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新疆巴音布鲁克草原发现约3000年前祭坛


2017-06-21 03:30 来源:光明网-《光明日报》 

新疆巴音布鲁克草原发现约3000年前祭坛


与牛河梁祭坛、北京天坛形制一致


  光明日报新疆和静6月20日电(记者王瑟)一座神秘的土堆引起了2017丝绸之路天山古道巴音布鲁克路网实地综合考察队队员们的注意,最终的科考结果让人感到不可思议:这个巨大的土堆竟然是有3000年左右历史的神秘祭坛。
  土堆中间虽然已经坍塌,但站在周边的土堆上仍可以看出,这个中心土堆十分庞大,是个规规矩矩的圆形。外围还有一圈用石头填成的花样圈,平铺在地面。再向外,又是一个同心圆土堆,再向外,仍然是一个同心圆。同心圆外,还有一圈用石头单独围个小圆圈的一组更大的同心圆。在第一个圆与第二个圆间,还有东南西北四个放射状直线。


祭坛圆方关系图 资料照片


  据中央民族大学教师马赛介绍,这些圆圈均为同心圆。经过认真测量后他们发现,最中心的圆直径50米,二层圆直径71米,三层圆直径100米。这3个数形成一个等比数列,等比正好是根号2。“如果这种现象是偶然的,那也太不可思议了。如果是有意这样规划出来的,则说明在那个年代,建筑这个祭坛的人一定受到了中原的影响。我们认定它为祭天的祭坛,就是因为这种现象在中国历史上多次出现过,而且都是为了祭天有意为之。”
  负责此次科考的中国社会科学院新疆考古队队长巫新华博士介绍,这种文化被称为赫列克苏尔考古学文化,它大量存在于蒙古高原中西部、阿勒泰山一带,天山一带也有,这里是最南的地区。学术界认为,这种形制有四种作用:墓葬、墓葬加祭祀、祭祀、太阳祭坛。
  据了解,我国距今5000年左右的牛河梁祭坛就是由3个同心圆组成的,但它的规模比巴音布鲁克草原此次发现的祭坛规模要小许多,它3个同心圆的直径分别只有11米、15.6米和22米,这3个数形成一个等比数列,其等比正好就是根号2。这与巴音布鲁克草原发现的这个祭坛高度一致。
  《周髀算经》有记载:“圆出于方,方出于矩。”这就是说,那时人们就开始以正方形为基础来定圆了。而这样的圆坛也符合《易经》中的“参天两地,圆而涵方”的宇宙观。
  从古至今,中华民族对太阳、天空的崇拜是一直存在的。从目前发现最早的牛河梁祭坛,到北京的天坛,都是为了祭天而设置的。此次巴音布鲁克草原发现的祭坛,与中原地区的祭坛特点相近,应该是当时生活在这里的人们刻意所为,否则不会出现3个同心圆的等比数列关系。
  另外,从现场的情况也可以看出,这个祭坛周边用石头铺成的花样圈又有着自己鲜明的特色,从空中可以看出,它的花样具有鹿角石图案或云纹图案,这与在内地发现的祭坛又有不同。而从它的建筑规模来看,如此庞大的建筑,一定也不是一般人或小族群可以做出的,它一定与一个神秘的崇拜现象有关。
  巫新华博士还认为,这种祭坛形制与蒙古包有着密切的关系,甚至可以说解决了蒙古包的起源问题。
  从此次发现的祭坛所在地看,这里自古以来就是通往中亚、西亚各地,连接天山南北的一条大通道,也是中原文化向西走出去的一条必经之路。
  由于这里留下的各种文字和其他方面的资料十分缺乏,当年生活在这里的是什么人,他们为何会建筑这样的祭坛,仍然是个谜。目前,考古学家正在寻找更多的实物,以期破解这个谜团。但有一点是可以证实的:从牛河梁祭坛,到北京天坛,中华民族一直延续着同一种祭祀传统。而巴音布鲁克草原上的这处祭坛,正好印证了中华文化的这个传统,这从一个方面说明,这里与中原王朝一定存在着极大的关系。
  《光明日报》( 2017年06月21日 09版)
[责任编辑:石佳]


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 负责此次科考的中国社会科学院新疆考古队队长巫新华博士介绍,这种文化被称为赫列克苏尔考古学文化,它大量存在于蒙古高原中西部、阿勒泰山一带,天山一带也有,这里是最南的地区。学术界认为,这种形制有四种作用:墓葬、墓葬加祭祀、祭祀、太阳祭坛。

看来这一带确实曾是曾天山所认为的上古中央王朝所在地和我认为的昆仑。更多一些讯息在下面这则新闻更有:

那热德沟口墓葬:巴音布鲁克草原一处神秘的墓葬 来源:亚心网 作者: 稿源时间: 2016-08-10 17:04:28
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亚心网是“丝绸之路·天山道枢纽路网实地综合考察”活动的独家网络报道媒体,亚心网特派记者小芳和豌豆将每天采用水滴直播,微直播等多种形式全程记录考察行程,并每日配发记者手记,带你探秘新疆古丝绸之路上的神秘古城,敬请关注!


亚心网讯(特派记者 闫小芳 图/特派记者 龚彦晨)沿着巴音布鲁克一路行走,一处别样的墓葬群让考古专家惊呼神奇是怎样的一种体验?兴奋、神秘,五味杂陈。
>>重大发现:新疆首次发现大型青铜时代太阳崇拜遗址
墓地距离巴音布鲁克草原二十公里处,2009年在第三次文物普查时发现。“那热”在蒙古语中是太阳的意思。

新疆巴音布鲁克草原那热徳果勒发现青铜时代太阳祭坛或墓葬全景图。亚心网特派记者 龚彦晨 摄


八月初,丝绸之路新疆天山道枢纽路网实地综合考察一行人走进夏尔才开墓葬遗址、翻越达坂,走进这个神秘的那热德沟口墓葬,追梦丝绸之路,探寻草原文化,揣想这里的曾经生活着什么样的人、他们曾经的生活情境以及数悬而未决的谜团。
古墓葬的神秘
要顺利抵达这处神秘的墓葬,自驾车前往是最好的路线。
这里距离和静县200多公里,301省道与217国道交汇处的地方就是这些科考队里众考古学家为之惊叹的那德沟口墓葬。
十几年来,因工作关系,和静县文物保护管理所所长王忻无数次深入和静县的这些墓群点,穿梭于成百上千个历史遗迹之间,得以亲眼所见、亲手触摸,也为了更好的保存他们四处奔走,一个老自称“外行”的他成了我们了解这条线路最好的向导。
在前往目的地的路上,记者对即将要去的神秘之地充满向往,且有许多的猜想向同车王忻和巫新华博士求证:这里在N年前到底是个样的地方?又发生过怎么样的故事……
考古学家的猜想
成群结对的黑山羊给这样的场景增添了无尽的诗意。
这是草原上一座凸起的椭圆形的小山,周边密密麻麻的用有序的石头形成的大墓葬群,图案各不相同,这样多的石头,我们可以想象,在那个人力、交通还极其不发达的年代,是什么样身份的人才有能力修建一座这样的墓。

新疆巴音布鲁克草原那热徳果勒发现青铜时代太阳祭坛或墓葬,航拍图。陕西十月文物保护有限公司提供


走进墓地,记者被奇形怪状的图案所吸引,有的看起来似鹿又似马,这些还不能确定的谜团形成了那热德沟口墓地一种的独特遗存景观。
考古专家覃大海说,在外围是圆形的,跟墓葬是同心圆,外边有小石圈围成的大石圈,形成曲线性质的墓葬,因为在没有实际科考之前,不敢确定时间,但是根据以往的地表形态我们猜测也是时间比较早的,在1000年以前或者更早的2000-3000年前,这个就是我们需要下一步探索的问题。因为有这种类型的现象不多,但肯定有它一定要表达的意思,这些墓葬的文化内涵比较丰富,从这些图案可以看出有更多的主观意识。是当时的一种需要或者是目的,这些文化包涵什么样的内容,也是我们下一步要做的工作。
中科院新疆地理与生态研究所穆桂金对它年代解释,“你看现在我们眼前这些颜色各异的石头,尘土堆积一般一年才能积累不到一毫米,把这些石头缝的土填满,经过年代冲刷形成这种颜色,所以这个年代是比较早的。”
这里虽然现在没有发现可以佐证它年代的物证,但对这里曾经住着怎么样的人却兴趣如此浓厚。中国社科院考古所新疆考古中心主任巫新华介绍,从周边的装饰来看,我个人判断是在2500-3000年左右,这样的东西是个什么样的东西呢,简单点说也就是曾经有一个非常“有力的集团”在这里生活过,是大游牧时代留下来的宝贵财富,我们现在脚下踏的所认为的墓葬有可能不是墓葬,是祭坛,像这样规模如此之大的墓葬真的屈指可数。
考古重大发现
5日一大早,科考队学术领队巫新华和自治区文物局副局长李军在微信群里兴奋的说,有重大发现。
原来,你昨天航拍图中拍摄的那热德沟口墓葬呈现的形象是两道巨大的光环加一个巨大的十字光道。为了证实这个大胆的猜想,担任此次数据采集领队的陕西十月文物保护有限公司孙征天一亮就赶到墓地等待最佳光线进行拍摄,其他专家更是连忙根据拍摄的图进行比对、验证等一系列科学的计算。


新疆巴音布鲁克草原那热徳果勒发现青铜时代太阳祭坛或墓葬,航拍图。陕西十月文物保护有限公司提供


十二点,科考队的专家经过两个多小时的反复验证后,又赶到墓葬再次证实太阳崇拜遗址的猜想。
十三点,丝绸之路新疆天山道枢纽路网实地综合考察重大发现:新疆首次在巴音布鲁克草原那热徳果勒发现青铜时代太阳祭坛或墓葬。
“遗址年代大致在青铜时代晚期,距今3000——2500年之间,也有可能早点。这处遗址应该是迄今为止新疆范围内规模最大、形致最完整的青铜时代太阳祭坛式遗址。这个早期草原文化遗址结构最典型或说最大特点,在于它的规模和它的环状加十字形神道的建筑结构。这种结构是亚欧草原早期居民宗教文化最典型的一个象征”。科考队学术领队巫新华介绍。
巫新华说,这个遗址最重要的文化特点就是太阳崇拜,最直观的遗址外形,其实就如同我们裸眼直视太阳,眼帘中最强烈的形象就是两道巨大的光环加一个巨大的十字光道。


新疆巴音布鲁克草原那热徳果勒发现青铜时代太阳祭坛或墓葬,红外图。陕西十月文物保护有限公司提供

“我们身边这个遗址,中心最早是一个用卵石混杂泥土构筑起来的巨大圆锥形实体,现在顶部有一个塌陷坑。围绕这个中心石堆,外围构筑了两道石围,最外层石围直径达114米。第二道石围较宽,是深挖地表之后,精心构筑的花式图形带。这个图形带,是深挖地表数尺一圈,再用卵石绕着中心建筑遗址码出来的,基本是由青铜时代早期鹿石鹿角变形纹饰和一些中亚草原斯基泰野兽纹饰图案构成。正是这些环绕第二圈石围的纹饰图案提供了最直接的判断时代的考古学文化证据;这个图形环绕带相当大部分已经在经历了数千年风雨之后掩埋草皮之下现在看不清楚,但是局部地表图案仍然完全裸露,足以供我们观察判断。科考队没有充裕的时间进行细致的考古工作,尤其不可能进行局部揭露。所以完全意义上的考古学术研究与结论有待于在正式进行科学细致的考古发掘工作与研究之后方能得出。不过现在可以肯定的一点是,巴音布鲁克草原那热德青铜时代太阳崇拜遗址年代相对较早。”
根据还在于前些年,俄罗斯与德国考古研究院合作在俄罗斯图瓦共和国草原对阿尔然库尔干墓群进行了考古发掘与研究,已经刊发的资料表明大多数墓葬在地表土层揭露之后,库尔干(墓葬封土)上均有太阳祭坛结构的铺设。
据悉,2015年中国社科院考古所新疆考古队在东天山木垒县平顶山地带对青铜时代墓群遗址进行考古发掘是同样发现了大型土墩墓葬表层封土揭露之后出现太阳祭坛样式的石构铺设。图瓦阿尔然大型土墩墓葬、新疆东天山木垒平顶山大型墓葬的测定年代均在2500年左右;那热德青铜时代太阳崇拜遗址与上述两处青铜时代文化遗址的不同之处,在于这些太阳祭坛样式构造图形全在地表,另外还有第二石围精致鹿石纹饰装饰带的存在,都帮助我们判断年代较早,大概应该在距今3000-2500年之间。

新疆巴音布鲁克草原那热徳果勒发现青铜时代太阳祭坛或墓葬遥感图。(中科院遥感与数字地球研究所于丽君提供)


这种全面构筑于古代大型遗址表面,年代大约在距今3000-2500年之间的太阳祭坛样式结构文化遗迹的发现,表明巴音布鲁克草原距今3000年(与昨天科考队所考察的巴伦台沟口南部察吾乎沟口遗址、莫呼查汗墓葬群遗址年代大致相当)左右,已经有相当规模的聚落人群游牧生活。巴音布鲁克草原早期居民的社会组织规模,也就是聚落群体人数,决定能够建造太阳祭坛样式建筑的规模。这个直径达114米,中心石堆(眼下看到的石土混杂堆积,仔细观察可以发现其实是石堆表面因岁月久远覆盖了土层)高度在10米以上的人工建筑如无相当数量的人力无法建造。而类似于这个太阳祭坛样式人造土墩遗址遍布于阿热德郭勒草原和巴音布鲁克草原其他地方,如此我们可以推断这个太阳祭坛样式遗址存在的年代,生活在这片草原的人群数量至少过万。这已经是一个惊人的早期社会群体,不过恰好符合在个最大高原草原的王者地位。”

新疆巴音布鲁克草原那热徳果勒发现青铜时代太阳祭坛或墓葬遥感图。(中科院遥感与数字地球研究所于丽君提供)


“阿热德青铜时代墓葬遗址群是2009年第三次全国文物普查时发现的。”当时领队进行文物普查工作,也是首次发现这一遗址的科考队考古专家巴州文物局副局长覃大海先生说,“它跟罗布泊古墓沟遗址的太阳墓葬有本质的不同,第一,区域的差异;第二,材料的差异,罗布泊太阳墓葬用树枝做的太阳射线的模式,而这个是用石头摆放出确定的太阳祭坛图形。它在圆圈里面有四道,是太阳射线的一种理念;第三,理解和运用的差异。在这个区域发现这种具有地表形态的遗迹,是罕见的,也是反映出在那个时代人们主观意识通过客观表现出的精神产物。这样一种文化标志是当年巴音布鲁克草原人普遍认同的,就像我们现在看到一个汽车标志,我们就知道是哪个牌子的车一样,古代也一样,他要表现太阳,也会用一个大家都统一的认同的模式。”
自治区文物局副局长李军说,在新疆地区能够发现与中亚地区类似的独特文化现象,从另一个侧面就印证了自古以来丝绸之路就是一个和平对话文化相互交融的这么一条道路。这个发现对我们实现一带一路的伟大战略,非常有历史文化底蕴的支撑。说明在新疆的文明也是非常发达的,除了东西方向都有交流,我们本地文明也是相当发达的,这个对研究新疆历史,对我们搞清楚丝绸之路开通前更早期的东西文化的交流有非常大的借鉴意义。

科考队员在新疆巴音布鲁克草原那热徳果勒发现青铜时代太阳祭坛或墓葬上观察远方石围。亚心网特派记者 龚彦晨 摄
无疑,这块墓地有它着独特的魅力,如同一束散发着异香的奇葩,让无数像巫新华、李军这样的考古学家心生向往,欲罢不能。
是的,虽然证实是青铜时代太阳崇拜遗址,但是这里面是什么样的人?发生过什么样的故事?这是一处神秘的墓葬群,还有很多未解之谜需要我们去一一揭晓。
天山道科考相关报道:
Day1|“丝绸之路·天山道枢纽路网实地综合考察”活动启动
Day2|和静:这里每一块石头都有一段悠远故事
Day3|新疆首次发现大型青铜时代太阳崇拜遗址
人物故事:考古队伍中的80后“女汉子”于丽君
本次活动的亮点包括:大西沟、老巴伦台黄庙、老巴伦台草原墓群、阿拉沟戍堡夏尔古堡、德文托罗盖遗址、夏尔才开墓葬遗址、阿尔夏墓群、塔克勒克遗址、阿热德沟口墓葬、哈尔诺尔大墓、察汗萨拉几何排列墓群、布尔锡林多形态墓群、乌兰英格墓群、巴音郭勒石人、巴音郭勒滴水墓、巴音郭勒胡须墓、石林及青铜时代遗址、阿热德大墓(外形奇特)、那拉提夏牧场(和静新源自古大通道)、新发现青铜时代聚落遗址、野果林南山冰碛湖、墓葬谷考察、则克台山区新发现铜矿遗址考察、尼勒克县吉林台河谷山地青铜时代遗址考察等。

[责任编辑: 连娜 ]
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“那热德”这个名字让我想到了“诺罗敦”,湄公河口还有个“昆仑岛”。似乎可以佐证我的塞人岛夷理论和岛夷越裳氏南下假说!基因方面也有证据呀!
litis 发表于 2017-9-18 01:17 | 只看该作者

也不绝对的,偶尔还是有例外。柬埔寨人在一些分析时候,会析出10%和北亚雅库特人类似的pop。而汉族无论南北汉族都非常少或者没有。我觉得合理的解释是柬埔寨人混入一部分东南亚土著+南亚人,正好含有雅库特人十分之一左右的ANE和WHG(汉族无论南北都少,北方稍多一丁点),所以歪打正着变成了类北亚成分。。当然柬埔寨主成分还是东南亚常见的。

无诸王发表于 2017-9-18 06:32 | 只看该作者
我也说一句,在dodecad里不仅是高棉人,在马来人的西伯利亚/(东亚+东南亚)的比值比起高棉人要高得多.显然很难用印度移民来解释了,这种西伯利亚成分倒像是东南亚的一种本土成分.
imvivi001 发表于 2017-9-17 18:55 | 只看该作者
有一种奇怪的感觉,越南人雄王的‘雄’,楚王室的‘熊’,以及苗人的hmong,可能存在同源性~
再添上个“匈奴”我觉得也不突兀。
几个小的语言例子:

班迭棉吉省(Banteay Meanchey),在高棉语中意为“胜利的堡垒”——“敏捷:胜利”,跟古汉语“捷”同源?


科布多——渴盘陀——柬埔寨——磅同——科潘——卡帕多西亚——卡宾达


宾童龙——潘多拉——布达拉——八达岭


班第——班达——本笃——般度——拔都——坂田(Sakada)——斯基泰——素可泰


那热德——诺罗敦——纳兰——尼禄——努鲁儿虎


莫高窟——麦积山——马扎儿——马谷山——莫干山——马高——湄公河——吴哥窟——麦加——万俟——莫切——玛格丽特


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希望进一步考古能确定年代,如果有文物出土就更好了。希望新疆古墓多测一些古DNA,不论是古突厥人、古印欧人、古闪含人、古汉人(或西王母部落)还是其他,尊重历史,尊重真相,华夏才无愧于做一个兼容并包的大国文化。那些在考古、基因研究中屁股决定脑袋的学者,再怎么掺着掖着,能否认古代历史么?能否认近代历史么?你们的知识和技术不是大部分由西方学来的么?现在管理你们的政经科教社会组织形态不是西方传来的么?奉劝大家既不要崇洋媚外,也不要掩塞避牧!牧者骄、渔家傲,都是有原因的,技不如人要承认,无需为古人羞愧!况且古人是“普天之下莫非王土”的大国民,今人的国际地位还不如古人呢,别自卑得没底了!!!史家贵真实,不正看历史问题,做不得中央大国的文化人儿!
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2017-9-28 17:12 编辑

本人这套“亚特兰蒂斯新解”理论,论证亚特兰蒂斯遗民从美洲往西北经东西伯利亚到东北亚,然后以塞人岛夷路线西进(部分留在东亚,成为华夏及周边文化的源头)。
但是在东北亚,就是缺乏高级文明的证据,这可能是因为迁徙的迅速,另外遗民初期在逃难,东北亚气候并不利于长期待着,还得继续赶路,并没功夫制造技术高级的器物。另外那时的技术差距也不太大,亚特兰蒂斯遗民遗失了精英阶层和大部分技术,一时也只比各地土著技术层次稍高,倒是逃到西方的过程中,沿途不断学习,另外遗民经过整合重新收拾起一些技术因素,所以在东欧、中东、南亚有了技术突破,并在那里建立了今天历史能追溯的最古老的文明。
今天看到一则考古新闻,看来东北亚的文明虽然长期落后,但确实在全新世之初并不算太落伍,完全可以作为文化西征、南下的策源地。
黑龙江小南山遗址出土数百件新石器时代早期文物

来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2017年9月28日 14:42


黑龙江小南山遗址出土数百件新石器时代早期文物


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据新华社哈尔滨9月27日电(许正、辛林霞):记者从黑龙江小南山遗址考古发掘现场了解到,今年以来,该遗址已出土数百件玉器、陶器和石器等新石器时代早期文物,这为研究我国东部边境的历史文化提供了珍贵实物资料。


小南山遗址位于黑龙江省饶河县,紧靠中俄界江乌苏里江。记者在现场看到,小南山上树木成荫,遗址所在的南山公园是当地人锻炼的场所。


据黑龙江省文物考古研究所小南山遗址考古发掘领队李有骞介绍,目前出土文物包括30多件玉璧、玉珠、玉环等玉器;400多件石器标本,其中有精致的石器工具120多件;5件陶器和大量陶片,其中2件陶器有丰富的纹饰。


根据考古学研究和测年数据专家判断,出土文物处于新石器时代早期,距今9000年左右。


这些出土文物绝大多数来自墓葬。据李有骞介绍,考古人员目前已发掘19座新石器时代早期墓葬,这些墓葬开凿在基岩上,上方用石块堆砌。


“这次发掘让我们对当时人类的殡葬习俗有了新的认识。” 李有骞说。


这些墓葬的位置依山傍水,集中分布。考古人员认为,乌苏里江中丰富的鱼类及山林中充足的动植物资源让当时人类在这里定居成为可能。


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然后想看看小南山遗址文物到底是什么样子的,发现了一些很有意思的内容:
十大镇馆之宝之十:新石器时代桂叶形石器
发布日期:2015-10-13  新闻来源:  编辑:陈凤娟 杨 旭  


  桂叶形石器即桂叶形石矛。1965年采集于黑龙江省饶河县小南山的桂叶形石器属于远古石器的“礼器”,是部落首领的标志物,属国家一级文物,是饶河县中学的学生在该县小南山上发现。
饶河小南山遗址位于饶河县城南的小南山,1971年发掘,出土陶器和石器。陶器以夹砂红陶罐为多,石器以打制为主,磨制较少。1991年,又在山巅发现双人合葬墓,出土玉器、石器和骨器等,其中玉器最多,有珠、环、玦、璧、簪、斧、匕等,年代距今约5000年。
这件桂叶形石器为我省发现的细石器中个体最大的一件。此件文物通长25厘米、宽5.8厘米。其形制如一片两头尖的桂叶,故名桂叶形石器。该石器为周身琢,中间厚,两侧薄,形制对称,厚薄均匀,边刃加工制作锋利,是镶嵌在骨刀梗上的石片石器,属刮削器一类。从对饶河小南山遗址的研究以及石器本身的完整无缺来推断,这件石器是当时这一地区新石器时代首领人物墓葬中的随葬品,属黑龙江东部地区新石器文化。该器物制作精美,形制独特,堪为精品。

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上文中的桂叶形石器似乎与梭鲁特文化、克洛维斯文化的石器很有类似点。考虑到旧石器时代欧洲似乎也有一定类后世东亚成分分布,以及北美洲印第安人有原始欧洲类型基因,可以考虑可能大西洋两岸的相似性是由于人口迁徙造成了文化传播——这个很可能是形成亚特兰蒂斯文化的关键(本人曾有专论)。这一部分人在亚特兰蒂斯覆灭的天灾里大部分灭亡,少部分到了东亚(后又大部分西迁、南迁),所以东北肃慎(肃慎、索虏、肃良和、索伦简直就是梭鲁特的同源词,言与神同在?)的楛矢石砮一直赫赫有名。“桂”发音接近“圭”,圭的形状也挺像桂叶形的,所以桂叶形石器还很可能是东亚重要玉器“圭”的起源。《周礼·大宗伯》:“以青圭礼东方”,说明东亚的桂叶形石器从东方而来(我们真该佩服古人记载历史文化的虔诚,不像今天,随意把国内古城、古村改名什么威尼斯什么伦敦什么普罗旺斯的)。史前全球化东西南北的交通即使不是有意的,也肯定进行了很多次,这就是一次比较明显的也可能是相对少有的(假如亚特兰蒂斯人并没进行全球勘测的话)完整的自东向西全球大穿越。当然有意的勘测、贸易、探险也可能会有,都是促进了技术和文化交流。至于为什么基因证据很少,这就是人口繁衍过程中不断稀释、淘汰的缘故了,人类历史上能留下后代的人其实是少数人。
看到这篇博文:
远古文明之光——兴隆洼文化遗址与东亚最早的玉器(上)
感觉东北亚玉器、陶器的传播简直就是我的“塞人岛夷理论”的物证。而玉玦做耳坠,这是文化证据,从北海到南海,风马牛不相及,但儋耳习俗大率可以因岛夷而传播。从交黎、昌黎、九黎到黎母岭、黎巴嫩(里姆利亚,姆大陆,哟西),从辽到僚,总有一些同源文化是岛夷传播的。在我的另一个帖子《试论李初古拔与李重耳是否为同一人》之第十楼可以了解一些关于儋耳的论述(在《奇怪的耳朵崇拜》一文更有论述)。
兴隆洼遗址四号墓。M4主人为女童,头骨立置,周围散落很多石管,右眼眶内嵌入一件玉玦,另一玦出自填土。

四号墓小女孩的头骨,她的项圈和她戴的耳环。不知什么原因,一只耳环(玉玦)掉进了头骨的眼窝之中。出土时,头骨是竖放着的。(博客转移不来图片,网上另觅一张图片。)
这个小女孩的眼睛里嵌入玉玦,让我想到了这则帖子《这是颛顼还是独目人家族的墓葬?》新闻里贝加尔湖边的墓葬也有类似现象,或许是聂耳部落的一种特殊习俗?
关于塞人岛夷文化传播,直接引用:

浙江河姆渡出土玦状坠饰。以线切割开口,未完全切开玦口,由玦饰转化为坠饰的一种变化。

江苏祈头山遗址出土马家滨文化时期几种不同的玦饰。(距今7000~6000年)

兴隆洼第一期文化出土玦饰,是我国现今所知最早的玦饰。

中国黑龙江小南山遗址出土的玉饰。 (距今8000年前)

中国浙江河姆渡遗址出土的玦饰、玉珠等。这可能证明了古兴隆洼人是十分了不起的航海民族,他们在7000多年前即沿着海路进入长江流域,长江玉器文明发端于此。

中国浙江塔山遗址出土的玉器。遗址在浙江省象山县丹城塔山东南麓,依坡濒海,面积约3万平方米。该遗址属于河姆渡文化,距今6000多年。

俄罗斯滨海地区Chertovy Vorota洞穴出土的玉器,该遗址距今约7000年。

日本三引遗址出土的玉器。可以看到这些玉石器与兴隆洼文化的渊源。

日本本洲福井县桑野遗址出土的玉器,距今约6500年。兴隆洼人东渡日本,成为日本最古老的原居民族之一。

日本青森县朝日山遗址出土绳文晚期前段翡翠勾玉,展现浑石玉的翠绿如生命萌发,是东亚早期崇尚绿色的共同信仰。
(自:http://www.sohu.com/a/38623698_124636
当然论述亚特兰蒂斯文化,并非说旧大陆人类都原始落后,其实还是有很多技术和文化传统是旧大陆内部史前全球化过程中发明的。比如:

俄罗斯阿尔泰Denisova洞穴出土旧石器时代晚期距今38000年前饰物。
(自:http://www.sohu.com/a/38623698_124636
这可是真古老了!丹尼索瓦人的祖先很可能是欧洲的海德堡人,这又很可能是一条自西向东的迁徙,到了中亚欧亚,相当于成为早期“塞人”,后来一部分又孔雀东南飞,加入岛夷,于是现在美拉尼西亚人丹尼索瓦人基因遗存最多,呵呵哒!而巴布亚人的大鼻子和美拉尼西亚人的金洋毛子,是不是在高纬度进化出来的呢?却已经和其他人种隔离了三四万年了,可见史前全球化的全球迁徙,其实也是很快速的事情,即使不比现代的飞机轮船,但是驽马十驾,功在不舍,最终找到自己的乐园,迁居仙山仙岛乐不思蜀也是很可能的。
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-2-3 16:05 编辑
真正的今日头条,我就放在最后吧!和我在《龙华起信论》想的一样,哥贝克利巨石阵的石雕很可能是记录了传说中的亚特兰蒂斯灭亡大灾变!
传说中的水月观音,一月普现一切水,也可以得到解释:大彗星是主要由水冰组成的,像月亮一样来到地球旁。当与地球相撞时,大雨、洪水……

古代石雕显示公元前10950年彗星群撞击地球永远改变了文明 ...
癯鹤 发表于 2017-4-26 23:46
Ancient humans may have witnessed catastrophic fireballs from a 62-mile-wide comet near the end of the last Ice Age that spurred blazes larger than the 'dinosaur killers'

  • Study suggests fragments of a 62-mile-wide comet struck 12,800 years ago
  • This would have caused massive fires across roughly 10 percent of Earth's land
  • The resulting dust, blocking out sunlight, would have brought on a near Ice Age
  • Large species died out, humans saw greater risk of cancer, and ozone depleted
By Cheyenne Macdonald For Dailymail.com
Published: 22:24 GMT, 2 February 2018 | Updated: 22:25 GMT, 2 February 2018

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Nearly 13,000 years ago, Earth may have plunged suddenly into an apocalyptic scene; a barrage of fireballs lit up the sky, followed by powerful shock waves and fires that blazed across 10 percent of the planet’s land surface.
The sky turned black as dust blocked out the sunlight, and temperatures rapidly plummeted, causing plants to die out and glaciers to advance, in what soon became a near ice age state.
And, humans were there to witness it all – with grave consequences.
This is according to new research, which suggests fragments of a 62-mile-wide disintegrating comet struck Earth 12,800 years ago and spurred burning events larger than those caused by the ‘dinosaur killers.’
Scroll down for video

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According to a new study, Earth was plunged suddenly into an apocalyptic scene 12,800 years ago; a sudden barrage of fireballs lit the sky, followed by powerful shock waves and fires that blazed across 10 percent of the planet’s land surface. An artist's impression is pictured

The new study on geochemical and isotopic markers, which involved two dozen researchers, argues that a cosmic impact thousands of years ago left behind high concentrations of platinum across the Northern Hemisphere.
This could be found at a number of sites, including ice cores collected from the Greenland Ice Sheet, linked to the Younger Dryas boundary – a period roughly 12,800 years ago toward the end of the last Ice Age when glacial conditions temporarily began to advance again.
According to the new research, an impact could have triggered this cooling episode.
‘The work includes measurements made at more than 170 different sites around the world,’ said Adrian Melott, University of Kansas Emeritus Professor of Physics & Astronomy.
‘The hypothesis is that a large comet fragmented and the chunks impacted the Earth, causing this disaster.
‘A number of different chemical signatures – carbon dioxide, nitrate, ammonia, and others – all seem to indicate that an astonishing 10 percent of the Earth’s land surface, or about 10 million square kilometers, was consumer by fires.’

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New research suggests fragments of a 62-mile-wide disintegrating comet struck Earth 12,800 years ago and spurred burning events larger than those caused by the ‘dinosaur killers.’ Artist's impression

The pollen analysis indicated that pine forests were likely burned off and later replaced by poplar.
This species is known to colonize cleared areas.
The impact would have been equally catastrophic for the humans and animals alive at the time.
WHEN WERE EARTH'S FIVE GREAT EXTINCTION EVENTS?
Five times, a vast majority of the world's life has been snuffed out in what have been called mass extinctions.
End-Ordovician mass extinction
The first of the traditional big five extinction events, around 540 million years ago, was probably the second most severe. Virtually all life was in the sea at the time and around 85% of these species vanished.

Late Devonian mass extinction
About 375-359 million years ago, major environmental changes caused a drawn-out extinction event that wiped out major fish groups and stopped new coral reefs forming for 100 million years.

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Five times, a vast majority of the world's life has been snuffed out in what have been called mass extinctions. The most famous may be the End-Cretaceous, which wiped out the dinosaurs. Artist's impression

End-Permian mass extinction (the Great Dying)
The largest extinction event and the one that affected the Earth's ecology most profoundly took place 252 million years ago. As much as 97% of species that leave a fossil record disappeared forever.

End-Triassic mass extinction
Dinosaurs first appeared in the Early Triassic, but large amphibians and mammal-like reptiles were the dominant land animals. The rapid mass extinction that occurred 201 million years ago changed that.

End-Cretaceous mass extinction
An asteroid slammed down on Earth 66 million years ago, and is often blamed for ending the reign of the dinosaurs.

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Some larger species of the late Pleistocene became extinct as a result, and the human population experienced cultural shifts and decline due to the many health problems that would have followed the event.
‘Computations suggest that the impact would have depleted the ozone layer, causing increases in skin cancer and other negative health effects,’ Melott said.
‘The impact hypothesis is still a hypothesis, but this study provides a massive amount of evidence, which we argue can only be all explained by a major cosmic impact.’
According to the researchers, the remnants of the ancient disintegrating comet likely still remain in our solar system today.



Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5346517/Ancient-humans-witnessed-fireballs-Ice-Age.html#ixzz561uyVlwq
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本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-2-3 18:03 编辑

玛雅文化到底是落后还是先进?有没可能古代亚特兰蒂斯文化就是类似的文化呢?缺少很多文化元素,但就是巨石文明一枝独秀?

Maya 'megalopolis' featuring thousands of ancient pyramids, palaces and causeways is found hidden under thick jungle foliage in Guatemala

  • More than 60,000 previously unknown Mayan structures have been uncovered in Peten
  • The abundance of defensive walls, ramparts and fortresses suggests that warfare was rife
  • Ground-breaking research used so-called LIDAR technology that utilises light from lasers
  • 'I know it sounds hyperbolic but when I saw the imagery, it did bring tears to my eyes', said one researcher
  • The discovery suggests that Central America supported a civilization that was, at its peak 1,500 years ago, more advanced than ancient Greek and Chinese cultures
By Phoebe Weston For Mailonline
Published: 18:16 GMT, 2 February 2018 | Updated: 00:31 GMT, 3 February 2018

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More than 60,000 previously unknown Mayan structures - including pyramids, palaces and causeways - have been revealed under jungle foliage in Guatemala in what has been hailed as a 'major breakthrough'.
Researchers used laser technology to look beneath the forest canopy in northern Peten - an area close to already-known Mayan cities.
The lasers revealed the 'breathtaking' remains of a sprawling pre-Columbian 'megalopolis' that was far more complex than most specialists had ever believed.
The discovery suggests that Central America supported a civilization that was, at its peak 1,500 years ago, more advanced than ancient Greek and Chinese cultures.
The landscape may have been home to up to 15 million individuals and the abundance of defensive walls, ramparts and fortresses suggests that warfare was rife throughout their existence and not just at the end.
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Thousands of previously unknown ancient Maya structures including pyramids, palaces and causeways have been revealed in Guatemala. The ground-breaking research used so-called LIDAR technology (pictured) that utilises light from lasers to construct a detailed survey of buried structures

'I think this is one of the greatest advances in over 150 years of Maya archaeology,' said Stephen Houston, Professor of Archaeology and Anthropology at Brown University told the BBC.
'I know it sounds hyperbolic but when I saw the [Lidar] imagery, it did bring tears to my eyes.'
Scientists made the discovery using Lidar technology, which is short for 'light detection and ranging',
Aircraft with a LiDAR scanner produced three-dimensional maps of the surface by using light in the form of pulsed laser linked to a GPS system.
This technique allowed researchers to map outlines of what they describe as dozens of newly discovered Maya cities hidden under thick jungle foliage centuries after they were abandoned by their original inhabitants.

As well as previously unknown structures, the images show raised highways that linked together urban centers and quarries.
They also found advanced irrigation and terracing systems that supported agriculture in for a civilisation that was one of the most advanced to arise in Mesoamerica.
Mayans are known for their sophisticated mathematics and engineering that allowed it to spread throughout present-day Central America and southern Mexico.
'Now it is no longer necessary to cut through the jungle to see what's under it,' said Marcello Canuto, one of the project's top investigators.

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Researchers believe it was home to a sophisticated civilisation that peaked 1,200 years ago and could have been as advanced as the ancient Greek and Chinese. Their findings revealed a pyramid in the heart of the ancient Maya city of Tikal (pictured), a major tourist destination in northeastern Guatemala


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This new technique allowed researchers to map outlines of what they describe as dozens of newly discovered Maya cities hidden under thick jungle foliage centuries after they were abandoned by their original inhabitants

'The fortified structures and large causeways reveal modifications to the natural landscape made by the Maya on a previously unimaginable scale,' said Francisco Estrada-Belli of Tulane University.
These findings are a 'revolution in Maya archaeology,' said Dr Canuto.
The team of archaeologists surveyed more than 810 square miles (2,100 sq km) of the Peten jungle which borders Mexico and Belize.
They found some 60,000 structures were found over the past two years.
The new discoveries include urban centres with sidewalks, homes, terraces, ceremonial centres, irrigation canals and fortifications.

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The ancient Maya civilisation was one of the most advanced to arise in Mesoamerica. It was marked by sophisticated mathematics and engineering that allowed it to spread throughout present-day Central America and southern Mexico

WHAT IS LIDAR TECHNOLOGY?Lidar is a remote sensing technology that measures distance by shooting a laser at a target and analysing the light that is reflected back.
The technology was developed in the early 1960s and uses laser imaging with radar technology that can calculate distances.
It was first used in meteorology to measure clouds by the National Center for Atmospheric Research.
The term lidar is a portmanteau of 'light and 'radar.'
Lidar uses ultraviolet, visible, or near infrared light to image objects and can be used with a wide range of targets, including non-metallic objects, rocks, rain, chemical compounds, aerosols, clouds and even single molecules.
A narrow laser beam can be used to map physical features with very high resolution.
This new technique allowed researchers to map outlines of what they describe as dozens of newly discovered Maya cities hidden under thick jungle foliage centuries after they were abandoned by their original inhabitants.
Aircraft with a LiDAR scanner produced three-dimensional maps of the surface by using light in the form of pulsed laser linked to a GPS system.
'Now it is no longer necessary to cut through the jungle to see what's under it,' said Marcello Canuto, one of the project's top investigators.
The technology helped researchers discover sites much faster than using traditional archaeological methods.



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The new discoveries include urban centres with sidewalks, homes, terraces, ceremonial centres, irrigation canals and fortifications. Their findings revealed a pyramid in the heart of the ancient Maya city of Tikal, a major tourist destination in northeastern Guatemala

Their findings revealed a pyramid in the heart of the ancient Maya city of Tikal, a major tourist destination in northeastern Guatemala.
Also discovered in Tika were a series of pits and a 14 kilometre-long wall.
The pyramid measures nearly 100 feet (30 meters) tall and was previously thought to be a small mountain.
The earliest Maya settlements were constructed around 1,000 B.C., and most major Maya cities collapsed by 900 A.D.
The civilisation reached its height in what is present-day southern Mexico, Guatemala, and parts of Belize, El Salvador and Honduras between 250 and 950 AD.

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The earliest Maya settlements were constructed around 1,000 B.C., and most major Maya cities collapsed by 900 A.D. They found some 60,000 structures were found over the past two years


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The civilisation reached its height in what is present-day southern Mexico, Guatemala, and parts of Belize, El Salvador and Honduras between 250 and 950 AD. Lidar is a remote sensing technology that measures distance by shooting a laser at a target and analysing the light that is reflected back


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Lidar was developed in the early 1960s and uses laser imaging with radar technology that can calculate distances. Researchers now believe that the Maya had a population of 10 to 15 million, which is 'much higher' than previous estimates. Hidden deep in the jungle, the newly-discovered pyramid rises some seven stories high

Researchers now believe that the Maya had a population of 10 to 15 million, which is 'much higher' than previous estimates, Dr Canuto said.
The cause of the collapse remains the focus of intense academic debate.
'The LiDAR images make it clear that this entire region was a settlement system whose scale and population density had been grossly underestimated,' Thomas Garrison, an Ithaca College archaeologist and National Geographic Explorer told National Geographic.

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Also discovered in Tika were a series of pits and a 14 kilometre-long wall. The pyramid measures nearly 100 feet (30 meters) tall and was previously thought to be a small mountain. Pictured is a researcher looking at their finds



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Lidar uses ultraviolet, visible, or near infrared light to image objects and can be used with a wide range of targets, including non-metallic objects, rocks, rain, chemical compounds, aerosols, clouds and even single molecules. Pictured is a researcher


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Researchers say a climate reversal and drying trend between 660 and 1000 AD triggered political competition, increased warfare, overall sociopolitical instability, and finally, political collapse - known as the Classic Maya Collapse. Pictured is the temple of the Jaguar, archaeological site of Tikal

WHAT CAUSED THE COLLAPSE OF THE MAYAN CIVILISATION?For hundreds of years the Mayans dominated large parts of the Americas until, mysteriously in the 8th and 9th century AD, a large chunk of the Mayan civilisation collapsed.
The reason for this collapse has been hotly debated, but now scientists say they might have an answer - an intense drought that lasted a century.
Studies of sediments in the Great Blue Hole in Belize suggest a lack of rains caused the disintegration of the Mayan civilisation, and a second dry spell forced them to relocate elsewhere.
The theory that a drought led to a decline of the Mayan Classic Period is not entirely new, but the new study co-authored by Dr André Droxler from Rice University in Texas provides fresh evidence for the claims.

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The Maya who built Chichen Itza came to dominate the Yucatan Peninsula in southeast Mexico, shown above, for hundreds of years before dissappearing mysteriously in the 8th and 9th century AD

Dozens of theories have attempted to explain the Classic Maya Collapse, from epidemic diseases to foreign invasion.
With his team Dr Droxler found that from 800 to 1000 AD, no more than two tropical cyclones occurred every two decades, when usually there were up to six.
This suggests major droughts occurred in these years, possibly leading to famines and unrest among the Mayan people.
And they also found that a second drought hit from 1000 to 1100 AD, corresponding to the time that the Mayan city of Chichén Itzá collapsed.
Researchers say a climate reversal and drying trend between 660 and 1000 AD triggered political competition, increased warfare, overall sociopolitical instability, and finally, political collapse - known as the Classic Maya Collapse.
This was followed by an extended drought between AD 1020 and 1100 that likely corresponded with crop failures, death, famine, migration and, ultimately, the collapse of the Maya population.

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Researchers have found complex irrigation and terracing systems that suggest there was intensive agriculture in the area which could have fed masses of workers.
At its peak in the Maya classic period (around 250 AD to 900 AD) the civilisation covered an area twice the size of medieval England, researchers say.
The causeways are also connected, suggesting they were heavily trafficked and used for regional trade.

The survey is the first part of the PACUNAM LiDAR Initiative that will eventually map more than 5,000 square miles (14,000 square kilometres) of Guatemala.
Lost Cities of the Maya: Revealed will be aired on Sunday 11th February at 8pm on Channel 4.



Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5343567/Thousands-Mayan-pyramids-palaces-Guatemala.html#ixzz562POWgSt
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