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世界人种体质表型分布

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本帖最后由 snelheid 于 2015-7-29 16:23 编辑

瑞典南部的Hallstatt Nordid

hallstattm.jpg
2015-7-29 16:12


hallstattf.jpg
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Description:
Nordid proper, resembles the Iron Age remains of the Austrian village of Hallstatt. Most common among Swedes and South Norwegians. Frequent in England, North Germany, Netherlands, North France, Iceland, North Poland, along Daugava, Vistula and Po rivers, sometimes Austria, Switzerland, North Italy. Germanic tribes (Goths, Vanadals) brought traces to Spain, Greece, North Africa and Russia.

Physical Traits:
Pinkish pale skin. Straight to wavy, golden blonde, sometimes red or light brown hair. (Grey-)blue eyes. Tall, ectomorph or mildly mesomorph with wide shoulders and narrow hips (even in women), meso- sometimes brachyskelic. Mesocephalic, dolichocephalic at times, mildly chamaecranic with a curved occiput. Hyperleptorrhine, straight or mildly convex, high-bridged nose. Face high and narrow with marked features, mildly sloping forehead, thin lips, sturdy chin.

Literature:
Coon (1939) separated it from other Nordid varieties as Hallstatt or Østerdal. Kunssmann (1996), Vondernach (2008), Eickstedt (1952) named it Teuto Nordid, Lundman (1988) Göta or Skando Nordid, Deniker (1900) and Biasutti (1967) as the Nordic proper type.
本帖最后由 snelheid 于 2015-7-29 16:26 编辑

试比较,挪威西海岸的Trønder:

tronderm.jpg
2015-7-28 16:15


tronderf.jpg
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Description:
North European type, combines features of Paleo Atlantid, Hallstatt and East Nordid. One of the main elements in the ancient Vikings. Their nucleus lies in the Norwegian Trøndelag region. It also dominates in other parts of Norway as well as Iceland and Central Sweden. Sometimes in other parts of Scandinavia, Scotland and North East England. Historic Viking migrations dispersed it across several other regions of Europe (e.g. France, Russia and Italy).

Physical Traits:
Rosy-white skin,  straight or wavy, often golden blonde, sometimes red or brown hair with light eyes. Tall, brachy- mesoskelic, ecto- to mesomorph. Mesocephalic and orthocranic with craggier facial features, and a slightly steeper, more roundish forehead compared to Hallstatt. Face is long, nose (hyper-)leptorrhine. Head size is moderate, auricular height very high. Orthognathic. Body hair moderate to strong. Rather small eyes, thin lips, sturdy chin

Literature:
Bryn and Schreiner (1929) identified the type after studying military recruits. Based on that, Coon (1939) and Lundman (1940, 1945, 1967b) defined the Trønder. Also mentioned by Torgersen (1976).
本帖最后由 snelheid 于 2015-7-29 16:28 编辑

波罗的沿海的Aisto Nordid:

aistonordidm.jpg
2015-7-28 16:16


aistonordidf.jpg
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Description:
East Nordid subvariety, common in coastal regions of Baltic countries. One of the last strongholds of East Nordids that are only a minority type in most of their distribution today. Played a role in the formation of Tavastid and Trønder. Purest in Western Finns and West Estonians, also Latvians, Lithuanians, Russians, Poles, Belarussians and in Sweden, where it has a Hälsingland subvariety.

Physical Traits:
Pale skin,  straight,  usually blonde hair with blue or grey eyes. Tall, mesoskelic, rarely brachskelic, mesomorph. Mesocephalic, mildly hypsicranic with a higher and larger skull than Hallstatt Nordid. The face and head appears a little wider, noses trend to be long, high, prominent, straight and hyperleptorrhine, forehead high, chin sturdy. Overall marked features.

Literature:
Named and defined by Lundman (1943, 1946b). The Estonian West Baltic complex of East European authors (Vitov et al, 1959; Aul, 1964; Heapost and Viikmaa, 1999; Heapost, 2000) is very similar.  Others (Eickstedt, 1934; Biasutti, 1967) included it in Nordid proper.
本帖最后由 snelheid 于 2015-7-29 16:30 编辑

@大昊,你会惊呼,Anglosaxon跟Hallstatt、Borreby还有Trønder之间的区别太大了

看看Anglo-Saxon:

anglosaxonm.jpg
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anglosaxonf.jpg
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Description:
North West European type, similar to Trønder, but with a stronger Hallstatt component. Was typified by the ancient Germanic tribes of Angles, Saxons and Jutes who conquered Britian from the 5th century on. Most common today in East England, but also Frisia (Netherlands), North West Germany, West Denmark and parts of Northern France and Ireland.

Physical Traits:
Pale skin,  straight to curly, often blonde, sometimes red or brown hair with light(-mixed) eyes. Rather (tall), mesoskelic, ectomorph to mesomorph. Mesocephalic, chamae- orthocranic with narrower faces and more roundish features than Trønder and more robust features than Hallstatt as well as more prominent cheek-bones. Nose is hyperleptorrhine, the forehead high.

Literature:
Coon (1939) defined the type as a Nordic subtype after earlier works had pointed out its distinctiveness (Shore, 1906). Also used by some later authors like Cole (1965).  Biasutti (1967) describes it as a special Nordic subtype he called "britannico".
本帖最后由 snelheid 于 2015-7-29 16:38 编辑

西北德意志的Dalo-Fälid

dalofaelidm.jpg
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dalofaelidf.jpg
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Description:
Coarse, cromagniform Nordid variety of the Central and Northern Europe. Named after the Swedish province of Dalarna and the German region of Westfalia. Typcial areas include Central Germany, Netherlands and South Sweden / Norway, partially even South Finland. Antique Germanic migrations dispersed it across Europe. A Dalic, Faelid and Västmanland subvariety can be distinguished.

Physical Traits:
Pale to fair skin. Straight to curly, blonde, sometimes red or brown hair. Grey-blue or mixed eyes. Tall, mesoskelic, mesomorph with robust bones, in old age sometimes endomorph. Mesocephalic, chamae- orthocranic with a curved occiput, very large-headed. Leptorrhine, straight or mildly convex nose. Wide face, broad angular jaws and zygomatic arches. Brow ridges strong, deep-set, small eyes. Forehead broad, mildly sloping. Broad mouth with thin lips.

Literature:
Paudler (1917), Kern (1927), Biasutti (1967) and Vallois (1943, 1971) called it Dalic, Günther (1942) Faelid. Vondernach (2008) adressed a Dalic and Faelic variety. Eickstedt (1934) / Baker (1981) use Dalofa(e)lid, Eickstedt (1937, 1952) / Knussmann (1996) Dalo Nordid and Lundmann (1967) Fälo Nordid. An eastern branch of Coon's (1939) Brünn. Confirmed by Schwidetzky and Walter (1967).
@大昊

一个拉脱维亚女人,一个英格兰女人和一个德意志女人站在一起,你会认为谁更Germanic?

英格兰女人:



拉脱维亚女人:



德意志女人:

德国的人种现状也可以通过简单视频来了解:

http://www.ardmediathek.de/einsl ... 20&bcastId=14950936
本帖最后由 snelheid 于 2015-7-29 16:40 编辑

丹麦的Borreby:

borrebym.jpg
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borrebyf.jpg
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Description:
Ancient Northern European variety. Named after some of the Neolithic Borreby skulls of Denmark (not all!). Some emphasized resemblance with Cro-Magnons. Similar to Faelid, but shorter-skulled with East Baltid and Alpinid tendencies. Most common in Denmark, South Norway (Jæren) and North Germany (esp. Fehmarn). Extends to the Baltic region, Britain, Italy and Montenegro.

Physical Traits:
Pale to fair skin,  straight or wavy blonde, sometimes red or brown hair, blue or mixed eyes. Tall, meso- macroskelic, mesomorph to endomorph with a heavy bone structure. Mildly brachycephalic, with an extraordinary large head. Leptorrhine, straight, sometimes concave nose. Face roundish and robust, forehead high.

Literature:
Named and defined by Coon (1939) as a common Upper Paleolithic type, used by Birket-Smith (1940). Schwidetzky (1974) regards it a broader-skulled Faelid. Broader-skulled Dalics were also adressed by Vallois (1943,1971).  Part of Montandon's (1933) Subnordid. Often solely a prehistoric type (Charles, 1960; Saller, 1962) with few recombinations in modern East Baltids (Saller, 1949) or Alpinids (Hooton, 1946). Resembles Cheboksarov's (1961) West Baltic.
本帖最后由 snelheid 于 2015-7-29 16:15 编辑

好像只有Hallstatt和Aisto这两种是相对较少混血的:

hallstattf.jpg
2015-7-29 16:14


本帖最后由 snelheid 于 2015-7-29 16:42 编辑

俄罗斯近波罗的海区域的Fenno-Nordid:

fennonordidm.jpg
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fennonordidf.jpg
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Description:
Ancient type of North Eastern Europe, sometimes placed in Nordid, sometimes East Baltid. Associated with Finno-Ugric people, once widespread in Russia. Today a minority element in Eastern Finns, e.g. Mordvins, Komi (esp around Vashka), Mari, Udmurts and Carelians, sometimes in Russians, Western Finns, Balts and even Saami. Some relict groups exist in Siberia.

Physical Traits:
Pale skin,  straight,  red to white-blonde sometimes reddish-brown hair. Light, often water-blue eyes. Rather tall, meso- macroskelic, ecto- mesomorph, with an angular built. Head is shorter than in other Nordids and usually meso- brachycephalic, the nose straight, relatively high and leptorrhine. Facial features softer, forehead straighter, nose less prominent.

Literature:
Named and described by Eickstedt (1934) and kept by later authors (Wellisch, 1937;  Vogel, 1974; Knussmann, 1996).  Biasutti (1967) placed it  in the Nordic variety "Finnic".  Lundman (1940) described his Savolaxid as a mixture of Tavastid and Fenno Nordid. Some place it in East Baltic (see editors note, Lundman, 1964).
Aisto Nordid vs East Baltid?

http://www.city-data.com/forum/e ... -nordic-baltic.html
It depends on the criteria. Geographically, anthropologically, linguistically, or what?

Some Estonians may consider themselves Nordic rather than Baltic. It's one of the three Baltic countries, geographically speaking. All Baltic countries have a Finno-Ugric substratum.

Estonians are closer to the Finns proper - their Finno-Ugric brethren north of them. There are many Finnic tribes such as Maris, Mordvins, Veps, living in Russian territory. Some of them are anthropologically quite close to Finns and Estonians.

Estonian is a Finno-Ugric language, whereas Latvian and Lithuanian are Baltic, belonging to the Indo-European family. Both languages have retained a lot of proto-Indo-European features.

Most investments in Estonia are from the Nordic countries. It's also a matter of development. Despite recent advancements and growth in GDP/capita, one must consider the fact Estonians have been under a different political system for a long time. They don't have a Nordic welfare system. I also doubt they have the Jante mentality, not that I think it's a good thing.

Danes and Norwegians are very close. Then Swedes are close to both. I would say Swedes are a bit closer to Norwegians than Danes except maybe for Skåne (Scania) which was Danish territory centuries ago. When I was in Copenhagen I felt it's a bit like the Netherlands or parts of Germany. Sweden got many Finnish immigrants and Finland belonged to Sweden once. It was Österlandet (East Land). Now Estonia would come last in terms of connections. When you go to Estonia you're in a different world, Latvia and Lithuania even more. Even Finland got a different atmosphere than Sweden, to be honest. It's all relative.

There's a Swedish minority in NW coast of Estonia. A few of them were also forced to leave under Catherine II of Russia in the late 18th century. They moved to Ukraine where they established gammalsvenskby, meaning old Swedish village, in English.

The Baltic countries, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, have a significant Russian minority. I've been to all those countries. They have been influenced by Sweden and Denmark, and the Hanseatic League (northern Germany). For more information you can do a search about Baltic Germans.
I am Estonian in heritage and live in Australia. No one has ever said I look Russian or Slavic but I get Swedish a lot. I guess you could say that my heritage (and that of most Estonian people is Nordic). Also, from seeing pictures of ancestors, I would also say that Estonians are a Nordic people. Just look up Economy of Estonia in Wikipedia to proove the strong ties that undoubtedly exist.
Hi yes, I would agree - Estonians are more Finnish than Swedish - I guess I didn't make a very strong point. I guess too, that I should've said that my mother's side is Swedish and that my last name (although from Estonia, is originally Swedish). I would argue though that if Finland is considered Nordic, then Estonia should be considered Nordic, they definitely have more in common with Finns than Latvians, Lithuanians or Russians if you get my drift. Then the argument goes back to whether Finns are true Nordic. I guess whatever the Finns are that should be what Estonians are. Language, heritage and genetics argue strongly that Estonians and Finns are extremely close. Maybe there should be a new term for the Finnish and the Estonians (with their Pagan history). Maybe they're all 'Laplanders.'
Well, based on a stereotype about Swedes, I would guess. People know less about Estonia than Sweden. Do you disagree Estonians are much closer to Finns than Swedes? The language too. My brother used to have an Estonian girlfriend and I've been to Estonia. Very few Estonians I've met could pass for Swedes. I think only a non-Scandinavian foreigner could make such a comment.

It's true Estonia depended on Swedish investments. What do the countries have in common besides Swedish influence (alongside many other nations) a history of few ethnic Swedes in western Estonia?

You may call Estonia Nordic in the wide sense of the word. You can then expand the term to include the Dutch, Frisians, English and the northwest Germans too. Estonia is not considered Nordic by any Scandinavian that I know. I would say it's within the Nordic sphere of influence.
这心态,真是纠结得。。
1

评分次数

同样纠结的芬兰人:

http://www.tiede.fi/keskustelu/23971/ketju/mika_pohjoinen_tyyppi_olet

《你属于哪种Nordid类型?》
13# snelheid 但我感觉同一地区的人长相有共性,现在我主要看不同地方不同人群的共性。
看了一下,分的还是比较详细的。
山不走到我这里来,我就到它那里去。
Sinid 被分出了黄河型Huanghoid、长江型Changkiangid、珠江型Chukiangid、吐蕃型Tibetid、康(巴)型Kham、中国南方还存在南蒙古类型South Mongolid 的次生类型东亚布朗类型East Palaungid ,东北有满洲-朝鲜型Manchu-Korean,日本有Yakonin长州型,还有Tungid 通古斯型的次类型Okayama冈山类型,越南把南北越的Tonkinesid东京型(该叫北部湾型) 和Annamid安南型分开了。
山不走到我这里来,我就到它那里去。
还有Tungid 通古斯型的次类型Okayama冈山类型
剪径者 发表于 2015-7-29 16:01
不知该类型目前的冈山一带是否还以此类型为主流?
二楼的Hallstatt Nordid图给错了,已更正。下面这两幅是Nordid Overall的图,非Hallstatt Nordid,二楼才是Hallstatt Nordid:

nordidm.jpg
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nordidf.jpg
2015-7-29 16:16
本帖最后由 snelheid 于 2015-7-29 16:45 编辑

Proto Nordid:

protonordidm.jpg
2015-7-29 16:18


protonordidf.jpg
2015-7-29 16:18


Description:
Ancient East Nordid variety, the eastern counterpart of the Aisto Nordids. Together with early Mediterranids it was widespread in prehistoric Proto-Indo-European populations of the Eurasian steppes (Fatyanovo). Diluted today. Still found sporadically in Russians, Balts, Rhodopians, Kurds, Gilani, Alawis, Samaritans, Druze, some Persians, Kalash, Pamiri, and sometimes even in Uyghurs.

Physical Traits:
Pale to fair skin, straight or wavy, usually blonde, sometimes reddish hair with blue, green or grey eyes. Tall, mesoskelic, ectomorph to mesomorph. Dolichocephalic, mildly hypsicranic. Face long, nose prominent, long and hyperleptorrhine, sometimes convex. Rather rugged features, a deep mandible and a marked chin.

Literature:
Eickstedt (1952) and Vondernach's (2008) called similar types Proto Nordid, Wellisch (1937) Altnordid (Old Nordid).  Lundman (1943) defined it as Arin Nordid - his eastern East Nordid variety. Coon's (1939) Corded is similar. Iranian Nordoids (Cole, 1965; Eickstedt, 1961; Biasutti, 1967) can be included. Keyser et al. (2009) confirmed a high frequencies of blond hair and green eyes in early Kurgans.
看了一下,分的还是比较详细的。
剪径者 发表于 2015-7-29 15:55
Anglo-Saxon应该算是Keltic Nordid的一个地方变种,受Celtic人影响,红发或深橘发色比例明显升高,圆棱角脸型比例上升
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