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12万5千年前,人类可能跋涉过阿拉伯半岛前往亚洲

石器记录着早期人类迁徙
Humans may have trekked across the Arabian peninsula 125,000 years ago, on their way to Asia.
12万5千年前,人类可能跋涉过阿拉伯半岛前往亚洲。
Ewen Callaway
作者:尤恩·卡拉韦

Hand axes like this one found in the United Arab Emirates indicate humans left Africa 125,000 years ago. Science/AAAS
(发现于阿拉伯联合酋长国的这种手斧显示人类在12万5千年前离开非洲。科学组/美国艺术与科学研究院)
A trove of ancient tools discovered in the southeastern Arabian peninsula could point to an early migration of modern humans out of Africa.
在阿拉伯东南部发现的一批远古工具能表明早期现代人走出非洲的一次迁徙。
The stone tools, some up to 125,000 years old, resemble those made by modern humans in Africa around the same period. Their makers crossed the Red Sea, trekked across Arabia during favourable climate conditions, and perhaps went on to settle in Asia, suggests an international team of scientists.
这些石器,有的上溯至12万5千年前,和同时期在非洲的现代人所制作的类似。一个国际科学家小组提出,制作这些工具的人越过红海,艰难跋涉过阿拉伯半岛,可能继续前进最终迁入亚洲。
"They are our ancestors. I have no doubt about that," said team leader Hans-Peter Uerpmann of the University of Tübingen, Germany, in a telephone press conference. His team published its findings online today in Science1.
“他们是我们的祖先,我对此毫无疑问”,小组的领导者德国图宾根大学的汉斯-彼得·乌尔卜曼恩(Hans-Peter Uerpmann)在一个电话采访会议中这样说。他的小组今天在《自然》杂志网站上发表了他们的发现。
Other archaeologists say that the stone tools could have been produced by other archaic human relatives. And they point to genetic evidence from contemporary humans indicating that the ancestors of today's non-Africans left sometime around 65,000 years ago, quickly fanning out across Europe, Asia and even reaching Australia.
其他的考古学家称这些石器也可能是其他的人类群体制作的,他们还指出当代人的基因数据说明,今天非洲以外的人的祖先是在约6万5千年前离开非洲的,而且很快散开到欧洲、亚洲甚至到达澳洲。
That sequence of events doesn't leave much time for exploration, says team member Anthony Marks, an archaeologist at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas. "The idea that they left Africa at 60,000 and ended up at Australia at 50,000 — my God, did they ever stop running!" he asks.
来自德克萨斯州达拉斯市南卫理公会大学的小组成员安东尼·马克斯(Anthony Marks)说,事情的先后顺序没有给人们的开拓留下很多时间。“这种说法认为人们在6万年前离开非洲并在5万年前到达澳洲——天哪,人们可曾停止过奔跑!” 他问道。
Genetic evidence is unclear about the path that modern humans took out of Africa. But caves in Israel dated to between 80,000 and 120,000 years ago, containing ostensibly human artefacts and remains, suggest a northern route, along the Nile, or from the Sahara. These early explorers probably never made it beyond the Levant, but many archaeologists have suggested that a later wave of humans followed a similar route.
基因数据对于现代人从哪条路线离开非洲并不清楚。但以色列的山洞里明显的人工制品和遗迹可回溯到8万至12万年,说明有一条向北的路线,沿尼罗河或经过沙哈拉沙漠。这些早期的探险家可能从没有超出过地中海东部的累范特地区,但许多考古学家提出后来有一波人类沿着相似的路线迁出。

Distinct impressions
独特的印记
The stone tools found buried under a collapsed rock overhang, at a site called Jebel Faya in the present-day United Arab Emirates, suggest a different route, says Uerpmann's team. Nearly 2,000 kilometres of inhospitable desert lie between the Red Sea and Jebel Faya. But by around 130,000 years ago the world was at the end of an ice age. The Red Sea may have been shallow enough to be crossed on foot or on a raft, and the Arabian peninsula was being transformed from a parched desert into a savannah, not unlike East Africa.
一个曾经是悬着的石头崩塌后把这些石器埋在了下面。地点是现在阿拉伯联合酋长国一个叫杰贝尔-法亚(Jebel Faya),乌尔卜曼恩的小组说,这意味着人类迁出非洲的另一条路线。在红海和杰贝尔-法亚之间是近2000公里的荒凉沙漠,但在13万年以前地球上正是冰河时期结束的时候,红海可能很浅,人们可以淌过或乘木排渡过,并且阿拉伯半岛由炎热的沙漠转变成大草原,和东非没有什么不同。
The location of Jebel Faya, United Arab Emirates. The dashed line indicates the maximum exposure of land during marine lowstands. Click for larger image.
(杰贝尔-法亚位于阿拉伯联合酋长国。虚线显示海洋处于低水位时暴露的陆地部分。科学组/美国艺术与科学研究院)
Science/AAASAt Jebel Faya, the researchers uncovered three caches of mostly broken, unfinished stone tools. The oldest was about 125,000 to 95,000 years old, the youngest about 40,000 years old; the middle cache was dated somewhere between the two.
在杰贝尔-法亚,研究人员发现了三处大部分破坏了的和未完成的石器。最早的一处属于约9万5千年到12万5千年前,最晚的一处属于约4万年前,中间的一处年代介于两者之间。
The oldest assemblage — consisting of about 500 pieces from 31 tools — bears a signature of its makers, says Marks. For instance, the methods used to make many of the stone tools involved reducing a larger piece of stone into a two-sided blade, a technique thought to have been commonly used in the manufacture of tools in East Africa at the time, says Marks. The tools themselves — hand-held axes and leaf-like blades that might have been attached to spears — also resemble those made in East Africa by early modern humans and not by archaic relatives known to have lived nearby, he adds.
马克斯说,最早的一堆——包括31个石器的500碎片——带有制作者的相关信息。例如,许多制作石器的方法是把一块大点儿的石头去掉些许变成两边带刃的工具,这种技艺被认为与同时代东非人制作工具的方法相同, 马克斯说。就工具本身而言——手执的斧头和叶状的利刃可能是按到矛上的——也和东非早期现代人所制作的类似,而和我们所知道的其他住在附近人群的工具不同,马克斯接着说。
The two younger collections, on the other hand, resemble little else in the archaeological record, Marks says. "They look like basic Walmart tools. There's nothing distinctive about them, except the absence of distinctive elements."
而那两处时期晚些的工具,和考古学记录上的其它工具很少相似,马克斯说。“它们看起来象是随处可见的工具,没有任何特色可言;或者说唯一的特色就是没有特别之处。”
Marks and his colleagues say that the lack of distinction suggests that this early human population arrived from Africa around 125,000 years ago and then became isolated when the Arabian peninsula turned to desert again. This group, they suggest, could have used Jebel Faya as a launch pad to the rest of Asia. Between about 75,000 and 14,000 years ago, the coast of Iran would have been easily reached from near Jebel Faya, across the Gulf.
马克斯和他的同事说,那两处工具没有特色说明,人们早在12万5千年前从非洲到达那里,但因为阿拉伯变回沙漠而变得与非洲隔绝。这一群人可能把杰贝尔-法亚当作出发点散布到亚洲其它各地,马克斯他们说。在7万5千年到14万年前,从杰贝尔-法亚渡过海湾到达伊朗沿岸应是很容易的。

Controversy
辩论
"I think it's provocative," says Richard Klein, a palaeoanthropologist at Stanford University in California. The tools could point to an early out-of-Africa migration. Alternatively, he says, they could indicate that the Arabian peninsula was, ecologically, an extension of Africa at times.
“我认为这是煽动性的”,斯坦福大学的古人类学家理查德·克莱恩博士说。那些石器可以表明早期人们走出非洲的迁徙,或者,它们可以说明阿拉伯半岛在社会生态学上有时是非洲的延伸。
According to Chris Stringer, a paleoanthropologist at the Natural History Museum in London, the paper adds ammunition to the "controversial" theory that humans populated southern Asia long before genetic evidence in contemporary humans would indicate.
据伦敦自然历史博物馆的人类学家克里斯·斯特林格(Chris Stringer)说,一些文献给这个有争议的理论增加了论据——在当代人基因能追溯的年代以前很久南亚已经有人类生息了。
But John Shea, an archaeologist at Stony Brook University in New York, isn't yet convinced that modern humans from Africa made the tools, and says a number of archaic human groups present in Eurasia at the time were capable of producing them.
但是纽约石溪大学的考古学家约翰·希(John Shea)还是不想信是非洲的现代人制作了那些石器,他说许多当时出现在欧亚大陆的人们也都能生产那样的石器。
However, an answer should come from further excavation, he says. "If the Jebel Faya evidence is the product of an early human dispersal into Asia, then further evidence of that dispersal should be found on the Iranian coast and its hinterland."
无论如何,要更多的出土文物才能提供答案,他说。“如果杰贝尔-法亚的工具是早期散布到亚洲的人们留下的,那么应该能在伊朗沿海和内陆找到进一步的证据。”

20111122191158_87075.jpg
2012-2-29 21:27
20111122191123_97664.jpg
2012-2-29 21:27
NRY: O2a1c1a1a1a1a1a1-002611,F11,F17,F856,F1495(源自粤西云浮)
mtDNA:B4d1(源自浙北慈溪)
百越人的人类学文集 http://blog.sina.com.cn/baiyueren
比智人洞的要早很多。不过这些早期出非洲的人会经历两大考验,一是大约11万年前的大灭绝,二是七万五千年前的中等灭绝事件。
O3a3c* (M134+, M117-)
理论上是这样的,智人大约20万年以前在非洲产生,6万年前开始散布到世界各地,在此之前,肯定也有(而且会是多次)有小群人类离开非洲到中东甚至更远的地区,只不过,他们很可能都灭绝了(或者也不排除返回非洲),在今天的欧亚大陆及其他地区没有后代存在。
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