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Nature: The complete genome sequence of a Neanderthal from the Altai Mountains

本帖最后由 Ryan 于 2013-12-30 11:20 编辑

The complete genome sequence of a Neanderthal from the Altai Mountains
Kay Prufer, et al.

We present a high-quality genome sequence of a Neanderthal woman from Siberia. We show that her parents were related at the level of half-siblings and that mating among close relatives was common among her recent ancestors. We also sequenced the genome of a Neanderthal from the Caucasus to low coverage. An analysis of the relationships and population history of available archaic genomes and 25 present-day human genomes shows that several gene flow events
occurred among Neanderthals, Denisovans and early modern humans, possibly including gene flow into Denisovans from an unknown archaic group. Thus, interbreeding, albeit of low magnitude, occurred among many hominin groups in the Late Pleistocene. In addition, the high-quality Neanderthal genome allows us to establish a definitive list of substitutions that became fixed in modern humans after their separation from the ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans.








2017-11-22 00:04

19 DECEMBER, 2013 - 09:31 作者:APRIL HOLLOWAY
Entire Neanderthal genome finally mapped – with amazing results(Read the article on one page)
The results of an extensive analysis of a 50,000-year-old toe bone belonging to a Neanderthal woman, which was unearthed in a cave in 2010, have been long awaited. Now, after much anticipation, the findings have finally been releasedby the journal Nature, and they have not disappointed. For the first time ever, researchers have completely sequenced the fossil’s nuclear DNA to the same extent and quality as that of genomes sequenced from present-day people.
All around the world, news headlines shout out about incest and inbreeding and other sensationalistic statements. Sadly, they are missing the most amazing results of all.
This incredible research has revealed the following:
  • There is now conclusive evidence that Neanderthals bred with Homo sapiens – a fact disputed for many years.  Some scientists claimed the two species had never even met.
  • Ancient human species, including Neanderthals, Denisovans and Homo sapiens mated with each other, resulting in an incredibly complex family tree.
  • The Denisovans share up to 8 percent of their genome with a “super achaic” and totally unknown species that dates back around 1 million years.(这个付团队的最新论文已经说明了)
  • The results conflict with the theory that modern humans arose completely from one “out of Africa” migration more than 60,000 years ago that spread worldwide without mating with other early humans.
  • About 1.5 to 2.1 percent of the DNA of all people with European ancestry can be traced to Neanderthals.
  • Proportions of Neanderthal DNA are higher among Asians and Native Americans, who also have small percentages of Denisovan DNA.
  • 6 percent of the genome of Australian Aborigines and indigenous Papua New Guineans belong to the Denisovan species.
  • The Han Chinese, native to East Asia, and the Dai people of southern China are related to both Neanderthals and Denisovans.
  • Some indigenous people from Brazil, such as the Karitiana, are not only related to both Neanderthals and Denisovans, but they show relatively high genetic contributions from the Denisovans.(早期东亚人群的因素?)
  • Only 87 genes responsible for making proteins in cells are different between modern humans and Neanderthals. Intriguingly, some of the gene differences involve ones involved in both immune responses and the development of brain cells in people.(难道这是亚欧人群比非洲亲戚聪明的主要原因?)
  • Somewhere within these 87 genes may lay the answer to why Neanderthals and Denisovans became extinct.
  • And least consequential of all, the Neanderthal woman’s parents were related, possibly half-siblings, or an uncle and niece. As evolutionary biologist Mattias Jakobsson stated, the incest finding “is more of an anecdote”. The results from one individual cannot be applied to an entire species, in the same way that the recent discovery of an incest family in Australia  does not apply to the whole of the human race.(尼人喜欢近亲结婚的‘光荣传统。看样子古埃及人、闪米特人以及咱们的‘殷商’祖先倒是继承了,呵呵)
The study really highlights that no race of people on earth belongs to one ancestral group, rather we all have “proportions of ancestral groups," said computational biologist Rasmus Nielsen of the University of California, Berkeley. What’s more, we can begin to contemplate the fact that we are all “connected to other species - extinct smart bipeds”.

So many answers have been provided from just one study and yet so many questions remain.

By April Holloway

虽然现在下结论为时过早,也不能排除尼人和丹人的分布地域比我们已知的要更广泛,但就目前的证据来说阿尔泰山西伯利亚一带是我们已知唯一的尼人和丹人以及现代人共同生活过的地区,这也间接说明了东亚人的祖先很可能 ...
MNOPS 发表于 2017-11-22 04:21
wanhuatong 发表于 2017-11-22 08:35

The Han Chinese, native to East Asia, and the Dai people of southern China are related to both Neanderthals and Denisovans.

The Han Chinese, native to East Asia, and the Dai people of southern China are related to both Neanderthals and Denisovans.
MNOPS 发表于 2017-11-22 09:05
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