,散布到世界各地。这个非洲族群是所有现代人类基因的源头,只有少数基因是通过与尼安德特等人种通婚获得的。
然而,大荔人头骨跟这一说法恐怕不吻合。大荔头骨于1978年在中国的陕西省发现,这具头骨保存得极其完整,既有面部又有头盖骨。今年4月发表的研究文章断定,这枚头骨距今约有26万年之久。
报道称,1979年研究人员第一次描述大荔人头骨时,他们推断头骨属于直立人头骨。这个人种在180万年前来到东南亚,大约14万年前从这一地区消失。这跟权威的说法是一致的。
然而1981年时,中国社科院的吴新智就注意到,大荔人头骨的面部有许多特征与我们这个种群智人一致。这表明东亚的直立人可能对智人的起源发挥了作用。换句话说,现代人身上至少有一部分DNA可能来自亚洲直立人。
报道称,这一观点遭到许多研究人员的否定,因为与传统的非洲单一起源模式是矛盾的。然而,吴新智与得克萨斯农业与机械大学的希拉·阿特雷亚说,我们对智人的起源仍然没有全面的了解。于是,两人对这具头骨重新分析,并将其与其他人种的头骨比对,包括直立人和早期智人。
他们发现,大荔人头骨与上世纪60年代在摩洛哥伊古德山发现的两具智人头骨很相似。
报道称,今年早些时候,研究人员在伊古德山发现了第三具智人头骨的碎片,推算出这些化石距今大约有31.5万年。由此把人类的起源时间大幅前推了11.5万年。与大荔人头骨一样,伊古德山头骨也有着与智人类似的面部,但是头盖骨看上去更加原始。
摩洛哥头骨跟智人完全从非洲起源的观点是不矛盾的。但是阿特雷亚说,大荔人头骨表明人类起源恐怕没有这么简单。
她说,有可能在遗传学上,非洲古人与欧亚大陆古人没有隔绝开来。少数群体的小规模迁徙累积起来,可能使得基因在非洲与欧亚大陆之间流动。在这种情况下,31.5万年前摩洛哥智人出现的遗传特征有可能在26万年前生活在中国的古人身上显现——比如大荔人头骨的所有者。
阿特雷亚说,还有一种可能。“基因流动也有可能是多方向的,那么欧洲、非洲显现的一些特征也有可能来自亚洲”。
换句话说,与智人有关的一些特征可能起源于东亚,后来带入非洲。如果是这样的话,那么我们就不是全部来自非洲了。(编译/于晓华)

责任编辑:时鑫
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然后回头考虑现代智人的起源问题,就很有意思了!即使非洲人的基因类型古老,但是也可能就是因为一批早期(30多万年前)迁徙非洲的孑遗人群留下的基因多而已,亚洲可是有更古老基因的,比如尼安德特人(其实非洲人也有其少量基因)、丹尼索瓦人等等,澳洲蒙戈湖人的基因类型也不在现代人基因库里,然而已经是现代智人,美洲也据说发现十几万年前的人类猎杀乳齿象的遗迹,当时人类应没有横渡大西洋的本领,只能从亚洲过去呀,而且应该已经是智人了,这明明可以说亚洲人类基因多样性和古老程度比非洲人还要深广呀!只是由于亚洲经历太多天灾人祸,导致人口繁衍经历多次严重瓶颈,保留下来的不如非洲的古老罢了!!!再看看巴布亚新几内亚发现的这个头盖骨,还有直立人特征,充分说明亚洲人类多样性确实是很高的,多样性高没有混血也不奇怪,有混血也不奇怪,反正由此繁衍出大量新新人类,他们呢,基因库已经是大大地被瓶颈化了,丢失了很多古老人类的基因。

科学家重验1929年在巴布亚新几内亚出土的6000年前人头骨 或发现最古老海啸遇难者


来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2017年11月10日 16:38






出土的头骨有多条裂痕。



巴布亚新几内亚有不少原住民。


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)外国一批科学家早前重新检验一件在1929年于巴布亚新几内亚出土的头骨,证实该头骨有6000年历史,其主人更可能是史上最早死于海啸的人。今次的发现将会带来新冲击,专家或需要重新检视沿海地区的考古发现。


一队由多国科学家组成的团队表示,发堀骸骨出土地点附近在1998年时曾受海啸侵袭,他们将当年的土壤与头骨上的土壤比较,发现出土地点在6000年亦曾被海啸淹没,故此认为头骨的主人当年也可能死于海啸。


有份参与研究的戈尔夫表示,虽然该骨头被人仔细检验,但却没有人太多人会认真注视出土地点的泥土。亦有部分学者表示,头骨的主人可能在海啸发生前已经死亡。团队今次的研究将会刊登在科学期刊上。

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2017-12-12 11:53 编辑
最新研究认为尼安德特人13万年前或已抵达 最新研究认为尼安德特人13万年前或已抵达美洲视频:...

不知道蒙戈湖人的基因和骨骼性状是否也有尼安德特人特征!?看来在现代人类之前,尼安德特人(或同其远亲丹尼索瓦人)已经开拓殖民五大洲了!他们的灭绝到底是现代人类“出非洲”后制造的李辉式人祸还是天灾造成的呢?如果是天灾,到底什么样的天灾让他们全部灭绝了呢?...
癯鹤 发表于 2017-5-14 13:56
想了想,还有可能是丹尼索瓦人呢!这个人种特神秘,和尼安德特人一样可能与现代智人的智力快速进步很有关系。或许他们就是最早的塞人岛夷之北源(南源为出非洲智人)。是美洲、澳洲的最初开拓者。丹尼索瓦人得名于丹尼索瓦洞,丹尼索瓦洞得名于隐士丹尼斯,丹尼斯这名字得自岛夷“疍民”(“尼安德特”——鸟头,得名于“鸟夷”),有道之士呀,也是天人感应,言与神同在。这里竟是三大人种汇聚钟灵毓秀之地——帝之下都——上帝的实验室?然而为何他们没留下Y-DNA呢?丹尼索瓦人留下适应高山高原基因,所以这些山人先人就是“仙”人!得道仙人,不执名相,涅磐升天大解脱(至今藏民犹笃信,虹化而去果然乎?)?抑或是被上帝毁灭的上一代人群?



20 September, 2017 - 01:58ancient-origins
Extinct Denisovans from Siberia Made Stunning Jewelry. Did They Also Discover Australia?


By Siberia Times Reporter, Olga Gertcyk
The distance from the only currently known home of the Denisovans in Altai region to the nearest point of Australia is roughly akin to the length of the Trans-Siberian railway, and yet it is looking increasingly likely that these ancient species of humanoids somehow made this epic journey deep in pre-history, perhaps 65,000 years ago.
Separate evidence from the Denisova cave in southern Siberia certainly shows they had myriad talents at least 50,000 years ago, even if their ultimate fate was extinction.
Yet remarkably their DNA lives on in the Aboriginal people of Australia and the Melanesians of Papua New Guinea to a far greater extent than in any other modern-day populations worldwide.

Professor Richard 'Bert' Roberts (left) and Dr Maxim Kozlikin (right) in Denisova cave. Picture: Richard Roberts

Moreover, on their way towards Australasia, they appear to have interbred sufficiently with other early humans to have provided Tibetans with the EPAS1 gene that enables them to survive in high-altitude low oxygen environments.



The Denisovans influenced not only Aboriginal people (up), but also modern Tibetans (bottom). Pictures: Steve Evans, Dr. Ruediger Wenzel

Pictures shown here illustrate their remarkable Paleolithic handiwork from artifacts - for example a stunning green-hued chlorite bracelet, a marble ring, and beads from an ostrich eggshell necklace, all at least 50,000 years old, but possibly soon to be revealed by scientists as significantly older - found in a cave they shared variously with Neaderthals and Homo sapiens.

Jewelry from Paleolithic era at least 50,000 years old (The Siberian Times)

Now Professor Richard 'Bert' Roberts, director of the Centre for Archaeological Science at the University of Wollongong, has urged deep study of ancient migration routes to understand how the Denisovan DNA exists to this day in the native people of Australia.

Professor Richard 'Bert' Roberts in his laboratory in the Centre for Archaeological Science at the University of Wollongong. Picture: Richard Roberts

'Many of ancient people's migration routes went through the territory of Russia, via the Altai mountains,' he told gazeta.ru. 'If we don't get to the bottom of what happened regarding human evolution in Altai, we will never understand evolution in say, China.
'The first migration wave of Homo erectus left Africa about two million years ago, moving in two main directions: via the Middle East to the south of Europe, the Caucasus, to the Mediterranean and the Pyrenees, and through the western areas of Asia.
'To the east they most likely moved via two routes as well. One must have gone south of Himalayas and Tibet via Indostan to Eastern and South-Eastern Asia. The other, Northern one, most likely went via Central Asia and Siberia.
'Perhaps two of these streams met at some point. We will learn it by meticulous dating of all finds... To me personally the most interesting question is how 4% of Denisovan' DNA got into the Aboriginal people? Look where Australia is, and where Altai is! How is it possible?!'
The distance as the crow flies is some 8,500 kilometers (5282 mi), and doubtless any such Denisovan migration happened over multiple generations and many millennia - yet there is also the question of a treacherous sea crossing long before boats or rafts were known to have been invented, even if sea levels then were 110 meters (361 ft) lower than today because of the Ice Age.
People first came to Australia some 65,000 years ago, but who were they, and how did they cross the so-called Wallace's Line separating Asia from Australia, which at the time involved eight separate sea crossings?

The distance between the Denisova cave and Australia as the crow flies is some 8,500 kilometers. Picture: The Siberian Times

'That's a very interesting and controversial question,' said Prof Roberts, a regular visitor to Russia, whose pioneering dating methods are being used to fix the Denisovans in time.
'We assume they were modern humans, that is members of our species, Homo sapiens, because we have no evidence to the contrary.
'We don't have any fossil remains of the humans, we have only the stone tools left behind, pigments, ochres, all the other attributes that are very typical of what modern humans use whenever they arrive somewhere,' he told the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

People first came to Australia some 65,000 years ago, but who were they, and how did they cross the so-called Wallace's Line separating Asia from Australia, which at the time involved eight separate sea crossings? Picture: Maximilian Doerrbecker

'And it came with the whole kit and caboodle. All these sites come with the sorts of things we imagine modern humans are using to make all the symbolic things we associate with ourselves.’
'But the reality is we don't actually know who were the first people into Australia by species.'
He cannot rule out Denisovans, he said, because of the presence of their DNA in Aboriginal people.
'We know that Aboriginal people in Australia contain both Neanderthal DNA, as do you and I, we have Neanderthal DNA, but neither you nor I have Denisovan DNA, which is another group of people actually the home base, as it were, up in Siberia, Denisova Cave in southern Siberia in Russia.’



Handiwork made of bones and teeth, find in 11th layer of Denisova cave. Pictures: Anatoly Derevyanko, The Siberian Times

'But it's miraculously in Aboriginal people at the present day in much greater quantities than any other people around the world. How did it get into Aboriginal people? That's still very much a moot point and we're not sure. Did Denisovan people themselves make it across Wallace's Line, a big biogeographic boundary separating Asia from Australasia? We don't know. These are very much still questions that we want to get a handle on, so who were the first people into Australia? We still think it's modern humans but perhaps it might have been Denisovans. It's a question mark still hanging there.'


World oldest needle found in Denisova cave. Picture: Mikhail Shunkov, Vesti

Scientists Professor Alan Cooper, of the University of Adelaide in Australia, and Professor Chris Stringer, of the Natural History Museum in the UK, have already suggested in a Science opinion article that this is precisely what happened.
'In mainland Asia, neither ancient human specimens, nor geographically isolated modern Indigenous populations have Denisovan DNA of any note, indicating that there has never been a genetic signal of Denisovan interbreeding in the area,' said Professor Cooper, Director of the University of Adelaide's Australian Centre for Ancient DNA.
'The only place where such a genetic signal exists appears to be in areas east of Wallace's Line and that is where we think interbreeding took place - even though it means that the Denisovans must have somehow made that marine crossing.'



Denisovan necklaces and pendants. Pictures: Mikhail Shunkov, The Siberian Times

Prof Stringer said: 'The recent discovery of another enigmatic ancient human species Homo floresiensis, the so-called Hobbits, in Flores, Indonesia, confirms that the diversity of archaic human relatives in this area was much higher than we'd thought...
'The morphology of the Hobbits shows they are different from the Denisovans, meaning we now have at least two, and potentially more, unexpected groups in the area.
'The conclusions we've drawn are very important for our knowledge of early human evolution and culture. Knowing that the Denisovans spread beyond this significant sea barrier opens up all sorts of questions about the behaviors and capabilities of this group, and how far they could have spread.'
For him 'the key questions now are where and when the ancestors of current humans, who were on their way to colonize New Guinea and Australia around 50,000 years ago, met and interacted with the Denisovans.

Marble ring found in the cave. Picture: Scientific Russia

'Intriguingly, the genetic data suggest that male Denisovans interbred with modern human females, indicating the potential nature of the interactions as small numbers of modern humans first crossed Wallace's Line and entered Denisovan territory.'
The Denisovans also influenced modern Tibetans, according to Rasmus Nielsen, a faculty member of the Center for Theoretical Evolutionary Genomics, at Berkeley, University of California.
He investigated how Tibetans can withstand the effects of hypoxia in low-oxygen environments. Seven years ago, his team published a paper indicating the EPAS1 gene was the cause of this this beneficial mutation.
The gene regulates the body's reaction to low oxygen environments, allowing Tibetans to produce fewer red blood cells and less hemoglobin, it was reported.
Yet it did not originate from Neanderthals but there was an exact match with Denisovans.
Back in Denisova cave, some 150 km (93 mi) south of the city of Barnaul, finds like the bracelet, a ring, and beads as well as the world's oldest needle, were all made in layers of this underground complex identified as being occupied by Denisovans, after tiny fragments of these archaic humans were found and analysed.

A stunning green-hued chlorite bracelet, found in 2008 in a layer that contained remains of Denisovans. Pictures: Anastasia Abdulmanova, Konstantin Tynayev

Initially this jewellery and other artifacts was dated as being between 40,000 and 50,000 years old, with the latter currently the officially accepted figure.
Now, however, as previously disclosed by The Siberian Times, scientists from Russia, the UK and Australia are reexamining the dates of these objects amid suspicions that they are as old as 65,000 to 70,000 years.


At 50,000 years the know-how involved in these items - the bracelet has a hole made by drilling and rasping devices - are already breathtaking. Any older, and it challenges our entire understanding of the technological development of man.
Russian scientists say the bracelet was found in 2008 in a layer that contained remains of Denisovans (homo altaiensis) rather than Homo sapiens or Neanderthals, although all these groupings shared the cave at various times, and interbred.
'The bracelet is stunning - in bright sunlight it reflects the sun rays, at night by the fire it casts a deep shade of green,' said Professor Anatoly Derevyanko, former director of the Institute of Archeology and Ethnography, in Novosibirsk.


Denisova cave, some 150 km (93 mi) south of the city of Barnaul, is the only source of Denisovan's remains. Pictures: The Siberian Times

'It is unlikely it was used as an everyday jewelry piece. I believe this beautiful and very fragile bracelet was worn only for some exceptional moments," he said.
The manufacturing technology used in the bracelet is seen as being more typical of a later period, for example the Neolithic era, which began around 12,000 years ago.
His successor Professor Mikhail Shunkov has suggested that the long-extinct Denisovans were significantly more advanced than Homo sapiens and Neanderthals.
Did this technological superiority also help them reach Australia before anyone else?
Top image: Denisova cave, some 150 km (93 mi) south of the city of Barnaul, is the only source of Denisovan's remains. Pictures: The Siberian Times
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30# 癯鹤
没法在一帖发两篇,另一篇相关新闻,饰物是否跟萨满通灵宗教有关,不然为什么远古之人为之耗费大量精力,并成为后人惯用装饰品(然而已经失去灵性)。羊大为美,上帝喜欢羔羊!
最新研究认为尼安德特人13万年前或已抵达 最新研究认为尼安德特人13万年前或已抵达美洲视频:...

不知道蒙戈湖人的基因和骨骼性状是否也有尼安德特人特征!?看来在现代人类之前,尼安德特人(或同其远亲丹尼索瓦人)已经开拓殖民五大洲了!他们的灭绝到底是现代人类“出非洲”后制造的李辉式人祸还是天灾造成的呢?如果是天灾,到底什么样的天灾让他们全部灭绝了呢?...
癯鹤 发表于 2017-5-14 13:56
想了想,还有可能是丹尼索瓦人呢!这个人种特神秘,和尼安德特人一样可能与现代智人的智力快速进步很有关系。或许他们就是最早的塞人岛夷之北源(南源为出非洲智人)。是美洲、澳洲的最初开拓者。丹尼索瓦人得名于丹尼索瓦洞,丹尼索瓦洞得名于隐士丹尼斯,丹尼斯这名字得自岛夷“疍民”(“尼安德特”——鸟头,得名于“鸟夷”),有道之士呀,也是天人感应,言与神同在。这里竟是三大人种汇聚钟灵毓秀之地——帝之下都——上帝的实验室?然而为何他们没留下Y-DNA呢?丹尼索瓦人留下适应高山高原基因,所以这些山人先人就是“仙”人!得道仙人,不执名相,涅磐升天大解脱(至今藏民犹笃信,虹化而去果然乎?)?抑或是被上帝毁灭的上一代人群?








1 November, 2016 - 20:49ancient-origins
Paleolithic Jewelry: Still Eye-catching After 50,000 Years


By Tamara Zubchuk | The Siberian Times
Beads made from ostrich eggs buried in the Siberian cave around 2,000 generations ago reveal amazing artistic (and drilling) skills of our long-ago ancestors.
The fascinating collection of jewelry made of ostrich eggshells is being assembled by archeologists working in the world famous Denisova cave in Altai region. Ostriches in Siberia? 50,000 years ago?
Yes, it seems so. Or, at least, their eggshells made it here somehow.
In a month that has seen disclosures of the fossil of a tropical parrot in Siberia from at least five million years ago in the Miocene era, this elegant Paleolithic chic shows that our deep history (some 2,000 generations ago, give or take) contains many unexpected surprises.
Pictured here are finds from a collection of beads in the Denisova cave, perfectly drilled, and archeologists say they have now found one more close by, with full details to be revealed soon in a scientific journal. They are in no doubt that the beads are between 45,000 and 50,000 years old in the Upper Paleolithic era, making them older than strikingly similar finds 11,500 kilometers away in South Africa.


Beads found inside Denisova Cave in the Altai mountains. Pictures: Maksim Kozlikin

Maksim Kozlikin, researcher at the Institute of Archeology and Ethnography, Novosibirsk, said of the Siberian ostrich egg beads: 'This is no ordinary find. Our team got quite excited when we found the bead.
'This is an amazing piece of work. The ostrich egg shell is quite robust material, but the holes in the beads must have been made with a fine stone drill.
'For that time, we consider this to be an exquisite jewelry work of a very talented artist.'
The skills and techniques used some 45,000 to 50,000 years ago are remarkable and more akin to the Neolithic era, dozens of millennia later.
He believes the beads may have been sewn into clothing - or formed part of a bracelet or necklace.


The Denisova Cave. Pictures: Vera Salnitskaya

The latest discovery 'is one centimetre in diameter, with a hole inside that is slightly wider than a millimetre,' he said.
Yet he admits: 'As of now, there is much more that we do not know about these beads than we do know. For example, we do not know where the beads were made.
'One version is that the egg shells could have been exported from Trans-Baikal or Mongolia with the beads manufactured here.
'Another possibility is that the beads were purchased elsewhere and delivered to the Altai Mountains perhaps in an exchange.
'Whichever way we look at it, it shows that the people populating the Denisova Cave at the time were advanced in technologies and had very well-established contacts with the outside world.'


Denisova Cave marked on the world map. Picture: The Siberian Times

Today ostriches are an exotic import into a couple of areas in Siberia, but were they endemic 50,000 years ago, or were they brought from afar?
Kozlikin acknowledged there are far more questions than answers.
'We don't know if they (prehistoric people) decorated elements of men, or women, or children or their clothing with these beads,' he said. 'We do not know where the beads were sewn on the clothing, if they were. Did they only decorate wealthy members of society? Were they a sign of a special religious status, or did they signify that the person had more authority than the others?
'How did the beads, or the material for them get to Siberia? How much did they cost?
'What we do know for sure is that the beads were found in the Denisova Cave's 'lucky' eleventh layer, the same one where we found the world's oldest bracelet made from rare dark green stone. All finds from that layer have been dated as being 45,000 to 50,000 years old.
'We had three other beads found in 2005, 2006 and 2008. All the beads were discovered lying within six metres in the excavation in the eastern gallery of the cave.
'We cannot say if they all belonged to one person, but visually these beads look identical.'


Ostich eggshell beads from Border Cave in South Africa, dated 44,856-41,010. Picture: Lucinda Backwell

Yet they also appear similar to ostrich egg beads found in an area called Border Cave in South Africa that have been dated up to 44,000 years old. The site is in the foothills of the Lebombo Mountains in KwaZulu-Natal.
Dr. Lucinda Backwell, senior researcher in the palaeo-anthropology department at Wits University, has previously highlighted how this African proto-civilisation 'adorned themselves with ostrich egg and marine shell beads'.
The Siberian beads is the latest discovery from the Denisova Cave which is possibly the finest natural repository of sequential early human history so far discovered anywhere on the planet.
The cave was occupied by Homo sapiens along with now extinct early humans - Neanderthals and Denisovans - for at least 288,000 years, and excavations have been underway here for three decades, with the prospect of many exciting finds to come in future.


Archeologists working inside the eastern gallery of the Denisova Cave. Pictures: The Siberian Times

In August, we revealed the discovery of the world's oldest needle in the cave - still useable after 50,000 years.
Crafted from the bone of an ancient bird, it was made not by Homo sapiens or even Neanderthals, but by Denisovans.
Professor Mikhail Shunkov, head of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography in Novosibirsk, said: 'It is the most unique find of this season, which can even be called sensational. It is a needle made of bone.
'As of today it is the most ancient needle in the word. It is about 50,000 years old.'


Denisova Cave, pictures by Vera Salnitskaya

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