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本帖最后由 lindberg 于 2018-6-14 14:30 编辑

179# MNOPS
朝鲜也发现了一些不同年代的旧石器遗址和智人有关,但资料甚少不明确。
1973年,据朝鲜考古研究发现,平安南道德川郡胜利山发现了旧石器时代的遗址,“德川人遗址”(10万-4万年前)和“胜利山人遗址”(4万~3万年前)。 1977年在平壤力浦区大贤洞发现了“力浦人遗址”(可能是3万-1万年前)

其中那个胜利山遗址,和田园洞~山顶洞年代相近。
本帖最后由 大凌河 于 2018-6-14 16:42 编辑

181# lindberg

我看了一下,也问了问我们大C的高手,觉得k12,虽然有可能是C1*,但也许是样本质量差,没匹配到下游位点,是C1a,C1b都有可能,wiki我也看了。

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_C-F3393

在这个最上面说的是

The basal paragroup, C1* (C-F3393*), has not been found in samples from living or dead males.


而在下面说得是

Basal C1a* (CTS11043) has not yet been found in any samples, living or dead.


付巧妹 2016那篇论文打不开,好像网盘无效了
181# lindberg

有个最大的疑问,山顶洞人用的石器是砍砸器,同时代的欧洲C1a2人群用的是什么石器?如果山顶洞人和他们有关系,从使用工具上讲是不是太落后了,还是说如果真的有关系,但是分开时候两个人群还没掌握太先进的石器工具,而C1a2人群进入欧洲从尼人那里学到了更先进的技术?而山顶洞人一直保持最开始的技术?
本帖最后由 lindberg 于 2018-6-14 17:54 编辑

183# 大凌河
没错,这个现象是值得注意的,所以说要好好研究Aurignacian文化,它的石器传统是在欧洲发展起来的。

那些C1a1、C1*和C1b人群是和其他的种系共同创造了Aurignacian文化的石器传统,包括那个丰收女神像也是欧洲发展起来的传统。
推荐一篇文章《The spread of modern humans in Europe》,把50000~40000bp这段时间欧洲各地的考古做了一个比较全面的分析,这段时间就是现代人出现在欧洲并且取代尼人的时期。
这篇其实说得挺清楚,有空解读一下。
182# 大凌河
年代久远,很有可能
本帖最后由 lindberg 于 2018-6-14 21:22 编辑

182# 大凌河
https://www.nature.com/articles/nature17993

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301742169_The_genetic_history_of_Ice_Age_Europe?ev=publicSearchHeader&_sg=TU7SxF26ck_1udknbfHffw4kgIPCpHZO8MHbfzmknhTZgJO1E_UdV0tE8PtvMSfid7cM7iKBVXqXBxg

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4943878/

仔细看了一下,当时应该只匹配到上游CT,包括Goyet Q116-1当时只匹配到C1a,不过比较新的文献应该是更新了
1

评分次数

一则关于西班牙迄今最早化石人类的新闻,西班牙许多洞穴发现过很古老人类遗骸,结合地中海区域其他发现,暗示地中海这个大圈儿极可能是人类起源地。

Jawbone unearthed in a Spanish cave that is almost 1 MILLION years old is the oldest fossil of a human species ever found in Western Europe
  • Researchers were unable to use carbon-dating on the fossil because of its age
  • Instead, they measured the amount of radiation that has hit the ancient tooth
  • The human ancestor is older than previous genetic studies suggested possible
By Aaron Brown For Mailonline
Published: 17:06 BST, 18 June 2018 | Updated: 20:20 BST, 18 June 2018
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Ancient remains found in a Spanish cave have been confirmed as the oldest known species of human fossil ever found in Western Europe.
The skeleton is an example of Homo antecessor – believed to be the final common ancestor shared by Homo sapiens and Neanderthals before the two species split.
Although a handful of older human remains have been found in Europe, none could be attributed to a specific species, making this new finding unique.
This is the first direct dating of a Homo antecessor.
The age of the Homo antecessor skeleton, which has been dated to an estimated 772,000 to 949,000 years old, pushes back previous estimates for the split between modern humans and Neanderthals.
As a result, the evolution of modern human species may have taken much longer than estimates from genetic studies – the primary source of previous estimates – had suggested.
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New dating research led by Griffith University has confirmed the great age of fossil remains attributed to a species of human called Homo antecessor found in Spain. Since the body was too old to accurately use carbon dating, the researchers used the tooth in the skull

The fossil was unearthed along with 160 other examples of human remains from the Atapuerca Gran Dolina site in Spain, where archaeologists have been working since the 1990s.
As the skeleton was so old, scientists were unable to use carbon dating to determine its age.
Instead, Professor Rainer Grün and Dr Mathieu Duval of the Australian Research Centre for Human Evolution (ARCHE) worked with an international team of researchers to accurately date the Homo antecessor remains using one of its teeth.




The researchers used Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) to age the tooth.
This technique was previously only used on large mammals, but has more recently been adapted for use on human teeth, via a non-destructive new procedure.
ESR measures the dose of natural radiation received by the tooth enamel, allowing scientists to determine the age of the tooth by the amount of radiation it has collected in its lifetime.

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The skeleton is an example of Homo antecessor – believed to be the final common ancestor shared by Homo sapiens and Neanderthals before the two species split for good


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The researchers used Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) on a sample of tooth from the remains to date the skeleton. Pictured top-left: the region on the tooth where scientists took a small fragment. The small chunk (bottom left) was analysed to determine the dose of natural radiation received by the enamel in its lifetime



Pictured left is the fragments of tooth, as seen from all angles. For scale – the line at the bottom of the image is one centimetre (0.3 inches). The chart (pictured right) shows the spatial distribution of the remains where the tooth was found, with the tooth highlighted with a star in F14 of the archaeological dig in northern Spain

However, before scientists could use ESR, they had to make sure that no uranium had been leached from the tooth into the ground around the body.
Dr Duval and his team analysed soil samples from the dig site at Atapuerca Gran Dolina.
The researchers were able to narrow their estimated age to 772,000 to 949,000 years-old for the ancient Homo antecessor skeleton.
‘We faced many challenges during this study, and without the active participation of all these specialists, it would not have been possible to obtain any meaningful and reliable result,’ Dr Duval explained.
WHO WERE THE HOMO ANTECESSORS?
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A lifelike model of a Homo antecessor female is posed scooping out the brains of decapitated head

Homo antecessor is one of the earliest known varieties of human discovered in Europe, dating as far back as one million years ago.
Believed to have weighed around 14 stone, Homo antecessor was said to have been between 5.5 and 6ft tall.
Their brain sizes were roughly between 1,000 and 1,150 cm³, which is smaller than the average 1,350 cm³ brains of modern humans.
The species is believed to have been right-handed, making it different from other apes, and may have used a symbolic language, according to archaeologists who found remains in Burgos, Spain in 1994.
How Homo antecessor may be related to other Homo species in Europe has a subject of fierce debate.
Many anthropologists believe there was an evolutionary link between Homo ergaster and Homo heidelbergensis.
Archaeologist Richard Klein claims Homo antecessor was a separate species completely, that evolved from Homo ergaster.
However, others claim Homo antecessor is actually the same species as Homo heidelbergensis, who lived in Europe between 600,000 and 250,000 years ago in the Pleistocene era.
In 2010 stone tools were found at the same site in Happisburgh, Norfolk, believed to have been used by Homo antecessor.
Scientists believe that these early human species would breed with one another on a regular basis.
Dr Matthias Meyer, a palaeogeneticist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, in Leipzig, Germany said: 'The evolutionary history of archaic humans in the Middle Pleistocene was quite complex.
'It could be that both the ancestors of the Sima people and Denisovans interbred with another archaic group like Homo antecessor or Homo erectus.
'Or it is possible that the mitochondrial DNA we know from late Neanderthals came in from another group that left Africa.'

[url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url]

Professor Grün added: ‘We had to use the most advanced analytical techniques to date this tooth fragment, and had to go several times to the site in order to accurately reconstruct the sedimentary environment.’
The date obtained by tooth analysis could radically alter our understanding of the evolution of mankind.
Homo antecessor is one of the earliest known varieties of human discovered in Europe, dating as far back as one million years ago.
Believed to have weighed around 14 stone, Homo antecessor was said to have been between 5.5 and 6ft tall.
Their brain sizes were roughly between 1,000 and 1,150 cm³, which is smaller than the average 1,350 cm³ brains of modern humans.
The species is believed to have been right-handed, making it different from other apes, and may have used a symbolic language, according to archaeologists who found remains in Burgos, Spain in 1994.

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Archaeologists found some 160 examples of Homo antecessor remains in the Atapuerca Gran Dolina dig site. This picture, taken by Mario Modesto Mata, shows the scale of the operation at the dig, which has now heralded the first dated example of Homo antecessor


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The fossilised examples of early man were unearthed at a site in Atapuerca, in northern Spain. To date, this is the only Homo antecessor remains which have been dated, researchers say

How Homo antecessor may be related to other Homo species in Europe has a subject of fierce debate.
Many anthropologists believe there was an evolutionary link between Homo ergaster and Homo heidelbergensis.
Others claim Homo antecessor is actually the same species as Homo heidelbergensis, who lived in Europe between 600,000 and 250,000 years ago in the Pleistocene era.
There is also genetic data to suggest these early species of man, like Homo antecessor and Neanderthals, would bred with one another.
Previous studies, based on genetics, claimed that modern humans and Neanderthals split around 516,000 years ago.
Researchers from the Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany analysed one million examples of genetic material from a fossilised leg bone to determine when the two species diverged.
However, the latest findings reveal that Homo antecessor 'pre-dates the estimated divergence age of modern and archaic human lineages' by as much as 433,000 years.
The study was published in the journal, Quaternary Geochronology.
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
三百万年前直立行走的南方古猿,与希腊那据说700万年前直立行走的脚印化石相比,该怎么说呢?


Ancient human ancestors who lived more than three MILLION years ago already walked upright on two feet (but their children spent more time in the trees than adults)

  • Experts studied a skeleton discovered in 2002 in the Dikika region of Ethiopia
  • They analysed the two-and-a-half-year-old's walking patterns based on her foot
  • They found the youngster was already standing on two feet and walking upright
  • But youngsters probably spent more time in the trees than adults, experts say
By Tim Collins For Mailonline
Published: 19:00 BST, 4 July 2018 | Updated: 19:26 BST, 4 July 2018



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More than three million years ago, our ancient human ancestors – including their toddler-aged children – were standing on two feet and walking upright.
That's the finding of experts who examined a tiny foot from a skeleton belonging to a female Australopithecus afarensis, an ancient branch of the human family tree.
However, there are hints in the fossil foot that the individual, known as Selam, was still spending time in the trees, hanging on to her mother as she foraged for food.
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More than three million years ago, our ancient human ancestors - including their toddler-aged children - were standing on two feet and walking upright. A 3.32 million year old foot is shown in different angles on the left, while the child's foot (bottom) is compared with an adult's (top)

Researchers from Dartmouth College studied the skeleton, discovered in 2002 in the Dikika region of Ethiopia
In studying the fossil foot's remarkably preserved anatomy, the research team strived to reconstruct what life would have been like for this toddler.
They examined what the foot would have been used for, how it developed and what it tells us about human evolution.
The fossil record indicates these ancient ancestors were already quite adept at walking on two legs.
Based on the skeletal structure of the child's foot, specifically, the base of the big toe, the youngsters probably spent more time in the trees than adults, experts say
'For the first time, we have an amazing window into what walking was like for a two and a half year-old, more than three million years ago,' said lead author, Jeremy DeSilva, an associate professor of anthropology at Dartmouthz.



'This is the most complete foot of an ancient juvenile ever discovered.
'Walking on two legs is a hallmark of being human. But, walking poorly in a landscape full of predators is a recipe for extinction.
'If you were living in Africa three million years ago without fire, without structures, and without any means of defence, you'd better be able get up in a tree when the sun goes down.'


Researchers from Dartmouth College studied the skeleton, discovered in 2002 in the Dikika region of Ethiopia. This image shows the incomplete skeleton in its entirety


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The Dikika foot is one part of a partial skeleton of a 3.32 million-year-old skeleton of an Australopithecus afarensis child (left). The image on the right shows the 3.32 million-year-old foot superimposed over a footprint from a human toddler

The fossil contains the most complete spinal column of any early human relative, including vertebrae, neck and rib cage.
Given that the fossil of the foot is the same species as the famous Lucy fossil and was found in the same vicinity, she was incorrectly known as 'Lucy's baby'.
Lucy's skeleton was uncovered in the Afar region of Ethiopia in the 1970s, and is the most complete of any upright, walking human ancestor.
This youngster lived more than 200,000 years before Lucy and - at the age of just two and a half - was already walking on two legs.

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Our genus was predated by other species on the human family tree including various representatives of the genus Australopithecus, of which Lucy and Selam belonged to

WHO WAS THE HUMAN ANCESTOR LUCY AND WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT HER? Lucy's remains were uncovered in the Afar region of Ethiopia in the 1970s.
Paleontologists believe she is the best preserved example of Australopithecus afarensis, an ancient branch of the human family tree.
The mineralised skeleton is believed to be 3.18 million years old and is the most complete of any upright, walking human ancestor.
Previous studies suggested that Lucy was just 4 ft tall (122 cm) and weighted just 65 lbs (29 kg).

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Lucy's remains were uncovered in the Afar region of Ethiopia in the 1970s. Paleontologists believe she is the best preserved example of Australopithecus afarensis, an ancient branch of the human family tree.

Since her discovery, researchers have debated whether she spent her life in the trees or spent time walking on the plains as well.
Combining the new data paints a picture of an ancestor which may have spent a considerable amount of her time in trees.
Lucy's skeleton, discovered in 1974 in the Afar region of Ethiopia, has been the subject of vigorous debate concerning the role of arborealism in early human evolution"Placed at a critical time and the cusp of being human, Australopithecus afarensis was more derived than Ardipithecus (a facultative biped) but not yet an obligate strider like Homo erectus. The Dikika foot adds to the wealth of knowledge on the mosaic nature of hominin skeletal evolution"










[url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url]

It was discovered in Dikika, Ethiopia in 2000 by researchers at the University of Chicago.
The two-and-a-half-year-old child who was from the species Australopithecus afarensis – the same species as the famous Lucy skeleton.
'Placed at a critical time and the cusp of being human, Australopithecus afarensis was more derived than Ardipithecus, a facultative biped, but not yet an obligate strider like Homo erectus,' added Zeresenay Alemseged, a professor of organismal biology and anatomy at the University of Chicago and senior author of the study.
'The Dikika foot adds to the wealth of knowledge on the mosaic nature of hominin skeletal evolution.
'These findings are critical for understanding the dietary and ecological adaptation of these species and are consistent with our previous research on other parts of the skeleton especially, the shoulder blade.'
The full findings were published in the journal Science Advances.

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The fossil, known as 'Selam', contains the most complete spinal column of any early human relative and was discovered in Dikika, Ethiopia, in 2000
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-7-14 00:32 编辑

188# 癯鹤

哼!气死我了,不止是断网频繁,而且电脑时常反应极慢。当然也有顺畅好用时候,没有对比就没有伤害,一对比就感觉肯定是被黑客使坏!难以释怀呀,他们造成了多少破坏,就是为了让后倾维持前清的文字狱态势?呜呼,连科技新闻我都没能看几篇!比如下面这篇,没看完,有次就断网(有不会的词,得用网络查),后来只能重启。我看科技文章都吃力得很呢!
非洲单一起源论的开山师爷也开始支持多地区起源论了——不过还是非洲内部的多地区起源,也算是给咱的一些思索的侧面助攻。是不是原始人类从欧亚进化得更高级然后回迁非洲,也说不准吧?

Rewriting the story of humanity's origins: Fossil records suggest our ancestors evolved right across Africa and not just in one regionhttp://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5942593/Rewriting-story-humanitys-origins.html(竟然连地址栏都复制不了,复制的历史记录里的链接)

  • Experts found humans were not fully formed when they spread across the world
  • Primitive skulls and bones of homo sapiens do not show a linear progression
  • Instead the development is much more patchy from primitive to modern
  • It took hundreds of thousands of years before all humans began to look as we do
By Colin Fernandez Science Correspondent For The Daily Mail
Published: 16:18 BST, 11 July 2018 | Updated: 18:56 BST, 11 July 2018



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For years, scientists believed that humans evolved in a single spot in Africa and this large band of people spread around the world.
It is as though there was a ‘Garden of Eden’, where humanity first began, before going forth and multiplying.
But a new study says the fossil record does not support humans being fully formed when they spread across the world.
Instead early humans had a huge variation in the sizes and shapes of their heads, undergoing a series of genetic and cultural shifts that led to modern humanity.
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A new study says the fossil record does not support humans being fully formed when they spread across the world. Left: African skull from around 300,000 years ago Right: Skull from the Levant dating from around 95,000 years ago

Primitive skulls and bones of homo sapiens do not show a linear progression from primitive to modern.
Instead the development is much more patchy - showing that it took hundreds of thousands of years before all humans began to look as we do today.
Studies of the DNA of modern day Africans - the most genetically diverse continent on Earth - paints a similar picture.
It shows human populations across the continent are so different they must have been separated for huge chunks of time.




Scientists now suggest there must have been, multiple areas where different groups of humans developed different physical features.
These early bands of early humans then interbred over millennia. Only then did modern humans as we know them develop.
The fossil record suggests early homo sapiens were a patchwork quilt of different groups.
Dr Eleanor Scerri, an archaeologist at Oxford University, who led the international research, told The Guardian: 'This single origin, single population view has stuck in people’s mind … but the way we’ve been thinking about it is too simplistic.'

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The spread of humans led to local adaptation and development of unique primitive technologies. This image shows Middle Stone Age cultural artefacts from northern and southern Africa

Modern humans have small, slender faces, large round braincases, and chins.
If these features only evolved in one group of humans, we might expect to see a series of skulls going from larger to smaller faces, and gradually bigger, rounder braincases.
The fossil picture is much more complicated.
For example, skulls dating to 300,000 years ago found at Jebel Irhoud in Morocco - have small faces like modern humans.
But instead of a spherical braincase, theirs is long and elongated.
Meanwhile early human fossils dating more recently to 160,000 years ago - at Herto in Ethiopia - had big ‘robust’ faces - unlike us - but with ‘globular’ braincases like ours.
Professor Chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum and Dr Scerri have put forward the case in the journal Trends in Ecology and Evolution.
The authors said early humans were largely kept apart by a combination of diverse habitats and shifting environmental boundaries, such as forests and deserts.
Many of the most inhospitable regions in Africa today, such as the Sahara, were once wet and green, with interwoven networks of lakes and rivers, and abundant wildlife.

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Designers used the fossils to recreate what they think the first Homo sapiens across Africa looked like 300,000 years ago. But the new research suggests early humans had a huge variation in the sizes and shapes of their heads



Experts discover climate change aided early human migration








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Similarly, some tropical regions that are humid and green today were once arid.
The shifting nature of these habitable zones meant human populations would have gone through many cycles of isolation.
This led to local adaptation and the development of unique primitive technologies - stone tools - and genetic makeup.
Professor Stringer pioneered the idea one big human population developed in Africa and spread worldwide - but now concedes this does not fit the facts.
He said when we look at human bones over the last 300,000 years ‘we see a complex mix of archaic and modern features in different places and at different times.
‘We do see a continental-wide trend towards the modern human form, but some archaic features are present until remarkably recently.’
When it comes to the development of stone tools, the pattern is also mixed.
Sometimes sophisticated tools appear further back in the fossil record, while cruder ones appear more recently - suggesting innovations occurred at different spots on the map at different times.
Prof Chris Stringer added: ‘Although I am one of the researchers who originally helped to develop the view that our species, Homo sapiens, had originated in Africa, I have increasingly come to the realisation that our African origin was a complex process.
‘The great diversity of African fossils between 200,000 and 400,000 years ago suggests that multiple lineages existed on the African continent at that time.’

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This artist's impression shows the patchwork of diverse fossils, artefacts and environments across Africa indicate that our species emerged from the interactions between a set of interlinked populations living across the continent, whose connectivity changed through time

Dr Scerri, said the stone tools discovered across Africa also don’t show a clear progression from crude to sophisticated.
She added that while there ‘is a continental-wide trend’ to greater sophistication over time, she said: ‘this ‘modernization’ clearly doesn’t originate in one region or occur at one time period.’
Professor Mark Thomas said the genetic patterns found in modern day Africans also support the idea.
He said: ‘It is difficult to reconcile the genetic patterns we see in living Africans, and in the DNA extracted from the bones of Africans who lived over the last 10,000 years, with there being one ancestral human population.’
Dr Scerri said: ‘The evolution of human populations in Africa was multi-regional. Our ancestry was multi-ethnic. And the evolution of our material culture was, well, multi-cultural.’
The full findings of the study were published in the journal Trends in Ecology & Evolution.

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
我的系统里面的IE浏览器并非正规行货,人家也提示我了,但是没银子换个好的。所以现在一些英文网站不显示图片,也算是咎由自取。
我换了一下2345浏览器,很好,能看图了。
法国人忌讳越发老欧洲了?出土什么遗骸都首先撇清关系!
海德堡人、直立人真就不是现代智人鼻祖?人类出非洲理论颠仆不灭?非洲疣猪的典当铺,还质押了他们多少信仰?


'Exceptional' 560,000-year-old child's milk tooth found in French cave could reveal the secrets of our ancestors
  • Researchers say tooth belonged to human sub-species homo heidelbergensis
  • Shares features with both modern humans and our homo erectus ancestors
  • The five year old was believed to have died prematurely  

By
MARK PRIGG FOR DAILYMAIL.COM


and
AFP


PUBLISHED:
21:59 BST, 24 July 2018
|
UPDATED:
22:17 BST, 24 July 2018





French and Spanish volunteer archeologists have discovered a 'exceptional' child's milk tooth dating back 560,000 years in the mountains of southern
France.
The fossil was discovered in the Arago Cave, a vast prehistoric grotto at Tautavel on the French side of the Pyrenees mountains bordering
Spain.
Experts say the tooth belonged to a child of around five, and the site's laboratory confirmed the tooth belonged to a human sub-species, likely homo heidelbergensis, which shares features with both modern humans and our homo erectus ancestors.
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The fossil was discovered in the Arago Cave, a vast prehistoric grotto at Tautavel on the French side of the Pyrenees mountains bordering Spain. Pictured, teeth and other remains found at the site



WHO WAS TAUTAVEL MAN? The Arago cave is thought to have been occupied sometime between 600,000 and 400,000 years ago and is the earliest known human site in the Pyrenees.
Tools including scrapers and choppers have been found in the cave but perhaps most significantly were the fossilised remains of two Homo erectus adults.
The male, believed to be around 20, and female, aged between 40 and 55, are thought to have lived in the cave around 450,000 years ago.
They are thought to have eaten elk, fallow deer, reindeer, musk ox and bison.
Analysis of the animal bones have allowed anthropologists to estimate the inhabitants hunted up to 21 miles away and collected stone for tools from 3.1 miles away.


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[/url][url=][/url]



'The tooth likely belonged to a child aged five or six, who still had their milk teeth but had used them a fair amount,' said Tony Chevalier, a paleoanthropologist at the University of Perpignan and the research centre in Tautavel.
Researchers have so far only dated the soil around the tooth, rather than the tooth itself.
The tooth is estimated to date back 560,000 years - give or take 5,000 years - which would make it 100,000 years older than the famous Tautavel Man whose skull was found at the same site in 1971.
Researchers said the find was 'exceptional' as human remains dating back to this period are extremely rare, although a few teeth from the era have been found previously at the Arago Cave.
Chevalier said the milk tooth - the first found at the site - would 'teach us lots of things about man's behaviour' at the time.
The tooth was found last July, and is a record breaking find.
'It's one of the oldest human remains discovered in France, and the oldest child' Gaël Becam, a research professor at the European Center for Prehistoric Research of Tautavel told Le Figaro.  
He said the fact the tooth had a root meant the child died prematurely, as it has not got old enough for the tooth to break off.   
None of the individuals found in Tautavel would be our direct ancestors, he said.
'All of the human remains of Tautavel are from Homo heidelbergensis'


Homo heidelbergensis lived in Europe, between 650,000 and 300,000 years ago, just before Neanderthal man.
Analysis of the tooth could reveal the secrets of Homo heidelbergensis.  
'This is quite a rare discovery,' said Becam.
'By analysing the marks from use on the tooth, we can learn more about their eating habits for example.'
The tooth was found in the middle of many animal remains, which indicates this child and its family ate a lot of meat.
WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT HOMO HEIDELBERGENSIS?Homo heidelbergensis lived in Europe, between 650,000 and 300,000 years ago, just before Neanderthal man.
Homo heidelbergensis, shares features with both modern humans and our homo erectus ancestors.  
The early human species had a very large browridge, and a larger braincase and flatter face than older early human species.


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Homo heidelbergensis lived in Europe, between 650,000 and 300,000 years ago, just before Neanderthal man



It was the first early human species to live in colder climates, and had a    short, wide body adapted to conserve heat.
It lived at the time of the oldest definite control of fire and use of wooden spears, and it was the first early human species to routinely hunt large animals.
This early human also broke new ground; it was the first species to build shelters, creating simple dwellings out of wood and rock.
Males were on average 5 ft 9 in (175 cm) and weighed 136lb (62kg) while females averaged 5 ft 2 in (157 cm) and weighed in at 112 lbs (51 kg).
Source:
Smithsonian


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A museum spokesman said: 'This tooth will be scanned, studied under a microscope, which will help understand more about its development, its food.'
Archaeologists hope to find bones from the owner of the tooth by the end of August.
The tooth will be exhibited at the museum in future.
Researchers have long grappled with the question of how people lived in the cave at Tautavel, where some 150 ancient human fossils have been found.
They have yet to determine whether it was a temporary shelter where our ancestors stopped off for a hunting break, or whether families made it a more permanent home -- a mystery the milk tooth could help solve.
They previously found a tooth belonging to one of the earliest human species to live in Europe in the French cave.


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The Arago Cave is on the outskirts of Tautavel in south east France, as shown on the map above



Anthropologists described the adult tooth, which is thought to be between 550,000 and 580,000 years old, as a 'major discovery'.
It was found embedded in the rocky soil on the floor of the Arago Cave in Tautavel in the Pyrenees-Orientales area of southern France, by a 16-year-old volunteer archaeologist.
Camille Jacquey discovered the tooth while brushing away the sandy soil that has filled the floor of the cave.
The cave is the same site where the remains of two 450,000-year-old early humans – a male and a female - from a species called Homo erectus were found around 46 years ago.


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A tooth previously discovered in a cave in the Pyrenees of southern France has been found to be between 550,000 and 580 years old. It is thought to belong to one of the earliest human species to live in Europe, Homo erectus



Dr Amelie Viallet, a palaeoanthropologist with the Institut de Paléontologie Humaine in Paris who has been leading the excavation, said the new find predated that by more than 100,000 years.
It suggests the cave had been inhabited by early humans for far longer than had originally been thought.
Dr Viallet said: 'A large adult tooth - we can't say if it was from a male or female - was found during excavations of soil we know to be between 550,000 and 580,000 years old, because we used different dating methods.
'This is a major discovery because we have very few human fossils from this period in Europe.'
The cave in Tautavel has been excavated for around 50 years after flint stone tools were discovered in the cave.
The remains of a female Homo erectus, believed to have been in her forties, were found in 1969 and the remains of a man aged around 20 were later uncovered in 1971.
Stone tools and animal bones also found at the cave have suggested the people who lived there, nicknamed Tautavel man, ranged for up to 30 miles in search of food and resources.


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The tooth was discovered by volunteer archaeologist Camille Jacquey, shown right in the image above, and Valentine Loescher, shown on the left holding the tooth, while taking part in an excavation of the cave



The discovery of the new tooth, which was badly worn indicating it belonged to a relatively old adult, now shows these early humans were using the cave far earlier than had been imagined.
The remains, however, are not the oldest human fossils to be discovered in western Europe as a jawbone found in Spain has been dated to 1.2 million years old.
There is also indirect evidence for hominids in Europe date to between one and two million years ago.


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The tooth will now be analysed to see if experts can learn any more about the species it belonged to, what they were eating and how they lived, which can be locked within the minerals of the fossilised tooth




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There have been numerous archaeological digs at the Arago Cave in Tautavel (shown above) as which have revealed numerous animal remains along with the remains of the early human inhabitants



However, the remains show just how far Homo erectus had spread from its ancestral home in Africa.
It is likely the tooth – an adult incisor - belongs to Homo erectus as it is thought to be the only species of early human to have extended into Europe at the time.
However, tests are still to be carried out on the tooth, which has been given the designation Arago 149, to determine more about it.
It was found by a Miss Jacquey while she was taking part in summer excavation work in the cave.
She had been working with another young archaeologist, Valentine Loescher, when they uncovered the tooth.

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
昨天看到凤凰周刊一篇文章霍比特人再可爱,也敌不过人类祖先的残忍屠杀_凤凰资讯,勾起了我对佛罗勒斯人的兴趣,特地搜录一篇新闻:

研究称真实“霍比特人”或是最早人种之一 http://cnpic.crntt.com/resource/ima ...
忽然想到佛罗勒斯人遗骸出土了很多具,虽然热带地区不利于保存有机物,但既然骨骸都那么完整,应该也还会有遗传物质封存在其中吧!至今未见有机构测试分析佛罗勒斯人的基因,真是奇怪!
虽是矮人,但是对于人类演化史绝对意义非凡,测试基因说不定会有石破天惊的发现呢!
癯鹤 发表于 2017-6-23 22:00
一则相关基因研究,不过提到了没有检测佛罗勒斯人古DNA,只是证明了佛罗勒斯岛今天存在的矮黑人“断然”不是佛罗勒斯人的后裔,因为矮黑人的基因属于今日智人族。佛罗勒斯岛两次进化出“霍比特人”,这种岛屿矮化现象,只是趋同进化而已。是食物来源减少造成了这种现象(食物影响人类进化呀)。想想倭奴——爱奴——阿伊努人个子矮,也是这种岛屿矮化现象呢。岛屿没法迁徙,人们只能自生自灭(除了已经能航海自由迁徙的岛夷)。这也证明大陆只要足够大,人类只要容易发生饥荒,上古狩猎采集人群无余粮,必然会远距离迁徙,这也是全数迁移理论的立论基础。


Indonesian 'Hobbit island' causes human bodies to shrink: Two separate species have decreased in height within the last 60,000 years to cope with the food shortage
  • There is no DNA evidence linking Homo floresiensis to modern day pygmys
  • Both species are renown for their small stature, measuring just 3ft (0.9m) tall
  • Both lived on the island of Flores, but evolved small height independently
  • Scientists believe natural selection dictates there is a genetic advantage to being short on the Indonesian island

By
JOE PINKSTONE FOR MAILONLINE


PUBLISHED:
11:17 BST, 3 August 2018
|
UPDATED:
14:58 BST, 3 August 2018





The small Indonesian
island of Flores is known for its short inhabitants.
The first, an early hominid species known as Homo floresiensis that inhabited the island 60,000 years ago, measured just three feet (0.9 metres) tall.
Researchers nicknamed the ancient species 'Hobbits' in reference to the short species of humanoid found in JRR Tolkien's The Lord Of The Rings saga.
These days, the island is called home by pygmy humans whose average height is 4 feet 9 inches (1.4 metres) – a foot shorter than the average height of a US man.
Until now, researchers suspected the 60,000 year-old Homo floresiensis species was related to the modern day pygmies who inhabit the island.
However, new research has shown these two populations have no DNA in common. Instead, restricted height is favoured by natural selection on the Indonesian island.
According to new research, smaller humans have evolved separately on two occasions on the island of Flores, indicating it has an evolutionary advantage and aids in human survival on the 5,227 square mile (13,540 km²) island.
Although the exact reason for the phenomenon, known as 'convergent evolution', is not yet clear, researchers believe it could be linked to the shortage of food on Flores.
Scroll down for video


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A skull of a Flores man. Homo floresiensis, measured just three feet tall and is unrelated to the modern day pygmy humans that call the island home



Scientists had wondered whether modern mankind (Homo sapiens) could have mixed with the ancient 'Hobbit' population when they first arrived on the island thousands of years ago.
This would have led to Homo floresiensis genes being passed down to modern day pygmies on the island.
However, there is no genetic trace of the ancient 'Hobbit' species in the current inhabitants living on Flores.


A team of researchers, led by Princeton University, broke down the DNA of the modern day pygmy population on the island and compared it to the genomes of people from around the world to see if this was the case.
The team took saliva samples from 32 individuals from a village called Rampasasa.
DNA has always been impossible to extract from Homo floresiensis remains, so the researchers compared the samples with other groups of living people.


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Being small has now evolved twice on Flores, indicating it has an evolutionary advantage and aids in survival. This phenomenon is known as convergent evolution and other examples exist all around the world. The skulls are much smaller (top) than normal humans (bottom)




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A profile view of a H. floresiensis skull. The skull's sloping forehead and lack of chin suggest that the early humans were primitive



WHO WERE THE FLORES HOBBITS? Standing a little over 3ft (0.9 metres) tall, the inhabitants of Liang Bua cave on the remote Indonesian island of Flores are known from just a few fragmented remains.
The first remains were found in 2003 and since then partial skeletons of nine individuals, including one complete skull have been unearthed.
Researchers believe the little people were descendants of prehistoric humans, who became isolated on the island around one million years ago.
There are various theories for how they got there.
Some believe they may have walked across a landbridge from the mainland Asia and as sea levels rose they became cut off.
Others suggest they were swept to the island following a tsunami.
Once cut off, these hominins then had to survive on what food they could find, they evolved a small stature.
Scientists have previously said they were clever hunters because they had found evidence of toolmaking, butchering and fires.

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Jaw bones of H. floresiensis. The jaw slopes backwards, which suggests that Flores were a primitive species of human




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Modern-day non-Africans, including the pygmy populations on Flores, have slivers of DNA from Denisovians and Neanderthals, other similar species that lived thousands of years ago



Dr Serena Tucci explained: 'We used a statistical method that is able to find traces of Neanderthals and Denisovans in the genomes of living people.
'Then, using the same method, we looked for other DNA read-outs that showed ancestry from long ago.
'None were found, indicating that it is unlikely that Hobbits contributed to the gene-pool of modern day pygmies.'   
They found that despite morphological similarities between the two groups, they are completely unrelated.
Homo floresiensis went extinct around 12,000 years ago but there is reason to believe they co-existed with early Homo sapiens.
The new analysis, published in
Science, found no trace of the Hobbit DNA in the present-day people and dispels the theory that an early Homo sapien ancestor interbred with the Hobbits, causing a crossover in DNA.


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Homo floresiensis (pictured) is a primitive human species that stood at just 3ft (0.9 metres) tall. Pictured is an artist's reconstruction of the species




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H. floresiensis lived in Liang Bua cave on the remote Indonesian island of Flores and are known from just a few fragmented remains



'It's rare in science that you set about to answer a question and you get something of a definitive answer and it's the end,' said Richard Green, a geneticist at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and a co-author of the study.
'The answer is a clear enough 'no' that I'm done with it.'   
The discovery lends credence to the concept that small islands drive evolution at a rapid rate, and animals adapt to fill ecological niches that are left unfilled in isolated microcosms of the world.
Dr Green said: 'My colleague Professor Peter Visscher identified the gene variants that determine the short stature of pygmies - and found that they are the same ones that also occur in other modern-day humans.
'Together, the evidence makes it unlikely that the pygmies are in any way derived from Hobbits.'
Humans are not the only mammalian species to shrink on the island, as remains of now-extinct tiny elephants have previously been found on the island.
They too were descended from taller ancestors and independently evolved a smaller body size.







The shape of the skull suggested that the tiny people had small brains and may not have been intelligent as other Hominin species



HOW DO WE KNOW WHEN THE HOBBITS EVOLVED?








An artist used information from fossiled remains to create a detailed 3D reconstruction of a Flores woman



Researchers have finally discovered that the tiny island dwellers evolved from one the earliest species of human more than 1.75 million years ago.
Where previous research had focused mostly on the skull and lower jaw, this study used 133 data points ranging across the skull, jaws, teeth, arms, legs and shoulders.
The researchers found that many parts of the body indicated that Homo floresiensis was more primitive than previously thought.
The findings casts doubt on the widely held assumption that the islanders evolved from Homo erectus, a more modern species of human. Dr Debbie Argue, from the Australian National University, talked through these body parts with MailOnline.
Arms and legs: 'It's got relatively short legs that make the arms appear long,' she said.
'Not as long as, say, a chimpanzee, but way outside the range of modern humans.'


Feet: 'It's got long feet compared to the length of the legs,' Dr Argue said.
'Even though they were such short, one-metre tall beings.
'Again, this is way outside the range we see in modern humans.'
Shoulders: 'Its shoulders are shrugged and face forward,' she said.
Skull: Dr Argue said: 'The skull is low, widest around the level of the ears; and it has a sloping forehead.
'It has a mound of bone in the eyebrow area that extends around the outside of the eye area.
'It has no chin. Instead the jaw slopes backwards.'
Pelvis:
'The pelvis is like that of Australopithecus afarensis,' she said. A. afarensis is an human-like ape that lived 3.9 million years ago.

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Leg bones of the Flores man. The species had short legs and long arms, a feature common of early humans and modern apes such as the chimpanzee




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A profile view of the Flores woman. We are no closer to understanding why the island people, who lived on Flores for more than one million years, suddenly died out



Standing only to the shoulder of an average person, the reason Flores causes the shrinking populations remains unknown.   
One leading hypothesis for the evolution of the pygmy body type is a shortage of food. A smaller body demands fewer calories and may offer a survival advantage.
Dr Green said: 'If the circumstances are right, then natural selection can act on inherited variation to create a small-bodied population over a short time.  
'Whatever the ecological factors are for island dwarfism are, they are present in spades on this island.
'That's what makes it so fascinating.'
The phenomenon of convergent evolution is not unique to Flores, as there are examples of it dotted all around the world.
Madagascar is one of the most intriguing examples as it remained untouched and isolated for centuries, allowing an evolutionary path to carve its way out completely independently of any foreign species.
Animals live on Madagascar that resemble hedgehogs, called tenrecs, both have pointed skin and behave similarly, but are genetically extremely different.  


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Shoulder bones of H. floresiensis. The species had sloping shoulders, a feature of our earliest human ancestors




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An artist used features of the skull to recreate the face of a Flores woman. The artist first estimated the points of muscle attachment and then used software to add a layer of skin



http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-8-6 12:26 编辑

旧闻非常有意义,只是以前没注意。东南亚是真有戏,值得好好来学习。
人类进化,其中有数。这些年代也符合地球公转轨道40.5万年变动周期(和20万年半周期)呀!

发现183万年前手斧 马来西亚或是人类发源地之一


来源: 神秘的地球

  • 时间:2012年7月10日 00:14

玲珑谷地遗址

石器

玲珑谷地考古博物馆

玲珑谷地遗址地面上的灰状沉积物约4米厚

考古专家正在挖掘象头山老虎洞洞穴,大约1.3万年到2000年前,这里曾经有人类居住过。

霹雳州玲珑谷地海拔400米。考古遗址坐落在郁郁葱葱的玲珑谷地,分为2个区域,共有4处考古遗址。

理大考古系副教授莫达赛汀手持的就是超过180万年的手斧。桌上为经日本专家化验过的“冲击凝灰角砾岩”。

莫达赛汀带领媒体到武吉武农实地考察,并示范石器时代的古人如何在生活中巧妙地使用石头。

在6月30日俄罗斯圣彼得堡召开的第36届世界遗产大会上,马来西亚霹雳州的玲珑谷地考古遗址成功入选“世界文化遗产”。考古学者认为,玲珑谷地考古遗址当地发现183万年前的手斧,很可能可以证明马来西亚是人类发源地之一。

霹雳州介于马来西亚北部的吉打州及南部的雪兰莪州之间,总面积共有2.1万平方公里。霹雳州的风景非常迷人一向被称为“恩典之地”。考古遗址坐落在郁郁葱葱的玲珑谷地,分为2个区域,共有4处考古遗址。

考古学家曾于1991年在玲珑谷地发现“霹雳人”的古人类遗骸,这至少证明马来西亚在1万年多前已经有人类居住。考古专家称在玲珑谷地发现从183万年前至1000年的前历史序列,遗址的历史跨越约200万年,是目前全球在单个地方所能发现的跨越时段最长的早期人类记录之一,也是非洲大陆以外最古老的人类遗址。

这里的考古遗址中既有露天遗址,也有洞穴遗址,还可以找到旧石器时代打造工具的场所以及早期技术的证据。在相对有限的区域内发现的遗址数量表明,这里曾出现过一个相对较大、半定居的人群,其文化遗产可追溯到旧石器时代、新石器时代及金属时代。

玲珑谷地遗迹最古老最集中

玲珑是马来西亚霹雳州的一座小镇,位于怡宝市以北100公里。随着挖掘发现史前时代的许多遗迹,玲珑谷地已成为马来西亚最重要、也是半岛已知有人类活动的最古老遗址。玲珑谷地好比一座露天博物馆,是传说、骨骼、洞穴绘画和珠宝、陶器、兵器和石器等珍贵发现的所在地。玲珑谷地的许多洞穴已发现古人类居住和狩猎的证据。

马来西亚最早发现的遗迹是在沙捞越的尼亚洞穴中发现的人类头骨,距今大约4万年。在马来西亚半岛,玲珑谷地的历史之前被认为只有3.1万年,而且考古遗迹全部出自洞穴。两个例外是哥打淡边和武吉爪哇遗址,玲珑是半岛唯一的旧石器时代遗址。

哥打淡边是已知马来西亚最早的人类居住遗址,1938年开始发掘,发现保存完好的石制工具作坊。已发现并记录的石具有约5万件,距今已有7.5万年。据认为,作坊被毁是250公里外苏门答腊岛的多巴湖发生火山喷发所致。后来,考古队一直在武吉爪哇遗址挖掘,该遗址经证实已有20万年,远比6公里外的哥打淡边作坊的历史更久远。

玲珑谷地已发现的证据表明人类从旧石器时代已在这里定居。遗址还包括哥打淡边、武吉爪哇的戈洛克村和提米隆村。在玲珑谷地最著名的考古发现是“霹雳人”,1991年发现的人类遗骸距今已1.1万年。戈洛克村和提米隆村出土的石具距今已10万年。同时还有证据表明象头山老虎洞在青铜时代是青铜制造遗址。

玲珑的史前史可追溯到旧石器时代,但多数遗址出自新石器时代。洞穴可能是季节性或狩猎营地等临时避难所,但是人类在象头山老虎洞住得时间更长。出土发现了7具人的骨骼,还有青铜斧以及首饰链、手镯、耳环等珠宝。青铜斧表明,马来西亚、泰国北部和中国早期就会使用青铜,是东南亚使用金属最早的。因此可以看出,玲珑地区是非常重要的,因为它含有马来西亚史前的大量证据,是发现遗迹最古老的地区,而且所有遗址都集中在小范围内。

发现古人类遗骸“霹雳人”

在马来西亚发现的最古老的人类遗骸是在霹雳州,具体地点位于霹雳州玲珑谷地象头山老虎洞。骨骼为男性,身高157厘米,年龄50多岁。它被发现于1991年,骨骼已追溯至大约1.1万年。 2004年,马来西亚理科大学的考古学家小组发现另一具遗骸。这次是“霹雳女”,身高148厘米,年龄40多岁。

“霹雳人”可以追溯到约1.1万年之前,是在这一地区发现的最完整的遗骸之一。出土时发现,他的身体像婴儿一样蜷缩着,右肩处有动物骨骼,身体周围放置着石具。

从法医角度判断,“霹雳人”很可能是一名男子,因为很多其他骨骼表现出强烈的男性特征。他拥有棕色人种的特征,与澳大利亚、巴布亚新几内亚、印度尼西亚和马来西亚一些地区发现的人种一样。他的个头不是很高,大约154厘米。他附近的遗骸经证实为野猪、猴子、巨蜥和鹿等食物沉积物。散落在身体周围的石具多为鹅卵石工具和一些石锤。

有关“霹雳人”遗骸,有两个重要事实需要说明一下。首先是他的左手畸形,这意味着他的左臂和左手比右臂和右手小得多。这种畸形可能是遗传病所致,他的脊椎朝右侧弯曲进一步验证了这点。第二个有趣的事实是,“霹雳人”尽管身体有残疾但还是活到45岁,在当时应该算是高寿了。用一只好手过着捕猎和采集的生活,情况是相当特殊的。

从他的精心安葬判断,他一定是社会地位非常高的人。他们挖了一个坑,然后把他放入坑内,然后放置食品供品,然后用小贝壳覆盖在他的身上,然后摆上更多的产品和工具,然后再铺设一层贝壳,最后用土埋好。这要动用很多的劳力,由此看出此人是受到高度重视的人。再有就是他身体残疾,还活到45岁的高寿年纪,也充分说明了这点。

发现的手斧或颠覆人类起源说

2008年夏季,马来西亚理科大学考古研究中心在沙捞越尼亚洞穴及玲珑谷地两地,发现人类逾2000年前的墓地遗址,大批人类遗骸出土。理大考古系副教授兼大马考古研究中心主任莫达赛汀副教授称,考古新发现,有助于了解在新石器时代,人类在马来西亚的生活踪迹。理大考古系谢明训副教授、沙捞越博物院院长沙尼再益、副院长伊波达丹及日本札幌医科大学副教授松村博文都参与了上述考古活动。

莫达赛汀说,从各种迹象显示,这些人类不是从外地移民而来,而是世世代代生活在洞穴的原住民。他们或许与4万年的尼亚洞人有一脉相传的血缘关系。因此,这项新发现可为考古学家提供一项线索,追溯尼亚洞人的历史,以便填补尼亚洞人远古至新石器时代期间的历史。

马来西亚理科大学考古学系还在霹雳州玲珑的武吉武农发现超过180万年的手斧,甚至比在格鲁吉亚德玛尼西遗址发现的4个早期直立人骨架化石(第一批非洲以外的人类遗骸)更久远。学者推测,马来半岛在此之前已经有人类居住,“人类非洲起源说”将被颠覆。如果一切属实,马来半岛的古人类很有可能是地球上最早的人类。

2009年1月29日,理大考古系召开特别新闻发布会,发表一项惊人的研究,推测在183万年前马来半岛已经出现人类,大大地推前了亚洲的人类史。同时,他们也向媒体展示了在霹雳州所挖掘到的石器用品。理大考古系副教授莫达赛汀博士说,截至目前为止,亚洲最早发现的人类分布在中国和印度尼西亚,分别是距今170万年的中国元谋人和巫山龙骨坡180万年历史的中国“巫山人”。而来自印度尼西亚爪哇的古人类化石,则有181万年。

“考古学界有名的‘莫维斯线理论’一直认为,马来半岛在那时并没有出现手斧之类的石器,也就是说,180万年前马来半岛是空无一人的。但是,我们却在去年于霹雳州发现了32处新的古人类遗迹,而且还挖掘到多个石器,包括一个手斧。经过化验,这些东西证实超过180万年。”莫达赛汀披露,之前来自牛津大学的一些学者来勘察了这些化石后,亦目瞪口呆,同时表示人类历史将要改写。

莫达赛汀博士表示,玲珑区可说是一个最长时间的人类居所地,因为发现了每个时代都有人在这里居住过的历史痕迹,因此非常值得申请入遗。

未来开发 计划待定

莫达赛汀博士表示,在成功入遗后,马来西亚计划将在武吉武农山顶兴建一座瞭望塔,以让公众能够从高空瞭望整个地方。同时,马来西亚也会在那里设立历史数据的讲解告示牌,以便更了解所看到的历史。

马来西亚新闻部的消息指出,基于霹雳玲珑谷地刚刚获得联合国教科文组织批准列入《世界遗产名录》,接下来有许多繁杂的程序和条规必须遵守,目前政府还未决定是否会发展为旅游景点。消息称,马来西亚还在等候联合国教科文组织所列出的各种条件,以符合文化世遗的条规和细节。莫达赛汀,将与国家遗产局负责人一同跟进和协调接下来的工作,确保玲珑谷地的历史遗迹受到严密的保护。


深圳特区报(史春树)


百色手斧挑战“莫氏线”


来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2007年11月25日 16:24






旧大陆“手斧文化圈”和“砍砸器文化圈”的分布(据Movius,1948)

百色盆地主要的旧石器地点分布。1.上宋;2.东增;3.※横山岛;4.大湾;5.沙州;6.※杨屋;7.※ (上此下旦)幕;8.南坡山;9.江凤和大同;10.※百谷;11.※大法;12.※下国;13.※小梅和那练;14.※大梅;15.濑奎;16.那音;17.那坡;18.平合坡;19.三雷;20.新州;21.甘莲;22.百渡;23.高岭坡;24.思林(※:手斧较为集中的地点)

百色盆地地层综合剖面。1.砖红土;2.网纹红土;3.砂砾层;4.黄土状土;5.基岩;6.玻璃陨石;7.旧石器;8.坡积物

50多年前,美国人类学家莫维士(Hallam L.Movius)将旧大陆早期人类划分为两种不同文化的拥有者:一种掌握进步技术(所谓“模式Ⅱ”技术),能打制工艺复杂的手斧;另一种不具备这样的能力,只会打制粗陋的砍砸器和使用未经加工的石片(所谓“模式Ⅰ”技术制品)。 这条无形的、后来被称为“莫氏线”(Movius’line)的技术鸿沟将西方(非洲、中东和欧洲)的灵巧的直立人同他们不那么聪明的东方(亚洲)兄弟分隔开来。莫维士进而把亚洲大陆贬低成为一个文化上“保守的”、“滞后的边缘地区”(Movius,1948),与一派兴旺发达 、朝气蓬勃的地中海周围地区形成鲜明对照。他解释说,在过去200万年间亚洲气候保持稳定,林区面积少有变化。这种环境对生活在那里的人类缺少刺激,使他们不思进取,世世代代处于死水一潭的状态(Movius,1978)。莫维士上述带有明显偏见的学说一开始就受到一些学者的批评。但是,由于证据不力,未能对“莫氏线”在人类学界的权威地区构成真正的威胁。由于莫氏线理论涉及早期人类进化和东西方文化发展格局这一古人类及旧石器考古学的基本而敏感的论题,因而半个世纪以来始终是学术界争论的焦点。同时,“莫氏线”提出的问题也涉及亚洲乃至全球的第四纪环境变迁。所以,理所当然也受到第四纪学界的关注。

广西西部的百色盆地是一个新生代断陷盆地。盆地内的早第三纪湖相地层之上,广泛发育一种很有特色的由河流堆积演化成的第四纪砖红壤层。这种酸性堆积不含化石,却发现了以手斧为代表的大量石制工具。1973年中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所野外队在盆地西端发现一处旧石器遗址。随后几年,地方博物馆将遗址增至数十处,采集石器达四千多件。但是,石器层位不明和遗址年代无法确定使百色石器的重要意义未能显示出来 。

从1986年以来,该所黄慰文主持一项持续的多学科考察计划。来自中央和地方,中国、美国 、日本等国的考古、地质、地球化学、年代测定、古生物等方面的科学家先后加入工作。他们通过考古发掘首先弄清石器层位,继而从地层内发现了与石器共生的玻璃陨石并用它进行同位素年代测定,百色的研究成果开始受到国际同行的注意。1998年3月当黄慰文在西雅图举行的美国考古学会第63届年会上介绍百色手斧,以及中国原子能科学研究院用裂变径迹法测定结果为73.3万年(郭士伦等,1996)时,有关人士当即决定在当月最新一期 《Science》杂志上腾出版面,以“灵巧的中国直立人”为题报道百色的研究工作(Gibbons, 1998)。

2000年3月3日《Science》杂志以彩色封面加评论隆重推出侯亚梅等人合作的百色阶段性研究报告(Gibbons,2000;Hou et al.,2000)。在这篇由考古、地质、地球化学、年代测定等方面的研究人员合作的报告里,以地质背景为基础着重介绍了年代学和考古学的工作。 年代学方面,首次公布由伯克利地质年代中心用氩/氩法测定玻璃陨石所获得的距今80.3万年的结果。百色玻璃陨石是6500万年以来所发生的6次大的彗星撞击地球事件中最近一次的产物,学术界称这期陨石为“Australasian tektites”(“澳-亚陨石”)。上述两种方法的测年均在国际上对该期陨石测定的认可范围之内,其差别主要是不同方法造成。



百色盆地第四级红土阶地(百谷地点)

百谷地点1993年发掘现场

杨屋地点的一件手斧,编号91003,no.1,由大石片制成

百色盆地百谷地点的一件手斧,编号91001,no.1,由大砾石制成

考古学方面,报告用大量观察和测量数据,将百色石器工业与东非的“奥杜韦文化”(又称“模式Ⅰ”工业,代表人类最古老的文化)、手斧文化(又称阿舍利文化,或“模式Ⅱ”技术 )对比,得出百色石器工业在成分、技术和类型等方面,都不属于“模式Ⅰ”工业,而是同西方手斧文化或“模式Ⅱ”的技术水平相当的工业。为了加深读者印象,报告附上由三件百色手斧照片构成的图版,其中一件兼作该期杂志的彩色封面。

百色报告的发表在西方学术界引起很大轰动。不少学者对研究予以肯定和很高评价,认为它“无疑为中国人类学家声称在中国200万年前的人类遗址中发现的石器与同期生活在非洲的古人类所使用的工具同等进步的观点(侯亚梅等,1999)提供有力证据”(加州大学伯克利分校人类学权威克拉克.豪威尔)。西方新闻界争相报道百色发现,掀起一场不大不小的“百色旋风”。与此同时,西方一些学者也对百色研究、主要是玻璃陨石是否出自原生堆积提出疑问。他们说,陨石的年代没有问题,但是未必能够代表石器年代,因为迄今为止世界上还从未发现原地埋藏的该期陨石。这些质疑令我们感到极大的兴奋。因为从百色考察之初,我们就已经关注陨石的埋藏状况并拥有足够证据来证实它们确实来自原生地层。现在,通过质疑使我们进一步认识到百色遗址的研究价值和今后的研究方向。2000年7月28日《Science》 第289卷5479期又辟版面刊登了奥地利、美国、英国学者的质疑和我们的答辩文章(Koeberl et al.,2000)。这些事实表明百色遗址考察确实是一个具有巨大潜力和研究意义的热点课题。


撰稿/侯亚梅 黄慰文(中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所)






非常有意思的是,亚洲可能是人类起源地,而“百色”发音接“玻色”,萨特延德拉·纳特·玻色(Satyendra Nath Bose,1894年1月1日—1974年2月4日) ,印度物理学家,专门研究数学物理。玻色莫不是得到百万年来南亚祖先的加持保佑,另:萨特延德拉(Satyendra)——峡坦亚(Shaitanskoye) ——撒丁岛(Sardegna)——萨拉丁(Salah ad-Din)——索格底亚纳(Sogdiana)——赛义德(Sayyid)——苏鲁锭(sulede)——少典。言与神同在,名起得好呀!(一字千金起名社还是向前向前想钱)

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
朝鲜半岛的新发现,又是类似丹尼索瓦人的指骨舍利呀。2.9万年前,时间很关键,据说要测基因!不知道是男是女,若是男性,单倍群是Y-C、Y-D、Y-N、Y-O、Y-P或是其他呢?哪一个都意义重大!而且小石块若是网坠,比鱼钩的意义还大,因为织网技术比刀矛钩叉要进步很多呀!


韩国江原道旌善郡洞穴发现旧石器时代小石块 还有鱼类脊骨和人类手指骨化石



来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年8月08日 11:37











韩国江原道旌善郡洞穴发现旧石器时代小石块 还有鱼类脊骨和人类手指骨化石


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据海外网(编译/刘强):韩联社7日报道,最近,韩国考古学家在江原道旌善郡的一处洞穴内,发掘出土了14个旧石器时代的小石块。


韩国延世大学博物馆的专家鉴定后认为,这些石灰岩制成的石块,真实身份是系在鱼网底部的网坠。它们的长度在37到56毫米,重量为14到52克不等。通过对其周边地层的放射性碳年代测定分析,网坠距今已有2.9万年的历史。


专家表示,若这一数值属实,那么这批网坠,将是人类捕鱼历史上最古老的遗物。


根据报道,考古队还一并出土了4块鱼类脊骨和1块人类手指骨化石。专家认为,通过DNA检测获得的信息,将会成为有助于研究朝鲜半岛人类历史的重要资料。

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
河南栾川孙家洞中更新世直立人,生长发育模式类似现代人,结合湖南有道之地8——12万年前的现代智人牙齿化石,或许对现代智人亚洲起源说也是一点支持。假如能提取出基因,假如测出现代智人尤其是蒙古人种特有基因片段!那可就有意思了!

河南栾川孙家洞出土中更新世直立人儿童化石



来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年8月08日 12:04







河南栾川孙家洞古人类遗址外景(赵凌霞供图)



河南栾川孙家洞古人类遗址发掘现场(赵凌霞供图)



栾川孙家洞发现的古人类上下颌骨与牙齿化石(赵凌霞供图)



栾川孙家洞发现的古人类下门齿和臼齿化石(赵凌霞供图)



栾川孙家洞发现的动物化石之一(赵凌霞供图)



栾川孙家洞发现的动物化石之二(赵凌霞供图)


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所:赵凌霞研究员等与洛阳市文物考古研究院合作的河南栾川古人类化石研究最新成果发表于近期《人类学学报》(第37卷第2期)。文章报道了栾川孙家洞出土的中更新世直立人化石,尤其重要的是发现了直立人儿童化石,为解读东亚地区古人类演化提供了宝贵证据。


围绕东亚直立人演化与现代人起源问题争议依然激烈,中更新世古人类化石是解决这一难题的关键。河南栾川孙家洞位于秦岭东端支脉伏牛山区,在栾川乡湾滩村的哼呼崖上,伊河南岸。洛阳市文物考古研究院2012年在孙家洞作抢救性发掘,于原生层位发现古人类化石,同时伴有大量的哺乳动物化石,以及少量人工石制品。出土的6件古人类化石,包括上颌残块(附带第一臼齿)、下颌残块(附带第一臼齿)和4枚牙齿(分别是上颌第二前臼齿,下颌外侧门齿,2个下颌第二臼齿)。这些标本代表3个古人类: 1个成年人和2个未成年人,其中未成年人的牙齿生长状况分别与现代人6-7岁和11-12岁的儿童相当。与人类化石相伴的哺乳动物化石非常丰富,初步鉴定有肿骨大角鹿、李氏野猪、中国鬣狗、梅氏犀、葛氏斑鹿等中国中更新世时期常见的代表性种类,同时还有大熊猫、貘、梅氏犀、竹鼠等华南更新世常见种类,栾川孙家洞动物群反映了南北气候地理过渡区的森林生态环境。


研究发现,栾川孙家洞古人类牙齿具有一定的原始性,明显区别于现代人,表现在牙冠尺寸大,牙根长而粗壮。前臼齿和臼齿咬合面皱纹复杂,副脊和附尖发育,下臼齿具有下原附尖等特点。相比之下,栾川古人类牙齿与我国发现的古老型智人和直立人更接近,位于周口店直立人变异范围内,可归入直立人的形态范畴。此外,栾川孙家洞3个下颌臼齿均具有转向皱纹的形态特征,这一特征在现代东亚蒙古人群比例高,也普遍存在于周口店直立人,中国其他直立人、古老型智人和晚期智人化石中,这一现象类似铲形门齿的地区性特点,支持古人类学家吴新智院士提出的中国古人类连续进化说。


更重要的是,栾川孙家洞发现了2个少年儿童。儿童的年龄鉴定及牙齿发育特点对于探讨直立人及现代人生长发育特征的演化过程非常重要。根据5件儿童标本的观察分析,初步判断栾川古人类儿童的第一臼齿萌出年龄接近6岁,而且第一臼齿和第二臼齿的萌出时间间隔比较长,这两项重要生理指标,提示栾川直立人儿童的牙齿生长模式已经与现代人接近或相当。考虑到现代人和现生灵长类第一臼齿萌出年龄与其生活史重要参数(如新生儿脑量、成人脑量、幼儿生长期、青少年及性成熟年龄、初次生育年龄、寿命等)有密切相关性,初步推测栾川直立人可能已经具有接近或相似于现代人的生长发育模式和生活史特点,体现了栾川直立人的进步性,以及中更新世直立人生物学特征的镶嵌性,即原始特征与进步特征并存。


古人类幼年化石标本稀少而珍贵,是探秘现代人独特的生长模式及生活史特征起源问题的关键证据。南非著名的南方古猿汤恩小孩牙齿发育规律与猿类更接近,而区别于现代人,但是早期人属成员、直立人、古老型智人、尼安德特人等生长模式情况如何?如非洲肯尼亚特卡纳男孩、欧洲西班牙先驱人儿童的生长模式,是否与现代人一致还难以确定,更多儿童及未成年化石发现与及其年龄鉴定是解决这一问题的关键。由于牙齿生长与一系列生命指标及生理功能,如大脑发育、生长期、学习成长期、寿命、适应性等密切关联,栾川古人类儿童化石的发现,为我们探讨东亚地区直立人及古老型人类的生长模式和生活史特征,以及现代人一系列独特的生物学特征的起源演化过程,提供了难得的化石依据,具有重要意义。


主持这项研究的赵凌霞研究员说,“下一步将对栾川儿童的年龄做更精确鉴定,需要借助无损微观技术观察内部结构。此外,栾川孙家洞古人类化石的地质年代测定,以及伴生动物群与生态环境的深入分析尚在进行之中”。


相关报道:栾川孙家洞“直立人儿童化石”相关研究成果公布东亚地区古人类演化有了新证据


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据河南日报(记者 温小娟):8月7日,记者从洛阳市文物考古研究院获悉,该院和中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所联合在我国唯一报道人类学研究国家级核心刊物《人类学学报》上发表文章,公布了在栾川孙家洞发现的直立人儿童化石相关研究成果,为解读东亚地区古人类演化提供了新证据。


2008年,第三次全国文物普查时,在位于秦岭东端支脉伏牛山区,栾川乡湾滩村的哼呼崖、伊河南岸的孙家洞,发现了大量哺乳动物化石。2012年,洛阳市文物考古研究院在孙家洞进行抢救性发掘,在原生层位发现古人类化石,伴有大量的哺乳动物化石及少量人工石制品,并出土了6件古人类化石,包括上颌残块、下颌残块和4枚牙齿。研究发现,这些标本代表了一个成年人、两个未成年人。其中,未成年人的牙齿生长状况分别与现代人6—7岁和11—12岁的儿童相当。该发现曾获年度“中国十大考古新发现”。


该项目领队、洛阳市文物考古研究院院长史家珍说,这些人类化石尤其是儿童化石十分稀少而珍贵,其年龄鉴定及牙齿发育特点,对于探讨直立人及现代人生长发育特征的演化过程非常重要。


“由于牙齿生长与一系列生命指标及生理功能,如大脑发育、生长期、学习成长期、寿命、适应性等密切关联,是探秘古老型人类独特的生长模式及生活史特征起源问题的关键证据。”史家珍说,初步推测,距今约73万—30万年的栾川直立人,可能已经具有接近或相似于现代人的生长发育模式和生活史特点,体现了栾川直立人的进步性。


此外,遗址中出土的与人类化石相伴的哺乳动物化石也非常丰富,初步鉴定有肿骨大角鹿、李氏野猪、中国鬣狗、梅氏犀、葛氏斑鹿等中国中更新世时期常见的代表性种类,同时还有大熊猫、貘、梅氏犀、竹鼠等华南更新世常见种类,栾川孙家洞动物群反映了南北气候地理过渡区的森林生态环境。


史家珍表示,下一步将与中科院继续合作,借助无损微观技术观察内部结构,对“栾川直立人”儿童的年龄做更精确鉴定,同时对栾川孙家洞古人类化石的地质年代测定及伴生动物群与生态环境进行深入分析。此外,孙家洞所处的伏牛山一带,有多处类似古人类洞穴遗址,将对其进行全方位考古调查与勘探,为揭示东亚地区现代人起源提供更多证据。


相关报道:河南栾川孙家洞发现直立人儿童化石


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据新华社郑州8月6日电(桂娟):记者从洛阳市文物考古研究院获悉,栾川孙家洞发现的“直立人儿童化石”相关研究成果,近日在中国国家级核心刊物《人类学学报》上发表,为解读东亚地区古人类演化提供了新的重要证据。


“初步推测,距今约73万-30万年的栾川直立人,可能已经具有接近或相似于现代人的生长发育模式和生活史特点,体现了栾川直立人的进步性。”该项目领队、洛阳市文物考古研究院院长史家珍说。


这一成果是该院与中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所赵凌霞研究员等,合作研究孙家洞出土古人类儿童牙齿化石后得出的。


研究人员初步分析,栾川直立人儿童的第一臼齿萌出年龄接近6岁,且第一臼齿和第二臼齿的萌出时间间隔比较长。这两项重要生理指标,提示栾川直立人儿童的牙齿生长模式已经与现代人接近或相当。


“古人类幼年化石标本稀少而珍贵,由于牙齿生长与一系列生命指标及生理功能,如大脑发育、生长期、学习成长期、寿命、适应性等密切关联,是探秘古老型人类独特的生长模式及生活史特征起源问题的关键证据。”史家珍说。


孙家洞遗址是第三次全国文物普查时发现的,2012年以来,洛阳市文物考古研究院对此进行抢救性发掘,在原生层位出土6件古人类化石,包括上颌残块、下颌残块和4枚牙齿。这些标本代表3个古人类:1个成年人和2个未成年人,其中未成年人的牙齿生长状况分别与现代人6-7岁和11-12岁的儿童相当。该发现曾获年度“中国十大考古新发现”。


遗址中出土的与人类化石相伴的哺乳动物化石也非常丰富,初步鉴定有肿骨大角鹿、李氏野猪、中国鬣狗、梅氏犀、葛氏斑鹿等中国中更新世时期常见的代表性种类,同时还有大熊猫、貘、梅氏犀、竹鼠等华南更新世常见种类,栾川孙家洞动物群反映了南北气候地理过渡区的森林生态环境。


研究表明,栾川直立人的3个下颌臼齿均具有转向皱纹的形态特征,这一特征在现代东亚蒙古人群比例高,也普遍存在于周口店直立人,以及中国其他直立人、古老型智人和晚期智人化石中,这一现象类似铲形门齿的地区性特点,支持古人类学家吴新智院士提出的中国古人类连续进化说。


史家珍表示,下一步将与中科院继续合作,借助无损微观技术观察内部结构,对“栾川直立人”儿童的年龄做更精确鉴定,同时对栾川孙家洞古人类化石的地质年代测定及伴生动物群与生态环境进行深入分析。此外,孙家洞所处的伏牛山一带,有多处类似古人类洞穴遗址,将进行全方位考古调查与勘探,为揭示东亚地区现代人起源提供更多证据。


我国发现已知最早的现代人牙齿化石-科普中国
2015年10月15日 - 吴秀杰等在湖南省道县发现47枚具有完全现代人特征的人类牙齿化石的研究论文,表明8万~12万年前,现代人在该...
www.xinhuanet.com/scie... [url=][/url]


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阳原发现2万至5万年前人类活动场所

为探寻泥河湾古人类生存模式提供重要资料


2017年06月05日 09:53 来源:河北日报 作者:龚正龙 ...
癯鹤 发表于 2017-6-6 21:06
桑干河——僧格——宋干,泥河湾——浑河——混夷,感觉东亚真有可能是人类重要起源地。


没有桑干河就没有泥河湾:东方人类的母亲河



来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年8月10日 09:57




泥河湾小长梁遗址的一处挖掘区。小长梁遗址是距今136万年的人类活动遗址,出土过上千件石器和多种古动物化石。东方IC供图


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据北京日报(记者 白波 通讯员 仝辉):在山西境内流经7个县、250多公里后,永定河上游两大支流之一的桑干河在张家口阳原县进入了京津冀地区。


阳原的版图形似豆荚。燕山和阴山的余脉分别横亘南北,桑干河自西南向东北贯通全境,刚好把“豆荚”平分为南北两部分。这种“两山夹一川”的地势,十分有利于水源的蓄积。


上个月,一则陕西蓝田发现距今212万年人类活动遗址的消息,使人们的目光再一次投向了阳原。近百年来,令阳原蜚声世界的正是桑干河畔的一个小村庄。以这里为起点的考古发掘,最终发现了坦桑尼亚奥杜威峡谷外第二个距今超过200万年的人类遗迹。


这个小村庄的名字,叫泥河湾。


遗址为人类起源提供新证


1921年,一位法国传教士在阳原桑干河边的泥河湾村发现了大量水生物和哺乳动物化石。几年后法美两国考古学者的到来拉开了泥河湾科考研究的序幕,他们将发现的河湖沉积物命名为“泥河湾层”。


中外学者近百年的考古发掘,在桑干河两岸82公里长的范围内发现了超过40处距今百万年以上的早期人类遗址。要知道,这样的遗址在全世界也只有53处。特别是2001年,河北文物研究所的考古学家谢飞在距桑干河1公里的马圈沟遗址发现了200万年前古人类餐食大象的遗迹,为人类起源的研究提供了新的有力线索。


“最近我在做于家沟遗址旁边塔梁遗址的发掘。站在遗址上,100米开外就是桑干河。”62岁的成胜泉退休前是阳原县文物保护管理所所长,从1981年起,参与泥河湾考古发掘已将近40年。


1998年,成胜泉和同事在于家沟遗址发现了距今1.2万年、北方地区最早的陶器残片,入围了当年的全国十大考古新发现。


在于家沟遗址,成胜泉找到了很多羊下颌骨的化石。“这是古人类吃野羊剩下的。他们守着桑干河,喝河里的水,打野羊吃,羊吃得差不多了就换个地方生活。”于家沟有着全世界最丰富的楔形石核遗存,成胜泉认为,这表示于家沟可能曾经是一片古人类“安居乐业”的风水宝地——良好的生存环境令一批古人类在此扎根,楔形石核的打制技术亦可能起源于此。


没有桑干河就没有泥河湾


桑干河自西南向东北流去,在阳原县城东南7公里的揣骨疃镇通过了揣骨疃大桥。近些年,生态的破坏和气候的变化使桑干河的流量大幅萎缩,断流现象时有发生。站在桥上望去,虽然河道最宽处仍有近百米,偶尔还有水鸟停在水面上,但与资料中描述的昔日景象相比还是逊色不少。


桑干河是阳原的母亲河。远古时代,包括阳原在内的周边广大区域曾是一个9000平方公里的巨大湖泊——泥河湾古湖。古湖存在了数百万年,于几万年前干涸消失,桑干河即是泥河湾古湖留下的“遗脉”。


“没有桑干河的水就没有泥河湾古湖,没有泥河湾古湖就没有泥河湾遗址。”对桑干河与泥河湾遗址二者的联系,阳原泥河湾文化研究会副会长、民俗学家池涌给出了论断。


今天的人们可以在脑海中勾勒出这样一幅画面:远古时期的桑干河流域气候湿润、植被茂盛,古人类围绕巨大的泥河湾古湖繁衍生息,湖中的水产食之不尽,湖岸栖息的野羊、大象等动物也为我们的祖先提供了丰富的食物来源,使他们一代又一代地在此留连,持续了上百万年……正如成胜泉所说,不仅于家沟,整个泥河湾遗址能发现如此密集的古人类遗存,都与桑干河及其曾经造就的泥河湾古湖密切相关。


“过去泥河湾是非洲之外发现的最古老的人类活动遗址,现在陕西蓝田发现了年代更久远的。但这么大规模的古人类遗址群存在于泥河湾,我们仍可以把桑干河称作‘东方人类的母亲河’。”池涌说。


桑干河何以名“桑干”?


如果问起桑干河名称的来源,今天生活在流域内的人多半会这么回答你:每年桑葚熟了的时候,河水就干了,所以叫桑干河。


对这一普遍流传的说法,池涌并不认同。“附会的成分较多,实际上桑干河在上世纪80年代前都没有干过。西汉的时候在阳原设过桑干县,代郡的治所就在这里。关于桑干河的命名,我更倾向是来自于古桑干县。”


阳原境内发现的古烽火台有70多座,自古是兵家必争之地。汉武帝时期,霍去病便是在代郡集结5万骑兵,与卫青一同向北出击,彻底打败了匈奴。池涌认为,历史上阳原地区在军事地理方面的重要性,同样与桑干河有关。


“古代专门修的路是很少的。没有修路的时候,河道就是路,人民的迁徙、军队的行进都要沿着河流。秦始皇东临碣石,返回的路上顺着桑干河从今天的涿鹿到了阳原;汉武帝东巡,回来的路上也经过了桑干县。”


池涌对研究桑干河文化有着浓厚的热情,曾赴山西宁武县的管涔山实地考察过桑干河的源头。“阳原主要的历史文化、民俗,包括4项省级非遗,都发源于桑干河边。从山西到张家口,桑干河就像一条线串起了一串珍珠,孕育了两岸深厚的历史文化,也哺育了两岸人民。”池涌说。

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呜呼,失业者畏葸!


Homo erectus went extinct because they were lazy! Scientists claim 'least-effort strategies' for tool making and collecting resources contributed to the downfall of the primitive species

Research from the Australian National University (ANU) studied the ancient human populations who lived in the Arabian Peninsula (bottom left) during the Early Stone Age. Scientists claim the 'least-effort strategies' for tool making and collecting resources led to the downfall of the primitive human species. This laziness paired with an inability to adapt to a changing climate likely led to the species going extinct, a new paper suggests.


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