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水稻起源于中国的细胞器DNA(线粒体与叶绿体)依据

Origin of Oryza sativa in China Inferred by Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Organelle DNA

Xin Wei etc.

Abstract

China is rich of germplasm resources of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) and Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa L.) which consists of two subspecies, indica and japonica. Previous studies have shown that China is one of the domestication centers of O. sativa. However, the geographic origin and the domestication times of O. sativa in China are still under debate. To settle these disputes, six chloroplast loci and four mitochondrial loci were selected to examine the relationships between 50 accessions of Asian cultivated rice and 119 accessions of common wild rice from China based on DNA sequence analysis in the present study. The results indicated that Southern China is the genetic diversity center of O. rufipogon and it might be the primary domestication region of O. sativa. Molecular dating suggested that the two subspecies had diverged 0.1 million years ago, much earlier than the beginning of rice domestication. Genetic differentiations and phylogeography analyses indicated that indica was domesticated from tropical O. rufipogon while japonica was domesticated from O. rufipogon which located in higher latitude. These results provided molecular evidences for the hypotheses of (i) Southern China is the origin center of O. sativa in China and (ii) the two subspecies of O. sativa were domesticated multiple times.

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本帖最后由 wxw364 于 2013-6-29 07:56 编辑

非常有趣;DNA就如同一种标记,可以作为一定程度的起源追踪。在分子人类学上对于寻找祖先是很不错的。但体质人类学和语言考古学我觉得更需要研究。有时候说一种语言和体质或许还是有道理的。分子人类学只是能通过这些外在表现去分析内部族群的混合情况。例如对于姓氏的探讨,我觉得分子人类学就很有帮助;族群的标记和起源,我觉得体质和语言人类学更有作用,因为这些和人类历史密切相关。

对于水稻的中国起源,我认为水稻本身是来自于我们这一片地方(江南)没错,苏州本来就是种植农作物的好地方,人都说苏杭风景好,大米也优良。
O3-M117留在东亚地区种植水稻,而O3-M134的剩余则进入寒冷地带,开始放牛羊进行游牧生活;那里是草原,喂食牛羊的牧草非常丰富,牧区的蒙古和新疆牧民也多以奶制品为主,由于佛教信仰,当地人也从事一些现代农业,上次去内蒙古旅游的时候就有青菜火锅。
我想也许这能解释为何我们中国和蒙古采取了两种截然不同的社会生活架构:我们农耕,他们蒙古人却游牧。对比非洲人的采集模式,游牧和农耕似乎显得更方便于定居生活一些,社会的架构也更加稳定;但是我对于蒙古人为何会选择游牧的理解是,是由于草原气候寒冷,牧草可以供给牛羊,而牛羊的奶则可以成为奶茶用来取暖;阿尔泰民族(中亚地区和西伯利亚,北亚蒙古)选择了这种生活方式的确是为了适应草原气候才产生这种生活模式;北欧的乌拉尔语系芬兰当地人则选择了驯鹿(畜牧的一种,就是养动物),也从事一些农业。农作物种植需要一定程度的条件;同样的,草原气候更适合放牧而不是种植。
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