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物种之间的杂交通常不能存活或不育,可能是由于mtDNA与核DNA不兼容

Multiple Molecular Mechanisms Cause Reproductive Isolation between Three Yeast Species

Jui-Yu Chou etc.

Abstract

Nuclear-mitochondrial conflict (cytonuclear incompatibility) is a specific form of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibility previously shown to cause reproductive isolation in two yeast species. Here, we identified two new incompatible genes, MRS1 and AIM22, through a systematic study of F2 hybrid sterility caused by cytonuclear incompatibility in three closely related Saccharomyces species (S. cerevisiae, S. paradoxus, and S. bayanus). Mrs1 is a nuclear gene product required for splicing specific introns in the mitochondrial COX1, and Aim22 is a ligase encoded in the nucleus that is required for mitochondrial protein lipoylation. By comparing different species, our result suggests that the functional changes in MRS1 are a result of coevolution with changes in the COX1 introns. Further molecular analyses demonstrate that three nonsynonymous mutations are responsible for the functional differences of Mrs1 between these species. Functional complementation assays to determine when these incompatible genes altered their functions show a strong correlation between the sequence-based phylogeny and the evolution of cytonuclear incompatibility. Our results suggest that nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibility may represent a general mechanism of reproductive isolation during yeast evolution.

Author Summary

Hybrids between species are usually inviable or sterile, possibly due to functional incompatibility between genes from the different species. Incompatible genes are hypothesized to encode interacting components that cannot function properly when paired with alleles from another species. To understand how incompatible gene pairs result in hybrid sterility or inviability, it is important to identify these genes and reconstruct their evolutionary history. A previous study has shown that incompatibility between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes (cytonuclear incompatibility) causes hybrid sterility between two yeast species. To expand on these findings, we screened three yeast species for genes involved in cytonuclear incompatibility, discovering two nuclear genes, MRS1 and AIM22, which encode proteins that are unable to support full mitochondrial function in the hybrids. Of these two genes, Mrs1 is required for removing a specific intron in the mitochondrial COX1 gene. By comparing different yeast species, we find a clear coevolutionary relationship between Mrs1 function and the COX1 intron pattern. We also show that changes in three amino acids in the Mrs1 RNA-binding domain are sufficient to make Mrs1 incompatible in hybrids. Our results suggest that cytonuclear incompatibility may represent a general mechanism of reproductive isolation during yeast evolution.


http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1000432;jsessionid=B6FB4A3E0C96256B7CF75719785C22CC.ambra02
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