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洋流作为地球上最大的空调,戏剧性的转变,会带来翻天覆地的变化。谁知道末次冰期北极是什么样的气候呢?能支持很多种大型食草动物,起码植被不能太稀疏,冬季也不能完全被冰雪盖住。所有的研究都是管窥蠡测,已知的小圈子之外是未知的海洋。


Dramatic switch in the Earth's oceans 15,000 years ago released large amounts of CO2 that warmed the planet and ended the last Ice Age

  • Changes in the circulation of the North Pacific released huge amounts of CO2
  • This warmed up our planet enough to end the last Ice Age, new study finds
  • Ocean currents in the North Atlantic are currently slowing down
  • Study could help scientists predict how this will affect greenhouse gas levels
By Harry Pettit For Mailonline

Published: 16:02 BST, 23 April 2018 | Updated: 16:54 BST, 23 April 2018


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A switch in the movement of Earth's oceans 15,000 years ago helped end the last Ice Age, according to a team of British scientists.
Changes in the circulation of the North Pacific Ocean released large amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, helping warm the planet, researchers found.
Ocean currents in the North Atlantic are slowing down, and the new research could help scientists predict how this will affect Earth's greenhouse gas levels.
An injection of carbon dioxide into our atmosphere could accelerate the effects of climate change, drastically rising the planet's surface temperature.
Scroll down for video

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Changes in the circulation of the North Pacific Ocean released large amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, helping warm the planet and end the last Ice Age 15,000 years ago. Pictured is the circulation flow of Earth's oceans

Study lead author Dr Will Gray, from the University of St Andrews, said: 'Last week we saw worrying new studies showing us the ocean currents in the North Atlantic are slowing down.
'In our study we see very rapid changes in the climate of the North Pacific that we think are linked to past changes in ocean currents in the Atlantic.
'This gives us an example of the way that different parts of the climate system are connected, so that changes in circulation in one region can drive changes in CO2 and oxygen all the way over on the other side of the planet.
'The North Pacific Ocean is very big and just below the surface the waters are brimming with CO2; because of this, we really need to understand how this region can change in the future, and looking into the past is a good way to do that.'


Researchers at the University of St Andrews in Scotland measured the chemical composition of the shells of tiny fossil plankton called foraminifera.
They used to these measurements to reconstruct the exchange of CO2 between the North Pacific Ocean and atmosphere at the end of the last Ice Age.

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Researchers measured the chemical composition of the shells of tiny fossil plankton called foraminifera (stock image). They used to these measurements to reconstruct the exchange of CO2 between the North Pacific Ocean and atmosphere at the end of the last Ice Age

They found the North Pacific released large amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere about 15,000 years ago, a time when ocean currents in the Atlantic were also changing rapidly.
The new study also found that the changes in circulation resulted in a reduction of the amount of oxygen in the deep ocean.
Findings showed that the release of CO2 by the North Pacific was caused by a change in its circulation.
This ciruclation shift could also explain a drop in oxygen levels in the Pacific Ocean seen at the same time.
WHAT IS THE GLOBAL OCEAN CONVEYOR BELT?When it comes to regulating global climate, the circulation of the Atlantic Ocean plays a key role.
This is due to a constantly moving system of deep-water circulation often referred to as the Global Ocean Conveyor Belt which sends warm, salty Gulf Stream water to the North Atlantic where it releases heat to the atmosphere and warms Western Europe.
The cooler water then sinks to great depths and travels all the way to Antarctica and eventually circulates back up to the Gulf Stream.

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When it comes to regulating global climate, the circulation of the Atlantic Ocean plays a key role

This motion is fuelled by thermohaline currents - a combination of temperature and salt.
It takes 1,000 years for water to complete a continuous journey around the world.
Researchers believe that as the North Atlantic began to warm near the end of the Little Ice Age, freshwater disrupted the system, called the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).
Arctic sea ice, and ice sheets and glaciers surrounding the Arctic began to melt, forming a huge natural tap of fresh water that gushed into the North Atlantic.
This huge influx of freshwater diluted the surface seawater, making it lighter and less able to sink deep, slowing down the AMOC system.
Researchers found the AMOC has been weakening more rapidly since 1950 in response to recent global warming.

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Scientists are observing a similar loss of oxygen from the ocean as the climate changes today.
Study co-author Dr James Rae, also from the University of St Andrews, said: 'Although the CO2 rise caused by this process was dramatic in geological terms, it happened very slowly compared to modern man-made CO2 rise.
'Humans have driven CO2 rise in the atmosphere as large as the CO2 rise that helped end the last Ice Age, but the man-made CO2 rise has happened 100 times faster.


Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5647665/Earths-oceans-released-CO2-15-000-years-ago-warmed-planet-ended-Ice-Age.html#ixzz5DfFS5MLG
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欧美的光明会与共济会,虽然历史上偶尔有过交集,但根本不是一回事。



共济会吸纳世界各族的精英、尊古埃及几何学(尺规)为师。     光明会则是从古波斯拜火教一些极端派系演变成,以鹰翼为徽标,是名符其实的鹰派。





光明会信奉古雅利安的人种优越论,强调种族阶级、生存空间,排斥甚至企图消灭其他人种文明。



3K党、纳粹 都是光明会的壳,最终都被共济会压下去。
2# Pechenegs

这篇报道证实了我写《龙华起信论》之前的一个想法,这个想法包含在本人的史前研究中。本人通过好读书不求甚解,唯观大略而后深思熟虑冥思苦想,得出一个研究观点,就是史前人类人口迁徙最初主要是由西往东,由非洲到澳洲、美洲(出非洲都好几次),但人类文明却是由东往西,由巽他到欧洲,再到美洲(后来在临海岛屿大陆架上产生了亚特兰蒂斯文明),再到亚洲,再到印度、中东、欧洲,尤其是历史上的上帝之鞭,促使近代欧洲文明蜕变,然后又来个航海大发现,西进美洲,侵略亚洲、澳洲、非洲,这种文明冲击波也有好几度。如同潮汐,顺时针逆时针,阴阳大道,冥冥中如有天机。

写《龙华起信论》之前,我本想写一部更加包容涵盖囊括的书,从人类起源开始,思索人体独特机能和情感文化的演进,一直论述到人类文明各要素各古代文明的缘起和关系而止。论证方法也打算更多运用自然科学理论和实例,语言文化研究只是作为最后的补充论证。当时就考虑过冰期索虏特人沿北大西洋冰架迁徙美洲的可能性(Solutrean——肃慎(徐无申、许兀申)——索虏——梭罗)。但咱既不是什么家,也不算对口业,不伦不类,也谈不上有自己实际拿出手的证据,对于西洋考古学、基因学来说,咱的“研究认识”应算空想不算科学发现(其实俺也鄙夷类似马可死氏的“科研”,若非穷极无奈,咱还是希望干“实事”而求是的),不足道哉。雕虫考据,纯属务虚,拾人牙慧以夸夸其谈,非我所欲,标新立异而哗众取宠,本心必拒!

其实寻章摘句,我只看大略摘要而已,很少看整篇文献与报道,虽然除了个别生词和专业图表词汇,一般文献我能看懂,但是学习欲望不强,真正浑浑噩噩,还自命为“混沌学研究方法”。看到这篇报道不长,有人提出要求楼主没接着,我来了精神头儿,使出劲儿翻译这篇小文,可还是用了很长时间。希望对读英文吃力者有所帮助。如有翻译不当处,或如有疑问,愿内行人士不吝赐教,回复则个。

New archaeological evidence suggests that America was first discovered by Stone Age people from Europe – 10,000 years before the Siberian-originating ancestors of the American Indians set foot in the New World.
新考古证据认为在石器时代美洲是被从欧洲来的人率先发现的,早于现今印第安人的西伯利亚祖先落脚到美洲大陆一万年。


A remarkable series of several dozen European-style stone tools, dating back between 19,000 and 26,000 years, have been discovered at six locations along the US east coast. Three of the sites are on the Delmarva Peninsular in Maryland, discovered by archaeologist Dr Darrin Lowery of the University of Delaware. One is in Pennsylvania and another in Virginia. A sixth was discovered by scallop-dredging fishermen on the seabed 60 miles from the Virginian coast on what, in prehistoric times, would have been dry land.
The new discoveries are among the most important archaeological breakthroughs for several decades - and are set to add substantially to our understanding of humanity's spread around the globe.

时间早到1900026000年前的几十件明显带有欧洲风格的石器,在美国东海岸六个地点被发现。其中三处在马里兰州Delmarva半岛,由Delaware大学的考古博士Darrin Lowery发现,宾夕法尼亚州和弗吉尼亚州也各发现一处。第六个地点由捕捞扇贝的渔民在弗吉尼亚海岸线以东60英里的海床上发现——这里在史前应该是陆地。这些新发现属于几十年来最重要考古发现之列,对于我们探索人类全球迁徙史有实质意义。


The similarity between other later east coast US and European Stone Age stone tool technologies has been noted before. But all the US European-style tools, unearthed before the discovery or dating of the recently found or dated US east coast sites, were from around 15,000 years ago - long after Stone Age Europeans (the Solutrean cultures of France and Iberia) had ceased making such artefacts. Most archaeologists had therefore rejected any possibility of a connection. But the newly-discovered and recently-dated early Maryland and other US east coast Stone Age tools are from between 26,000 and 19,000 years ago - and are therefore contemporary with the virtually identical western European material.

以前就已经发现了年代晚些的北美东海岸与欧洲石器工艺的相似性。不过所有那些美洲欧式工具(此次之前出土的,最新测年研究的,已测年遗址)只是15000年前左右的——远晚于石器时代欧洲(法国和伊比利亚的Solutrean文化)类似手艺品消失时代。许多考古学家因此拒绝认可二者间有联系。不过马里兰及美国东海岸新发现并测年的这些石器工具是2600019000年之前的——也就是与西欧同类物品乃是同时代的。


What’s more, chemical analysis carried out last year on a European-style stone knife found in Virginia back in 1971 revealed that it was made of French-originating flint.

进一步的,去年化学分析结果表明1971年在弗吉尼亚州发现的欧式石刀是用法国产的燧石打造的。


Professor Dennis Stanford, of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington DC, and Professor Bruce Bradley of the University of Exeter, the two leading archaeologists who have analysed all the evidence, are proposing that Stone Age people from Western Europe migrated to North America at the height of the Ice Age by travelling (over the ice surface and/or by boat) along the edge of the frozen northern part of the Atlantic. They are presenting their detailed evidence in a new book - Across Atlantic Ice – published this month.

华盛顿Smithsonian学院Dennis Stanford教授和Exeter大学的Bruce Bradley
教授这俩考古界领袖人物分析了所有证据,提出冰河时代人类自西欧沿北大西洋冰封海域南缘经冰盖或船到达北美。他们在本月出版的合著新书《Across Atlantic Ice(冰坚可渡大西洋)》中列出了他们的详细证据。


At the peak of the Ice Age, around three million square miles of the North Atlantic was covered in thick ice for all or part of the year.

冰期鼎盛点,在北大西洋大概有300万平方英里整年或一年中部分时间被厚冰覆盖。


However, the seasonally shifting zone where the ice ended and the open ocean began would have been extremely rich in food resources – migrating seals, sea birds, fish and the now-extinct northern hemisphere penguin-like species, the great auk.

不管怎样,随季节变化的冰海交界处或许曾经富有食物资源——迁徙性的海豹、海鸟、鱼和今已灭绝的北半球企鹅样的大海雀。


Stanford and Bradley have long argued that Stone Age humans were quite capable of making the 1500 mile journey across the Atlantic ice - but till now there was comparatively little evidence to support their thinking.

Stanford Bradley 长期就冰河时代石器人类从大西洋冰上完成1500英里旅行的能力进行探讨——至今只有相当少证据支持他们的想法。


But the new Maryland, Virginia and other US east coast material, and the chemical tests on the Virginian flint knife, have begun to transform the situation. Now archaeologists are starting to investigate half a dozen new sites in Tennessee, Maryland and even Texas – and these locations are expected to produce more evidence.

不过马里兰、弗吉尼亚与美国东海岸其他地方新发现的这些物品,以及马里兰燧石刀的化学检测,正开始改变这个形势。现在考古学家正准备对六处分别位于田纳西州、马里兰州甚至德克萨斯州的新地点进行调查——这些地点有望提供更多证据。


Another key argument for Stanford and Bradley’s proposal is the complete absence of any human activity in north-east Siberia and Alaska prior to around 15,500 years ago. If the Maryland and other east coast people of 26,000 to 19,000 years ago had come from Asia, not Europe, early material, dating from before 19,000 years ago, should have turned up in those two northern areas, but none have been found.

Stanford Bradley的观点中另一个争论的关键点是西伯利亚东北部和阿拉斯加在15500年之前毫无人迹。若马里兰及美国东海岸2600019000年之前的人们来自亚洲,而不是欧洲,早于19000年的文物应当在上述两处北方地区出现,但至今毫无发现。


Although Solutrean Europeans may well have been the first Americans, they had a major disadvantage compared to the Asian-originating Indians who entered the New World via the Bering Straits or along the Aleutian Islands chain after 15,500 years ago.

虽然欧洲Solutrean人可能是首批美洲人,但他们比15500年前起经过白令海峡或阿留申岛链来到新大陆的亚洲系印第安人有一个主要劣势。


Whereas the Solutreans had only had a 4500 year long ‘Ice Age’ window to carry out their migratory activity, the Asian-originating Indians had some 15,000 years to do it. What’s more, the latter two-thirds of that 15 millennia long period was climatologically much more favourable and substantially larger numbers of Asians were therefore able to migrate.

冰河时代Solutrean人只有4500年的时间间隔可以进行那种迁徙,而亚洲系印第安人却有15000年时间之久都可以迁徙。更进一步说,后者那15000年之久的时间段还有三分之二都是气候更适宜的时光,使得相对数量更多的亚洲人便于迁徙而来。


As a result of these factors the Solutrean (European originating) Native Americans were either partly absorbed by the newcomers or were substantially obliterated by them either physically or through competition for resources.

因此通过体力竞争或资源竞争的方式,欧洲来的Solutrean系美洲人不是被新来者部分消化吸收就是被他们清扫抹除。


Some genetic markers for Stone Age western Europeans simply don’t exist in north- east Asia – but they do in tiny quantities among some north American Indian groups. Scientific tests on ancient DNA extracted from 8000 year old
from Florida have revealed a high level of a  key probable European-originating genetic marker. There are also a tiny number of  isolated Native American groups whose languages appear not to be related in any way to Asian-originating American  Indian peoples.

石器时代亚洲东北角没有某些西欧类型的人类基因标记是很简单的逻辑,但是北美土著却有少量这种基因。对佛罗里达州出土的8000年历史的骨骼的古DNA 的提取检测显示一种极可能是欧洲来源的基因标记高水平出现。现在还有很少量美洲土著群体的语言表现得与亚洲系印第安人八杆子打不着关系。


But the greatest amount of evidence is likely to come from under the ocean – for most of the areas where the Solutreans would have stepped off the Ice onto dry land are now up to 100 miles out to sea.

不过最大部分的证据似乎在大洋里面——Solutrean人离冰登陆的可能之地大部分都在离岸100英里的海中了。


The one underwater site that has been identified - thanks to the scallop dredgers – is set to be examined in greater detail this summer – either by extreme-depth divers or by remotely operated mini submarines equipped with cameras and grab arms.

那处已经确认水下遗址(感谢捕捞扇贝的渔民)被计划今夏进一步调查,或是采用超深潜水员,或是采用装备了相机和抓取臂的远程操作迷你潜水器。

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-6-13 23:33 编辑
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/new-evidence-suggests-stone-age-hunters-from-europe-discovered-america-7447152.html

New archaeological evidence suggests that America was first disc ...
历史的天空 发表于 2015-1-11 16:36
人类确实可能有在旧石器时代自欧洲从北大西洋西去美洲的可能。但是史前全球化、全数迁移都增加了不确定性。同理明显从亚洲也确实可以沿海路南下美洲的。何况曾经出现少冰走廊。按说,单纯从Y-R1来说,欧洲并无末次冰期之前的Y-R,而南西伯利亚可能有(也是推测的Y-R、Y-Q的起源地),即使北美洲印地安土著有Y-R1,也可能是从南西伯利亚东进的(这样的Y-R、Y-P都是更新世末期进行了全球化探索,Y-R1在全新世西到欧洲、非洲,东到美洲,也算是大拓荒者——killer了,是晚更新世动物与旧人种大灭绝的头号元凶)。
白令吉亚人南下美洲能适应各种生境气候,进化出亚美人种多个类型,同理,亚洲的黄种人的典型特征也可能是白领及压刃回流形成的。因为有更新的非典型进化,与美洲人略有不同。

早期人类可能沿着阿拉斯加的太平洋海岸迁徙进入美洲



来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年5月31日 15:07







布法罗大学博士生Alia Lesnek在苏梅兹岛上从事研究。



早期人类可能沿着阿拉斯加的太平洋海岸迁徙进入美洲


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据EurekAlert! :对岩石进行的新的测年及对阿拉斯加东南沿岸岛屿上的动物骨头的重新分析表明,在太平洋和阿拉斯加科迪勒拉冰盖(CIS)间的一个狭窄走廊可能令人类能在早至1万7000年前向美洲迁徙。


尽管数据提示,这一太平洋沿岸走廊(这是在冰川消退后露出的一条通道)在实体上和环境上都令早期人类能向美洲迁徙,但作者说,仍然需要有人类活动的考古学证据来证实这条通路在人类定居美洲中起着重要的作用。在20世纪,许多人认为,白令陆桥是人类从亚州迁往美洲的通路。然而,近来的分析提示,在大约1万6000年(16 ka)前,早期人类通过一个冰川消退后出现的走廊来到北太平洋沿岸的CIS以西。然而,该沿岸区域的环境条件(诸如生物生产力、食物资源的获取及是否存在实体屏障)是否适合对当时人类的生活给予支持仍然不得而知。


Alia J. Lesnek和同事在此用两种不同的代理系统来重建冰川消退的过程。首先,他们用10铍对10块岩石表面(其中5块为栖止的巨砾,5块为基岩样品)进行年代测定,这些石块来自3个建议的地方:达尔岛、苏梅兹岛和沃伦岛接着,他们利用了先前已经发表的对哺乳动物和鸟类骨头进行的14碳测年结果,这些骨头是在附近岛屿上的洞穴中被发现的。他们的分析显示,从20 ka 至 17 ka前左右,这一地区是被冰河覆盖的,因此无法向人类迁徙开放。但是,到17 ka前之后,这些岛屿上的冰川消失,那里成为陆地及海洋强健生态系统的容留地,这些都能为人类在南向迁徙进入美洲的时候为人类提供支持。

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
因为现在东亚古DNA还是鬼一样神秘,信息严重不足,对于国内人骨暂时不做评价。然而感觉对于我们亚美人种形成至关重要的,其实是三个大陆架——巽他陆架、东海陆架、白令吉亚陆架。该有多少古人遗骸hide在海底,沤深于ocean呢?
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
很有趣的相关新闻,新的研究总是提供不同视点,给出解释历史谜题的不同方案。

2个人类向冰岛和美洲迁徙的遗传学故事


来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年6月01日 13:28







基督教之前(<1000 C.E.)某古代冰岛女性的骨骸。


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据EurekAlert!:两项不同的研究分别为冰岛和美洲的人群迁徙、形成和演化过程进行了细致的描绘,它得益于对这些地区远古DNA的发现与测序。Alessandro Achilli和同事在一则相关的《视角》文章中说,来自远古DNA研究的海量历史信息代表了古代基因组学进入了新时代;该文对这两项研究及该领域的其它重要发现进行了概述。


S. Sunna Ebenesersdóttir和同事的研究为冰岛人群的形成提供了详尽的线索。研究人员采用了对27个古代冰岛人(据放射性碳测年显示,这些人为冰岛最早的定居者)遗骨所做的基因组测序数据。他们发现,所有古代的冰岛人都为诺斯人(挪威人和瑞典人)、盖尔人(爱尔兰人和苏格兰人)或是具这两种血统的混合人种。这一结果是说得通的,因为冰岛早期的人群是维京人及被其奴役的人,后者来自挪威及不列颠-爱尔兰诸岛。令人惊讶的是,将远古冰岛人的DNA与欧洲现代人进行对比发现,这些古代的冰岛定居者的基因组与当代的不列颠-爱尔兰诸岛和斯堪的纳维亚人的接近程度要高于和当代冰岛人的近似度。作者推测,对这种相关性的一种解释是,经历了约1100年的基因漂变(即因为随机发生的突变而导致的某些基因频率的改变)将冰岛人口塑造成了他们如今的样子。非常有意思的是,古代冰岛人基因池中诺斯人和盖尔人的高度混合可解释:为什么当代冰岛人群是基因特征相关性研究的绝佳候选对象。与较为同质的人群相比,源自这一血统混合的高度遗传变异更适合于全基因组范围内的相关研究,因为前者难以说明哪个DNA区域会产生特定性状,例如,究竟是哪个基因区域能够确立冰岛人的独特性。


由Christiana Scheib等人所做的第二项研究关注的问题是早期人类如何进入美洲,它为北美人和南美人间存在的基因鸿沟可能发生于远古劳伦蒂德冰盖以南提供了证据(劳伦蒂德冰盖覆盖了美国以北的大部分土地,其中也包括加拿大的大部分)。Scheib和同事对91个古代美洲土著人遗骸的基因组进行了测序,这些遗骸主要来自加利福尼亚和加拿大安大略省的西南地区。他们发现,古代安大略人与其他古代北美人以及当代的说阿尔冈琴语的美洲土著最为相似。相反,古代加利福尼亚人的基因组则与现在生活于墨西哥及南美洲的人群相似。基于这些结果,作者驳斥了新出现理论——即南、北美洲人之间的基因鸿沟发生于劳伦蒂德冰盖对面的白令陆桥;他们认为这些结果提示,冰河时期美洲人群向劳伦蒂德冰盖以南进行了单次迁徙,而该基因鸿沟可能发生于在古代北美洲西北角的这次跨越之后。值得注意的是,研究人员还发现,古代加利福尼亚人和安大略人的DNA在整个北方和南方地区都存在而且有混合;例如,很少当代的中、南美洲人群会显示非常高频度的古代安大略人的DNA。作者因而提出,这两个分道扬镳的人群分支可能在某些时间点在北美或沿着向南美迁徙的路径上合并,这种情况发生在出现最初基因分叉以后的至少数千年。

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
洋流作为地球上最大的空调,戏剧性的转变,会带来翻天覆地的变化。谁知道末次冰期北极是什么样的气候呢?能支持很多种大型食草动物,起码植被不能太稀疏,冬季也不能完全被冰雪盖住。所有的研究都是管窥蠡测,已知的小圈子之外是未知的海洋。


Dramatic switch in the Earth's oceans 15,000 years ago released large amounts of CO2 that warmed the planet and ended the last Ice Age

...
癯鹤 发表于 2018-4-25 14:55
洋流带动的巨大冰盖型冰山可以作为浮动岛屿,被洋流带动“航行”很远,北极冰山会被北美洲东部的沿岸寒流带动南下,考虑到欧洲旧石器时代高纬度就有很多文化遗存,说明即使在冰川边缘人口也还是很繁荣的,也就有了向外扩张的势能,冰期的大动物当然是狩猎对象,但是冰架上可是有很多不会飞的大海雀,捡鸟蛋也是不错的营生,如果有捡鸟蛋的正巧被分裂的冰山带走,只要随身携带石质工具(如果没有也可以就地制作骨器、牙器,如果有小船就更好了),生活还是不愁的。这也可以作为梭鲁特文化的传播可能。
末次冰期结束时可能崩解出比现在大得多的冰山,甚至生活在上面的人不一定能察觉到冰盖分裂了,比如崩解出几万到几十万平方千米的冰盖,随洋流缓慢移动,上面的人只会惊讶于气候和环境在改变,不会知道生活的冰面在移动——当然最终随着冰川的继续崩解和消融,会知道真相的,那可能就是亚特兰蒂斯的覆灭的原型故事之一,或龙伯钓鳌的传说。
正因为这些神话传说,使我怀疑北欧大陆架、白领挤压大陆架都跟我们东亚人的祖先(至少是文化祖先)有很深的关系。使我感觉亚特兰蒂斯传说跟中国也有关系。所以古欧洲人不但可能西来成为华夏祖先之一,也可能东来成为华夏祖先之一。北欧大陆架、白令吉亚大陆架、加勒比海大陆架、东海大陆架、巽他大陆架都可能跟蒙古人种的形成有关!沤深,海眼,大洪水传说,真是大有渊源呀!
《列子·汤问》:
汤又问:“物有巨细乎?有修短乎?有同异乎?”革曰:“渤海之东不知几亿万里,有大壑焉,实惟无底之谷,其下无底,名曰归墟。八弦九野之水,天汉之流,莫不注之,而无增无减焉。其中有五山焉:一曰岱舆,二曰员峤,三曰方壶,四曰瀛洲,五曰蓬莱。其山高下周旋三万里,其顶平处九千里。山之中闲相去七万里,以为邻居焉。其上台观皆金玉,其上禽兽皆纯缟。珠玕之树皆丛生,华实皆有滋味,食之皆不老不死。所居之人皆仙圣之种;一日一夕飞相往来者,不可数焉。而五山之根,无所连箸,常随潮波上下往还,不得蹔峙焉。仙圣毒之,诉之于帝。帝恐流于西极,失群仙圣之居,乃命禺强使巨鳌十五举首而戴之。迭为三番,六万岁一交焉。五山始峙而不动。而龙伯之国,有大人,举足不盈数千而暨五山之所,一钓而连六鳌,合负而趣,归其国,灼其骨以数焉。于是岱舆员峤二山流于北极,沈于大海,仙圣之播迁者巨亿计。帝凭怒,侵减龙伯之国使厄。侵小龙伯之民使短。至伏羲神农时,其国人犹数十丈。从中州以东四十万里,得僬侥国。人长一尺五寸。东北极有人名曰诤人,长九寸。……
大壑,是不是巨型冰架中的裂缝?巨型冰山厚几千米,冰似玉,旧石器时代还没有金属,假如(这个假如呢,不语怪力乱神不可以谈文化,万一并非无稽之谈呢?)有“外星人”或真有更先进的前一代文明有飞船,做飞船之宫,也可算金玉之堂(或许“外星人”生活环境跟地球不同,喜欢零下环境,所以冰河期来地球冰盖生活。现在呢,可能有别的任务走了,偶尔会在南极或格陵兰吧?这也是南极老人星或北极圣诞老人传说的一个源头)。若有这样先进文明的外星人,什么亚特兰蒂斯,什么伊甸园,不过是外星人的牧场、动物园、试验场罢了,可以解释为什么全新世人类文化迅速进步。不过我看这很可能是列子夸大其词的虚言小说而已。抛弃外星人这种还难以证实的假设,真实情形乃是末次冰期生息在北极冰盖的“亚特兰蒂斯”人的历史生活(唯一奇怪的是“飞行器”,这不符合常理,有没可能是形容滑雪板、雪橇这种交通工具迅捷而已)。
“帝恐流于西极”,这就是北大西洋的寒流的方向,说明在末次冰期,亚特兰蒂斯人(包括梭鲁特人等)已经认识到大壑是他们生活家园的隐患。巨鳌传说,可以参考海眼水怪传说,是不是有那么大,这个是道士想象中可大可小的。“岱舆员峤二山流于北极,沈于大海”,这个很好理解,冰架崩解,人类居住的冰盖随着洋流往南滑动,相对运动视角,就是原来的北极冰架主体在往北流动,往南流动的洋流是寒流,冰盖还容易保持,而往北的是暖流,人们在这边冰盖上会看到北极冰盖边缘在不停崩解、坠海,直至最后看不到(当然只是因为脱离的冰盖漂移远了,看不到了),就认为沉到海里去了。当然往西往南漂流的冰盖最终还是会崩解融化的,那时候就是亚特兰蒂斯的末日,不过人们应该已经接近了北美大陆,能够用兽皮造出船儿划过去了(然而逃难的还是少数)。
这种可能的历史,代代相传,在欧亚大陆古老民族记忆里留下深刻印象,成为很多祖源神话的基础。
《列子·汤问》:
禹之治水上也,迷而失涂,谬之一国。滨北海之北,不知距齐州几千万里,其国名曰终北,不知际畔之所齐限。无风雨霜露,不生鸟、兽、虫、鱼、草、木之类。四方悉平,周以乔陟。当国之中有山,山名壶领,状若甔甄。顶有口,状若员环,名曰滋穴。有水涌出,名曰神瀵,臭过兰椒,味过醪醴。一源分为四埒,注于山下;经营一国,亡不悉徧。土气和,亡札厉。人性婉而从,物不竞不争。柔心而弱骨,不骄不忌;长幼侪居,不君不臣;男女杂游,不媒不聘;缘水而居,不耕不稼;土气温适,不织不衣;百年而死,不夭不病。其民孳阜亡数,有喜乐,亡衰老哀苦。其俗好声,相携而迭谣,终日不辍音。饥惓则饮神瀵,力志和平。过则醉经旬乃醒。沐浴神瀵,肤色脂泽,香气经旬乃歇。周穆王北游,过其国,三年忘归。既反周室,慕其国,惝然自失。不进酒肉,不召嫔御者数月,乃复。管仲勉齐桓公,因游辽口,俱之其国。几克举,隰朋谏曰:“君舍齐国之广,人民之众,山川之观,殖物之阜,礼义之盛,章服之美,妖靡盈庭,忠良满朝,肆咤则徒卒百万,视撝则诸侯从命,亦奚羡于彼,而弃齐国之社稷,从戎夷之国乎?此仲父之耄,柰何从之?”桓公乃止,以隰朋之言告管仲,仲曰:“此固非朋之所及也。臣恐彼国之不可知之也。齐国之富奚恋?隰朋之言奚顾?”
此中所述“终北”(钟杯?言与神同在哟!)之国,跟柏拉图所述“亚特兰蒂斯”相似度可是非常之高的。泗水伊甸园,这不是很多文化民族共有的传说么?(当然春秋时代亚特兰蒂斯早没了,作为神话传说成了道家小说——道听途说而已,不过夏天的北极,应该确实还有这样的胜景,不然驯鹿候鸟为什么都往北迁)。如果历史时期还有终北国,其实西伯利亚就很像(不过齐桓公能去的和列子所能考察的,或许就是东北,那神山泗水,也挺像白头山地区),大禹到过那里,难怪现在有“萨哈”-“雅库特”共和国(这俩名字都接近“夏”啊,言与神同在)。

以上这些,都是因为下面这个新闻有感而发:

脱离南极洲18年 历来最大冰山漂近赤道将消失



来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年6月11日 16:23







B-15冰山已分离出多个巨型冰块。



B-15多年前脱离南极洲罗斯冰架,向北漂浮。


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)南极洲一座面积逾1万平方公里的冰山,在2000年3月脱离罗斯冰架,经过18年漂浮,愈来愈接近赤道。美国太空总署(NASA)近日公布最新卫星图,可见冰山已被温暖洋流瓦解成多个巨型冰块,相信很快就会消失得无影无踪。


NASA上周五(8日)表示,该个比牙买加岛还要大、名为B-15的冰山,自脱离罗斯冰架后一直都在南极洲一带漂浮;但在过去12个月,它开始向北漂去。NASA收集国际太空站于上月22日拍摄的卫星图片,发现B-15现时已抵达南太西洋的南乔治亚群岛西北部,该处距离罗斯冰架1万公里,属于暖水洋流区域。


NASA冰川学家布伦特(Kelly Brunt)指出,当冰山在温暖洋流漂浮时,海水就如多把利刀般将冰山破开。她指B-15目前已分离出4个面积逾20平方公里的大冰山,仍然可以追踪得到,但当再向赤道方向移近时,将会完全被瓦解,意味它从此消失。

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
无支祁(支祁反切“耳止”)Ryan(蓝颜——谰言)达坂猪的新研究成果似乎对俺的白令吉亚亚美人种起源说及“亚特兰蒂斯新解”给予了助攻:《 美洲土著始祖人群的父系在旧石器时代西伯利亚地区的起源过程》。
美洲土著始祖人群的父系在旧石器时代西伯利亚地区的起源过程
本帖最后由 Ryan 于 2018-7-14 22:26 编辑

Paternal origin of Paleo-Indians in Siberia: insights from Y-chromosome sequences

Lan-Hai Wei, Ling-Xiang Wang, Shao-Qing Wen, Shi Yan, Rebekah Canada, Vladimir Gurianov, Yun-Zhi Huang, Swapan Mallick, Alessandro Biondo, Amy O’Leary, Chuan-Chao Wang, Yan Lu, Chao Zhang, Li Jin, Shuhua Xu & Hui Li
European Journal of Human Genetics (2018) | Download Citation

Abstract
The expansion of modern humans to the American continent after the Last Glacial Maximum led the way to the present-day distribution of American aborigines. Recent advances in autosomal DNA research and expanded testing of mtDNA lineages has provided a clearer picture of the number and timing of founding lineages. However, both autosomal DNA and mtDNA research have provided unresolved competing theories between the short-term and the long-term models of the Beringian standstill hypothesis. Further, the source of founding paternal lineages of American aborigines and their relationship with ancient Siberia populations remains ambiguous. In this study, we reanalyzed a 7.0 Mbp region of 132 paternal Y-chromosome sequences, including 39 newly reported ones, of male samples from American aborigines and Eurasian populations. Among Eurasian samples, we identified Y-chromosome branches that are most closely related to known American aborigine founding lineages, that is, Q1-L804 links to Q1-M3, Q1-L330 links to Q1-Z780, Q1-M120 links to Q1-B143, and C2-F1756 links to C2-P39. The revised phylogenetic tree and age estimates indicate a narrow timeframe (~15.3–14.3 kya) for the upper time limit of human entry to the American continent. Our analysis suggests that the in situ differentiation of Q-M242 in Central Eurasia and South Siberia region gave rise to numerous sub-lineages older than 15.3 kya, and the founding of Paleo-Indian paternal lineages is part of the great Q1-L53 diffusion throughout the Eurasia after the Last Glacial Maximum. The results of our study will assist in future studies of the history of modern populations in Eurasia and the Americas.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41431-018-0211-6
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(自:http://www.ranhaer.org/viewthread.php?tid=38305&page=1#pid553293
当然无耻谰言的解释跟俺的不同。见仁见智!
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-7-22 10:44 编辑

人穷,想多学多看点什么都很难。这个网站我放收藏夹就为了多看些科技新闻。然而至今已经变动两三次,一次比一次难看。现在不但字体难以辨认,干脆连图片都看不了了。


Humans reached North America 6,500 years EARLIER than first thought: Discovery of 150,000 'unique' stone tools suggest humans already lived on the continent 20,000 years ago

  • Find suggests so-called 'Clovis artefacts' were not the first prehistoric tools Scientists found an assemblage of artefacts 16,000 to 20,000 years old This suggests man lived in the Americas 6,500 years earlier than first thought
  • The latest research is not the first time the Clovis timeline has been questioned
By Phoebe Weston For Mailonline
Published: 11:29 BST, 18 July 2018 | Updated: 11:44 BST, 18 July 2018

  • [email=?subject=Read this: Humans reached North America 6,500 years EARLIER than first thought: Discovery of 150,000]e-mail [/email]
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For decades, researchers believed early humans first settled in the Western Hemisphere around 13,500 years ago.
However, the discovery of 150,000 'unique' stone tools northwest of Austin, Texas, now suggests humans were living on the continent as far back as 20,000 years ago.
The latest research pushes back the earliest human habitation of North America back by almost 6,500 years.
It also suggests the previously-discovered 'Clovis artefacts' were not the first prehistoric tools on the continent.
Scroll down for video


Researchers have found 150,000 stone tools (selection, pictured) that suggest humans arrived on the continent up to 20,000 years ago

The Clovis people were a prehistoric Native American group of hunter-gatherers.
Clovis artefacts are distinctive prehistoric stone tools so named because they were initially found near Clovis, New Mexico, back in the 1920s.
These tools have since been identified throughout North and South America.
These early humans were distinguished by the fine-fluted stone points they made for their weapons.
In recent years however, archaeological evidence has increasingly called into question the idea that these people were the first to populate the Americas, a theory known as 'Clovis First.'
Now, in the latest research to question this long-held theory, researchers led by Thomas Williams from the Department of Anthropology at Texas State University excavated the Gault Site northwest of Austin.



They found an assemblage of artefacts between 16,000 and 20,000 years of age.
'These projectile points are unique. We haven't found anything else like them,' Dr Williams said.
'Combine that with the ages and the fact that it underlies a Clovis component and the Gault site provides a fantastic opportunity to study the earliest human occupants in the Americas.'


The presence of Clovis technology at the site is well-documented. However, excavations below the deposits containing Clovis artefacts revealed the distinctly different older tools, called the Gault Assemblage (at the bottom)

WHO WERE THE CLOVIS PEOPLE?The Clovis people, a prehistoric Native American group of hunter-gatherers, reached North America around 13,500 years ago.
They hunted mammoth, mastodons and giant bison with big spears.
Clovis artefacts are distinctive prehistoric stone tools so named because they were initially found near Clovis, New Mexico, in the 1920s.
They have since been identified throughout North and South America.
These early humans were distinguished by the fine-fluted stone points they made for weapons.
Centuries of cold, nicknamed the 'Big Freeze,' are believed to have wiped out the Clovis, as well as most of the large mammals in North America
In recent years however, archaeological evidence has increasingly called into question the idea that these people were the first to reach the Americas.
Now, in the latest research to question this long-held theory, researchers led by Thomas Williams from the Department of Anthropology at Texas State University excavated the Gault Site northwest of Austin.
They found an assemblage of artefacts between 16,000 and 20,000 years of age.


Scientists believe the Gault Site, which encompasses a valley intersection of the Edwards Plateau and Blackland Prairie, would have been appealing to early humans.
The region has reliable springs and high-quality flint outcrops which could have been used for crafting tools.
The presence of Clovis technology at the site is already well-documented.
However, excavations below the deposits containing Clovis artefacts revealed the distinctly different older tools, known as the Gault Assemblage.
'This projectile point assemblage is unlike anything in the early archaeological record of the Americas and indicates complex behavioural activities associated with a group or groups who colonised the New World,' researchers wrote in the paper, published in Science Advances.


Using optically stimulated luminescence age estimates, the researchers dated the Gault Assemblage to between 16,000 to 20,000 years ago. This suggests that Clovis technology spread across an already well-established, indigenous population

HOW DID OUR ANCESTORS FIRST REACH THE AMERICAS?The conventional story says that the earliest settlers came via Siberia, crossing the now-defunct Bering land bridge on foot and trekking through Canada.
In recent years, evidence has mounted against the conventional thinking that humans populated North America by taking an inland route through Canada.
To do so, they would have needed to walk through a narrow, ice-free ribbon of terrain that appeared when two major ice sheets started to separate.
But recent research suggests that while this path may have opened up more than 14,000 years ago, it did not develop enough biological diversity to support human life until about 13,000 years ago.
That clashes with archaeological findings that suggest humans were already living in Chile about 15,000 years ago or more and in Florida 14,500 years ago.
Scientists now believe the first Americans could have taken a coastal route along Alaska's Pacific border to enter the continent.
This theory provides an alternative narrative and could mark a step toward solving the mystery of how humans came to the Americas.
By analysing boulders and bedrock, researchers from the University at Buffalo say they have 'direct evidence' that part of a coastal migration route along Alaska's Pacific became accessible to humans 17,000 years ago.
During this period, ancient glaciers receded, exposing islands of southern Alaska's Alexander.
The area was home to food sources such as ancient ringed seal that could support human life at the time that early settlers may have been passing through.
Recent genetic and archaeological estimates suggest that settlers may have begun travelling deeper into the Americas some 16,000 years ago, soon after the coastal gateway opened up.


Using optically-stimulated luminescence age estimates, the researchers dated the Gault Assemblage to between 16,000 to 20,000 years ago.
This suggests Clovis technology spread across an already well-established, indigenous population.
This research is not the first time the Clovis timeline has been questioned.
Scientists from Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, found stone tools in Monte Verde, close to Puerto Mont in Southern Chile back in 2016.
The researchers found ancient tools, bone remains from some extinct animals and broken animal bones that appear fractured by humans.
The team dated the bones using radiocarbon dating techniques and analysed the tools using microscopes.



Researchers led by Thomas Williams from the Department of Anthropology at Texas State University excavated the Gault Site northwest of Austin

The materials were dated to between 14,064 and 13,068 years ago, implying humans were living there at that time.
'As archaeologists, we know from previous research what we would expect to find in our study region,' Dr Rafuse said, 'and the material remains at the Arroyo Seco 2 site fit well into those expectations.'
'For example, simple tool technologies and the hunting and scavenging of extinct prey like giant ground sloths and extinct American horse.
'However, if in fact people did come from Asia into North America and finally arrived to the Southern Cone of South America, why are there not more sites in North and Central America with similar dates.
'This is one of the debates American archaeologists continue to discuss and why sites like Monte Verde II and the Arroyo Seco 2 site are to a certain degree surprising.'
Dating the step into the Southern Cone is important because it could be the last in the expansion of Homo sapiens throughout the world, the researchers have said.

没图,连真相都懒得看。幸好又看到篇中文简稿,这批人是从西伯利亚还是从欧洲来到美洲的呢?

美国德州出土的石器将人类踏足美洲的时间提早6500年


来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年7月21日 16:17



团队在高尔特遗址出土的石器,证明人类踏足北美洲比现时所知要早。



出土的石器包括一些投掷器具。


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)考古学家一直认为,最早踏足美洲大陆的人,是于1.35万年前从西伯利亚抵达阿拉斯加的克洛维斯人(Clovis)。惟美国一批考古学家近日分析,在德州一处遗址出土的逾15万件石器,结果发现其年代比克洛维斯人时期更久远,有可能将人类踏足美洲的时间,提早最多达6500年。


德州州立大学人类学教授威廉斯(Thomas Williams)和其团队,以光释学析年法分析德州西北部高尔特(Gault)遗址出土的石器。该些石器埋藏在克洛维斯人时期文物之下,当中包括一些铲、投掷器具及挖掘器具等,历史长达1.6万至2万年。


威廉斯表示,这些石器非常独特,与克洛维斯人制造石器的技术截然不同,从来没见过。他又指出土这些石器的遗址一带,有充足的泉水和露出地面的燧石,为制造工具提供有利条件。是次发现将令人类踏足北美洲的历史,推前2500至6500年。有关研究成果刊登于上周三出版的美国科学促进会期刊。

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
假如亚特兰蒂斯真如我假设的并非热带,而是冰河时期的北极冰架,“岛上动物和植物繁多,有许多大象。”植物可能只是类似“格陵兰”这种噱头而已(倒是玉虚宫、冰宫、水晶宫这种说法更能道出冰架荒凉的实质)。大象呢,并非热带大象,也不是猛犸象,而是海象。这种动物结群,比象群还大。后世记忆不清,也是可能的。当然亚特兰蒂斯还可能扩展领土到美洲、欧洲,也会有野牛、猛犸、乳齿象等等,但这些不是本部的。


《皇家学会报告》期刊:维京人进入格陵兰是为了获取海象牙



来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年8月09日 16:50







《皇家学会报告》期刊:维京人进入格陵兰是为了获取海象牙


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)遗传学家和历史学家在《皇家学会报告》期刊上发表文章称,维京人进入格陵兰是为了获取海象牙,他们垄断海象牙贸易整整四个世纪。


如果你相信维京人的英雄史诗,发现新大陆也就是美州大陆的并不是克里斯托弗·哥伦布和他的团队,而是公元十世纪末埃里克·雷德和他的儿子们率领下的挪威航海家。大约在986年,他们被驱逐出挪威,经过长途跋涉,将格陵兰岛变成了成为他们的新家园。


借助许多考古发现和使用放射性碳确定年份,学者们今天对维京人在格陵兰、纽芬兰岛和拉布拉多半岛存在的事实毫不怀疑。那么,为什么维京人首先殖民,然后离开那里又新发现了新的土地。这个问题引起了学术界的争论。


几年来一直从事北欧"基因考古"的巴雷特和他的同事们发现了这个问题的答案。他们研究了挪威、英格兰东北部和欧洲其他地区,也就是中世纪最大的贸易中心所在地遗留的海象骨碎片和用海象牙做成的各种饰品。


学者们认为,维京人离开格陵兰岛和其他新发现的土地,可能是由于发生了自然灾害,例如15世纪中叶的“小冰期”。


他们这样做也许是因为海象牙已经过时让位于象牙。由于埃里克·雷德的后裔掠夺性的狩猎,可能使得海象群不复存在。巴雷特希望,维京人离开北美的问题迟早会在维京人的史册或其他古迹中找到答案。

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
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