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鼗、那、彭、鼓

《诗经·商颂》开篇祭汤王的<那>,首句“猗欤那欤”,“猗”暂未清楚是什么物品,“那”可以确定是鼓,但暂未知是何类鼓。广西壮语称 蜂腰横鼓 为 nag/nyag(通常以aen-冠词头)。 拉萨藏语称 有柄扁鼓 为 lag-na。苗语某些方言称 木鼓 为 nie/nho。

殷商是黄河中下游古族。西南诸族的鼓,多有音近“那”,而东北诸族的鼓,我暂未找到有接近“那”读音。 再看远些,南太平洋的斐济,也有类鼓叫 lali ,是木鼓。

上文提到的木鼓,就是用竹筒或木材刨空而成。苗瑶畲族群,佤、德昂、布朗 等孟高棉族群,台湾、波利尼西亚 等南岛族群,喜制木鼓。 其实东亚的 木鱼/梆子,原型也是木鼓

<那>诗还提到一类叫“鼗”的鼓,部份古代学者认为 鼗 是扁平有柄的拨浪鼓,但其实全世界很多类鼓都有接近“鼗”读音。中东daf,达罗毗荼泰米尔thappu,意大利tammorra,英语drum,印度damaru(蜂腰鼓 木制 带两根拨浪 无柄),新西兰毛利tamaru(用大葫芦做的鼓)

彭/鼓 二字,都有字根“豆”,其实就是蜂腰鼓。蜂腰鼓广布于全球热带,上古时也肯定有见于黄河,但逐渐失传了。比较困惑的是“豆”上方还有个“土”,从甲骨文看,这“土”既像南蛮的水牛角图腾,又像北狄的苏鲁锭

“彭”也不清楚最初是对应什么乐器,似乎跟“盆”更有关。北非游牧民族有类似亚洲北部萨满扁鼓的bendir,爱尔兰有扁平铃鼓bodhran,俄国波兰有buben,南印度有parai,马来半岛有kompang。但南太平洋也有类似“彭”读音的木鼓,萨摩亚pate,毛利pahu
再给一个猜想:“那”可能跟铜制的 锣(la/lo) 有关;而lak这个音,很可能对应“乐”

鼓,高棉语读 sgo,马来吕宋 gong/agung,佤语 graeng/grog/glao,泰语 klong,侗语 gung,基本可以肯定,华夏的鼓来自南蛮

拨浪鼓 的起源很难追溯。广西壮语读 bwn、byung-bing,也颇音近“彭”“盆”,扁平有柄

北族的萨满扁鼓,通常无柄,也无两根可甩的拨浪
尼泊尔的贱民器乐”五件头“(panche baaja),实际有七件以上,左边的一对立鼓叫dholak,蜂腰和椭腰皆有。dholak是南亚文化圈的手鼓,斯里兰卡叫dhool,既能做高档的黄檀木蒙皮铆钉,又能做粗陋的纯椰子木刨空拼接

感觉dholak的读音像 鼗+"那"(乐)

尼泊尔黄种人,演奏一种有柄的扁巫鼓 dhyangro,像是 鼗+鼓 的读音,无拨浪,敲鼓棍是蛇形弯曲,鼓顶有一撮孔雀毛装饰,似乎能对应甲骨文”鼓“字上部的”土“装饰


嗯,看来各种语言(尤其是方言,各种方言肯定都比普通话古老自然)中都包含很多远古的“史前全球化”印记!
佩服你对《诗经》“那”的领悟,我们这里“锣”“鼓”都是普通话读音,我从“那”这个字是很难联系到这类打击乐器的。另:西南壮傣一带用“那”为地名不知跟铜鼓文化有无关联也(不过感觉英语单词“land”和壮语“兰纳”)?
前些天听粤语歌《万里长城永不倒》,首句“昏睡百年”的“昏”发音如普通话的“纷(翻)”,忽然感觉很像英语“faint”的同源词。
岭南交广自古以经商知名,导致汉字“南”大门朝南开,里面装的就是“人民币”,是有原因的:

“王至海滨,途穷无舟楫可渡。王呼曰:“王丧乎!清江使何在?速来救我!”金龟涌出江上,叱曰:“在马后者,贼也。”王乃拔剑斩媚珠。”

“媚珠死于海滨,血流水上,蚌蛤吸之,化成明珠。”

“后人事东海明珠,以此井水洗之,愈明洁。因避媚珠名,故呼明珠为大玖、小玖是也。”

                                     ----《岭南摭怪卷》之二 《金龟传》

《诗经·长发》:“受小球大球,为下国缀旒,何天之休。”“大玖、小玖”与“小球、大球”音义相同。这是我上次论证越南极可能有商族遗民的一个语言证据(越人不自知,以为避讳云)。

《诗经·殷武》:“曰商是常。”商朝的奄族源自商族(商人曾都奄,封同族为君于此),商奄可连称。而淹城所在地就叫常州,岂非“曰商是常”乎?
《读史方舆纪要》卷二十五常州府:淹城在府东南三十里,其城二重,濠堑深阔,周广十五里。”陈志良《奄城访古记》云:“今常州城南二十里许有奄城遗址,亦作‘淹城’。……遗址外观,高出地面丈许。城有三道:外块(原注:俗称外罗城)、内城(原注:俗称里罗城)、子城(原注:俗称紫禁城)。”

呵呵,越南的古螺城也有类似的名称,以及包括“玉井”!越裳氏,应该也是“曰商是常”啊!

《诗经·那》:“猗与那与!置我鞉鼓。……庸鼓有斁,万舞有奕。……”在兰海的分子人类学论坛有个叫“Vietschlinger ”的网友对此有独到见解:“《诗经·商颂》开篇祭汤王的<那>,首句“猗欤那欤”,“猗”暂未清楚是什么物品,“那”可以确定是鼓,但暂未知是何类鼓。广西壮语称蜂腰横鼓 为 nag/nyag(通常以aen-冠词头)。 拉萨藏语称 有柄扁鼓 为 lag-na。苗语某些方言称 木鼓 为 nie/nho。”“那”既然是鼓,在《商颂》里又占有重要地位,可知“鼓”是商人意义重大的礼仪乐器,只可惜没见说商朝文物里鼓有多么被重视。不过在云南一直到整个东南亚,铜鼓都是重要的礼仪乐器,能否是越裳氏泛海渡江把鼓文化传播开来的呢——鼓上最常见的就是船纹,船纹的船上也有铜鼓(纪念意义很明显)?
Vietschlinger :彭/鼓 二字,都有字根“豆”,其实就是蜂腰鼓。蜂腰鼓广布于全球热带,上古时也肯定有见于黄河,但逐渐失传了。比较困惑的是“豆”上方还有个“土”,从甲骨文看,这“土”既像南蛮的水牛角图腾,又像北狄的苏鲁锭
(自首楼,我的电脑和网络总像被鬼扯着,点击什么都迟钝而多舛误,常不在点上,并拖延耽误,刚编辑一大段,一不小心没了)
我原来应该有用其他小号在这里回复,但是被删了我也就不能找了。我14年在西宁的时候,在青海博物馆见过马家窑文化——齐家文化的陶鼓。越兄所言,正合那时鼓的样子。《山海经·西山经》鼓在西方:“
显示相似段落

西山经:
又西北四百二十里,曰锺山,其子曰鼓,其状如人面而龙身,是与钦䲹杀葆江于昆仑之阳,帝乃戮之锺山之东曰&#138927;崖,钦䲹化为大鹗,其状如雕而黑文白首,赤喙而虎爪,其音如晨鹄,见则有大兵;鼓亦化为鵔鸟,其状如鸱,赤足而直喙,黄文而白首,其音如鹄,见即其邑大旱。
”,而《山海经·海内经》:“
海内经:
炎帝之孙伯陵,伯陵同吴权之妻阿女缘妇,缘妇孕三年,是生、延、殳。始为侯,、延是始为锺,为乐风。
”,说明鼓是炎帝的后裔,若此经所指鼓为同一人或同一宗族,说明鼓与钟鼓的发明有关,但是因为与黄帝部落的矛盾,后来被投放西北(开三苗西迁三危的先河),西北地区发现很多新石器时代的鼓正好是个证明。我拍的照片现在不再电脑里,上网一搜,这类陶鼓在西北地区很多的。


































小口的陶罐是缶,也是秦人的乐器,大概鼓原来就是从釜或罐演化而来,吃饱了没事,敲击敲击(我们这里不准敲碗,因为说那是叫花子才干的事儿),有人进而改进发明,给木碗或瓦罐蒙上皮革(当然铜釜和淳于则类似于钟或锣,直接敲击便可。还有石鼓,大概敲击物有弹性能发声),这就是一般意义上的鼓。做乐器的陶鼓边缘有突起,大概北方一些新石器文化常见的有些有乳突的筒形罐也可以蒙上皮革做鼓用。有些四系罐可能也是可以蒙上皮革做鼓用的。
突然感觉不但英语单词“pot”与“缶”是同源词,英语单词“phone”跟“缶”也可能是同源词!!!激动呀,瓦缶雷鸣吧!!!秦人真威武,霸西戎,让西戎的后裔应龙的后裔英吉利直接把“缶”作为发声工具的通称!!!若木——戎——Rome,大秦与老秦,真是量子纠缠一般!!!
“phone”发音接近“冯”,呵呵,也是河伯冯夷的姓氏,又可以跟老彭家拉上干系!
此贴跟我的帖子《章-漳与伏羲氏、河伯、豨韦、彭姓》也有启发联系。壮族自古有习用铜鼓的文化传统。敲鼓撞钟,晨昏之声,庄重呀!
drum——撞——僮——钟——章——张
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
……
突然感觉不但英语单词“pot”与“缶”是同源词,英语单词“phone”跟“缶”也可能是同源词!!!激动呀,瓦缶雷鸣吧!!!秦人真威武,霸西戎,让西戎的后裔应龙的后裔英吉利直接把“缶”作为发声工具的通称!!!若木——戎——Rome,大秦与老秦,真是量子纠缠一般!!!
“phone”发音接近“冯”,呵呵,也是河伯冯夷的姓氏,又可以跟老彭家拉上干系! ...
癯鹤 发表于 2018-2-19 20:05
天人感应每如此,昨日才提到“phone”与岛夷的关系!无语言不航海,今儿就见到这样一条新闻:


Man 'began using words 1million years ago': Researchers believe humans would not have been able to build boats and sail the world to populate the planet without speech
  • A radical rethink of history has said Homo Erectus must have been able to speak
  • Homo Erectus is our earliest ancestor and it was believed he was unable to talk
  • Without language he could never have built the boats needed to reach islands
ByColin Fernandez, Science Correspondent In Austin, Texas, For The Daily Mail
Published: 01:04 GMT, 20 February 2018 | Updated: 01:04 GMT, 20 February 2018

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The riddle of how ancient humans first began to speak may have been solved.
It was invented to help them mess about in boats, a leading academic controversially suggests.
Our earliest ancestor Homo Erectus took a huge step forward by walking upright just like us one 1 million years BC.
But while he could walk the walk, he has never been believed to talk the talk.
Language was not thought to have been within his capabilities.

+2


Our earliest ancestor Homo Erectus took a huge step forward by walking upright just like us one 1 million years BC (stock image)

This view is based on both anatomy – he did not have a bone in his throat called the hyoid which anchors the tongue like Homo Sapiens.
The best he would do would be to grunt and howl, it's usually been thought.
Language is thought to have begun with the arrival of Homo Sapiens that language began.
Now a radical rethink of history says Homo Erectus must have been able to speak.
As without language he could never have been able to build the boats needed to reach remote islands across mighty oceans.
Without speech, the primitive species of man would not have been able to sail the world in large numbers to populate the planet.




Daniel Everett, Professor of Global Studies, at Bentley University, Massachusetts made the claims at the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
He said: 'What is the greatest technology we have ever had as a species, the answer is language. Who invented it? Homo Erectus, about one million years ago or more. Those are controversial claims.'
'Everybody talks about Homo Erectus as a stupid ape-like creature, which of course describes us just as well, and yet what I want to emphasize is that Erectus was the smartest creature that had ever walked the Earth.'
Explaining why the call of the ocean led to language he said: 'Oceans were never a barrier to the travels of Erectus.
He travelled all over the world, travelled to the island of Flores [in Indonesia], across one of the greatest ocean currents in the world, then and now, the great Pacific throughflow, the Indonesia throughflow.

+2


Without speech, the primitive species of man would not have been able to sail the world in large numbers to populate the planet (stock image)

'They sailed to the island of Crete and various other islands. It was intentional they needed craft and they needed to take groups of twenty or so at least to get to those places. And this is the consensus of the archaeological evidence.'
He added: 'Erectus needed language when they were sailing to the island of Flores. They couldn't have simply caught a ride on a floating log because then they would have been washed out to see when they hit the current.
'They needed to be able to paddle. And if they paddled they needed to be able to say 'paddle there' or 'don't paddle.'
'You need communication with symbols not just grunts. They accomplished too much for this to simply be the sort of communication that we see in other species without symbols.'
Professor Everett said he believes that Homo Erectus would have had limited language compared to modern humans.
He said: 'Homo Erectus spoke and invented the Model T Ford of language. We speak the Tesla form, but their Model T form was not a proto-language it was a real language.'
But Professor Chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum, an expert in early humans said he 'did not accept' the idea Homo Erectus could have built and piloted rafts.
He said: 'Tsunamis could have moved early humans on rafts of vegetation.'



Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5411005/Humans-not-able-build-boats.html#ixzz57eXF1NYy
Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
岛夷南北浮海,有浮来山、罗浮山、浮梁、缚娄、占不牢、洛布里、巴厘、马谷山、莫干山、马祖、马六甲等地名。有目的地,南为“合浦(hope)”、“巴拉望(巴望)”,北为“冀州(希冀)”、“浊鹿”(俱卢、居鲁士、zealous)。
关于最近想到的铜鼓、贝币、陶器什么的,发现了一些知识点,基本是广西的一些文物,或许与越南历史所谓雄王来自炎帝神农氏前后有些关系,既有土著因素,更应看到有岛夷南北交通的一些文化和技术影响。尤其是北方发生战争,蚩尤遗民、欢兜遗民、夏人、商人、越人、楚人、秦人皆有南下的,文化交流是必然的。


贺州市独一无二的文化符号,体现了中华民族文化的大融合——青铜之光
贺州市独一无二的文化符号,体现了中华民族文化的大融合——青铜之光
2018年02月23日 13:38新浪看点作者 长寿贺州
缩小字体放大字体收藏微博微信分享0腾讯QQQQ空间




[size=+0]1991年,贺州市沙田镇龙中村意外发现了一件有头有角还闪着幽幽绿光的怪物。
[size=+0]仔细一看才发现是一件似铜似铁的器皿。
[size=+0]随后众人在土里陆续挖出一批青铜器和贝类、陶器共33件文物。

[size=+0]龙中村出土的文物,是目前贺州市出土等级最高的青铜器文物。
[size=+0]这批文物主要是精美成套的大型青铜礼器,还有两件陶瓷器和一些贝币。

[size=+0]青铜器有鼎、尊、罍、盉、鼓、钺、足形器、圆形器、叉形器和一对龙头形饰件车马器等位战国早期文物。

[size=+0]鼎、尊、罍、盉、钺是祭祀重器和权利的象征。

[size=+0]铜鼓是古代指挥军队进退的工具。

[size=+0]车马器是马车配件,马车是身份等级的象征。
[size=+0]龙头形饰件车马器尤显得尊贵。

[size=+0]大部分文物带有中原及楚滇文化因素,但地方特点也十分突出。
[size=+0]如尊的体型比中原的矮壮,纹饰也比较丰富华丽。

[size=+0]这些充分表明这批器物是在中原文化影响下吸收了楚滇因素。
[size=+0]当地铸造的土著越文化青铜器,体现了中华民族文化的大融合。

[size=+0]出土文物中尤其以村民最先发现的青铜尊最为珍贵。
[size=+0]铜高53.7厘米、长48厘米、腿高13.4厘米、重21.5千克。

[size=+0]如此大型的尊实属罕见。
[size=+0]更珍贵的是尊的头似麒麟。
[size=+0]身上刻满了一种夔纹。
[size=+0]尾部附凤鸟。
[size=+0]背部盖上浮雕是蟠龙。

[size=+0]青铜尊集中国古人崇拜的三大神兽麒麟、龙、凤于一身。
[size=+0]整个尊形态古朴、憨厚祥和,后定名为麒麟尊。

[size=+0]麒麟尊属于东周时期侯王级的器物。
[size=+0]它是目前中国唯一发现集三大神兽于一身的青铜器皿。
[size=+0]青铜尊定为国家一级甲等文物。
[size=+0]也是贺州市独一无二的文化符号。

[size=+0]青铜文明是人类文明发展的重要标志,是人类先祖最先懂得冶炼的金属。

[size=+0]青铜冶炼技术的出现,是继陶器之后人类又一伟大发明。
[size=+0]商周时期因为青铜开采冶炼技术难、产量少因此极其珍贵。
[size=+0]青铜是朝廷和贵族的专用品。

[size=+0]龙中村出土文物引起了我国考古界的极大关注。
[size=+0]岩洞出土如此众多尊贵的祭祀礼器,器物的主人到底是怎样的人物。
[size=+0]他为何拥有诸侯王级别的麒麟尊。
[size=+0]这些谜团留给后人无尽的遐想,也等待后人去解开。




玉林出土的最早青铜器:西周兽耳三角夔纹铜罍
玉林出土的最早青铜器:西周兽耳三角夔纹铜罍
2018年01月23日 16:15新浪看点作者 艺鉴China
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[size=+0]西周兽耳三角夔纹铜罍

青铜器
[size=+0]青铜是一种铜锡合金,在红铜中加入锡,既创造性地解决了红铜的强度问题,又较好地保持了其延展性,所铸器物在可塑性和耐用性等方面的表现十分突出,可用来制作农具、兵器、礼器、酒具等。在我国,汉代以前的文章中多记青铜为“金”,精纯而美好的青铜则被称为“吉金”。
[size=+0]青铜器的铸造和使用是人类跨入文明社会的三大标志之一。世界上最早的青铜器出现在距今6000年前的古巴比伦两河流域。中国目前出土的最早青铜器是1975年在甘肃东乡林家马家窑文化遗址(约公元前3000年)出土的一件青铜刀,距今已经有5000多年的历史了。
[size=+0]在广西,青铜器出现的时间则相对较晚,约在距今3000年前。彼时,广西属西瓯骆越居地,居民也主要为西瓯、骆越部族,文明程度较中原地区有较大的差距。商周时期,虽已进入青铜时代,但青铜器的铸造和使用量较少。从出土文物来看,目前在广西境内出土能确定属于西周及其以前的青铜器仅20余件。而在玉林地区发现的有明确出土地点的西周及其以前的青铜器则仅有零星几件。其中,出土年代最早的一件是1978年在陆川出土的西周兽耳三角夔纹铜罍,是目前玉林出土的最早青铜器。
西周兽耳三角夔纹铜罍
[size=+0]西周兽耳三角夔纹铜罍,一级文物,高47厘米,口径28.5厘米,底径24.8厘米,1978年出土于陆川县乌石镇塘城村,现收藏在广西壮族自治区博物馆。
[size=+0]此罍为青铜铸造,器壁较薄。整体呈“亚”字形,圆体,敞口,短颈,喇叭形口,斜肩,斜腹,底附双层高圈足,肩附一对相背向的兽耳。兽耳饰云雷纹,颈下部饰圈点纹和弦纹,肩部以耳分界,每边饰两组对称的饕餮纹,过耳处有一周重环纹,重环纹上下各一道凸起的绳纹,腹部饰三角夔纹,圈足上部饰环带纹,下部饰云雷纹。
[size=+0]罍(音“雷”),古代的盛酒器。最早见于商代晚期,流行至春秋时期,有圆体和方体两种形式。广西出土的先秦青铜器中,罍的数量较少,目前仅发现了6件。以出土地命名,分别为荔浦马蹄塘铜罍、陆川塘城铜罍、来宾木荣铜罍、恭城金堆桥铜罍、贺州马东村龙坡岭铜罍、贺州龙中岩洞铜罍。
[size=+0]这里介绍的这件陆川塘城出土的西周兽耳三角夔纹铜罍在造型上与荔浦马蹄塘出土的铜罍基本相同,与陕西长安普渡村西周墓中出土的铜罍也较类似;而在纹饰方面,西周兽耳三角夔纹铜罍肩部的饕餮纹、腹部的三角夔纹等则是中原地区商周时期青铜器上的常见纹饰。
[size=+0]西周兽耳三角夔纹铜罍带有明显的中原文化风格,是中原器物流传还是早期玉林先民依照中原器物进行的仿制,目前学界尚无定论,但无论如何,其身上所带有的明显中原文化特征却向我们展示了早期西瓯、骆越部族与中原地区之间的密切交往和联系。





点土成金,贺州先民用火与土铸就了延绵万年的中华文明
点土成金,贺州先民用火与土铸就了延绵万年的中华文明
2018年02月17日 19:40新浪看点作者 长寿贺州
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[size=+0]远古时期,先民们大多依山傍水而居,需要贮水、汲水、贮存和蒸煮食物的器具,他们发现泥巴被火烧后变得更加坚实坚硬、可以防水盛物,陶器随之产生。

[size=+0]陶器的出现在人类生产发展史上具有里程碑的意义,同时传递了另一个信息,即定居生活,在中国新石器时代的文化遗存中,陶器对研究原始文化提供了最重要的依据。

[size=+0]今天,麒大宝就为你讲一讲这泥土铸就的部落传奇。
[size=+0]广西八步区桂岭镇地处湘粤桂三省交界处,早在三国时期就是县治所在地,是一座历史悠久、人杰地灵的千年古镇。

[size=+0]1961年,桂岭公社进民大队燕子岩村的村民巫远回到屋子后面的猪观岭开荒种地,无意中挖出了几只坛罐。

[size=+0]他便拿完好的两件回家,一只用来盛喂猪的潲水,另一只精美的用来当夜壶,一用就是两年。

[size=+0]俗话说得好,是金子总会发光。
[size=+0]1963年,广西博物馆考古人员巫惠民、黄增发到村子进行文物普查,他们发现洗干净后的陶罐一个表面有雷纹和方格纹,另一个布满了夔纹和方格纹,造型完好、十分精美,不由得大吃一惊。

[size=+0]文物被带回南宁后经专家鉴定,两件陶罐都属于春秋时期的几何印纹陶,价值不可估量。

[size=+0]其中,夔纹方格纹陶罐是目前我国春秋时期同类陶器出土文物中唯一完整无缺的文物,填补了我国春秋文物实物标本的空白,属于国家一级文物,被定名为夔纹方格纹四系陶瓿,至今珍藏在北京国家历史博物馆,成为贺州的荣耀。

[size=+0]另一件雷纹方格纹陶釜属国家二级文物,被珍藏在广西博物馆。
[size=+0]春秋时期,北至北疆、南到香港、东到潮汕、西到贺州的这一支文明被称之为南越文明,这两件陶器是南方百越先民古代文明的见证。

[size=+0]几何印纹硬陶是瓷器的起源和鼻祖,两件春秋几何印纹硬陶引起了考古人员的思考。

[size=+0]“北方青铜器上的夔纹装饰为何会出现在桂岭出土的陶器上?这些陶器从哪里来?是贺州本地烧制还是从外地流传过来的呢?
[size=+0]1963年,广西考古工作队在富川瑶族自治县柳家乡长溪村的新石器遗址中,发现地表大量散布着方格纹、米字纹硬陶、重菱纹硬陶片、夹砂陶片、瓷片。

[size=+0]同年,八步区信都镇坝佬寨新石器城址中也出土了一些碎陶片,昭平县北陀镇立教村、敬业村等新石器遗址中也发现了大量细泥陶片、方格、波浪纹夹砂红陶片、三足器皿等文物。

[size=+0]最让人惊喜的是,2016年3月,广西考古人员与富川县文物工作人员在狗公山大口岩考古调查时,在岩内采集到河卵石打制石器、螺壳及碎骨化石,同时发现了少量破碎的陶片。

[size=+0]从出土的文物考证,该遗址属于旧石器时期遗址,后经鉴定,狗公山遗址发现的陶片距今约1.1万年,这是贺州目前经鉴定确定年代最早的陶片,为研究中国陶器起源提供了思考空间。

[size=+0]随着现代考古的深入,贺州更多的陶器文物得以展现在世人面前,这些遗址呈现集群分布态势,这些说明了新石器时期,贺州先民已经普遍掌握了制陶技术,陶器也开始大量使用。

[size=+0]人类的智慧是无穷尽的,在漫长的实践探索中,到了春秋战国时期,贺州的制陶技术得到进一步提升,开始掌握了原始的青瓷器烧制技术。

[size=+0]1988年,富川瑶族自治县在修建市政府宿舍楼时,工人挖出一件完整的米字纹陶罐,后经鉴定为战国时期印纹硬陶,定为国家二级文物。

[size=+0]1990年7月23日,贺州市沙田镇龙中村村民陈盘松、陈裕锋等人在狐狸躲藏的乱石堆中意外发现一个幽深的藏宝洞穴,里面珍藏了贝币、青铜器等33件先秦时期的珍贵文物,其中两件原始青瓷擂钵引起了考古人员的注意。

[size=+0]这件青瓷擂钵用高岭土制胎,胎呈灰白色,击之有铿锵声,火候较高,青瓷擂钵内外满施一层极薄的石灰釉,仅底部露胎。

[size=+0]施釉这一技术,战国以后在中原地区一度消失,一直到东汉才重新恢复,反而是贺州一直延续着中华原始的瓷文化。

[size=+0]一系列出土的文物和考古发现,昭示着贺州的制陶技术从旧石器时期开始,到先秦时期已经达到相当高的程度。

[size=+0]公元前214年,秦统一岭南后,贺州属南海郡管辖,开始真正融入了中华民族文化圈,中原文明得以从潇贺古道传入岭南到贺州。

[size=+0]汉代至宋朝,由于南方很少大的战乱,经济发展平稳,贺州的陶瓷产业得到飞速发展,陶瓷烧制技术与北方民间窑口平分秋色。

[size=+0]贺州的瓷器技术不断成熟,一直在续写着泥土的传奇,贺州先民不仅实现了点土成金的梦想,也为今天的我们留下了宝贵的遗产。
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-2-24 18:00 编辑
尼泊尔黄种人,演奏一种有柄的扁巫鼓 dhyangro,像是 鼗+鼓 的读音,无拨浪,敲鼓棍是蛇形弯曲,鼓顶有一撮孔雀毛装饰,似乎能对应甲骨文”鼓“字上部的”土“装饰

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com ...
Vietschlinger 发表于 2015-10-17 10:26
这种手鼓很像是北亚一些原始民族流行的萨满鼓。塞人岛夷应该是鼓乐文化的传播者。

看看下面的新闻,东南亚早期历史岩画里也有手鼓哩:

Incredible 2,500-year-old cave paintings of dogs, boats and shield-wielding warriors are discovered on a tiny Indonesian island

  • A total of 28 rock paintings were found on the Indonesian island of Kisar
  • The scenes depict boats, dogs, horses and people holding what look like shields
  • Kisar measures just 31 square miles (81 sq km) and is home to 28,000 people
  • The research marks the first time archaeologists have explored the small island
ByHarry Pettit For Mailonline
Published: 12:55 GMT, 18 December 2017 | Updated: 14:50 GMT, 18 December 2017
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A number of detailed ancient cave paintings have been found on a tiny Indonesian island previously unexplored by archaeologists.
The scenes, which are at least 2,500 years old, depict boats, dogs, horses and warriors holding what look like shields.
A total of 28 rock paintings were found, with each mural helping to tell the story of the region's rich history of trade and culture, the researchers said.
Scroll down for video


A number of detailed ancient cave paintings have been found on a tiny Indonesian island previously unexplored by archaeologists. Pictured is artwork (left image) of two dogs found on the island as well as a digital scan of the mural (right image)


+5

The scenes, which are at least 2,500 years old, depict boats, dogs, horses and warriors holding what look like shields (left image shows cave painting, right image shows digital scans)

THE CAVE PAINTINGS The paintings, found on the tiny Indonesian island of Kisar, depict dogs, horses, boats and shield-wielding warriors.
Other artworks show locals playing drums, perhaps performing ceremonies.
The paintings are remarkably similar to ancient murals found on the neighbouring island of Timor.
This suggests a stronger shared history between the two than had previously been known.
The relationship between the two islands likely extends back to the Neolithic period 3,500 years ago.
This period saw an influx of 'Austronesian' settlers from the likes of Malaysia, the Philippines, Polynesia and Fiji.
Domestic animals, such as the dog, and cereal crops were likely introduced by these groups.

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The Indonesian island of Kisar where the artworks were found measures just 31 square miles (81 sq km) and is home to 28,000 people.
'Archaeologically, no one has ever explored this small island before,' said study lead author Professor Sue O'Connor, from The Australian National University in Canberra.
'These Indonesian islands were the heart of the spice trade going back for thousands of years.
'The paintings we found depict boats, dogs, horses and people often holding what look like shields.
'Other scenes show people playing drums, perhaps performing ceremonies.'
Professor O'Connor said the discovery pointed to a stronger shared history with the neighbouring island of Timor than had previously been known.
'The Kisar paintings include images which are remarkably similar to those in the east end of Timor-Leste,' she said.
'A distinctive feature of the art in both islands is the exceptionally small size of the human and animal figures, most being less than 10 centimetres (four inches).


+5

A total of 28 rock paintings were found, with each mural helping to tell the story of the region's rich history of trade and culture, the researchers said. Pictured are paintings of boats found by the team

'Despite their size, however, they are remarkably dynamic.'
The relationship between the two islands likely extends back to the Neolithic period 3,500 years ago, the researchers said.
This period saw an influx of 'Austronesian' settlers from the likes of Malaysia, the Philippines, Polynesia and Fiji.
Domestic animals, such as the dog, and cereal crops were likely introduced to Kisar by these groups.

+5

The Indonesian island of Kisar where the artworks were found measures just 31 square miles (81 sq km) and is home to 28,000 people. Pictured are paintings of patterns and symbols found by the researchers

Close parallels have been found between some of the painted figures and images cast on metal drums that began to be produced in northern Vietnam and southwest China about 2,500 years ago and traded throughout the region.
This indicates a more recent date for some of the paintings, the researchers said.
'These paintings perhaps herald the introduction of a new symbolic system established about two thousand years ago, following on the exchange of prestige goods and the beginning of hierarchical societies,' Professor O'Connor said.

+5

The new discovery points to a stronger shared history between Kisar and its neighbouring island of Timor than had previously been known. Pictured are ancient artworks found by the team (bottom images) as well as their locations on a cave wall on Kisar (top two images)


+5

Researchers have found a series of ancient cave paintings on the Indonesian island of Kisar, which sits just north of the island of Timor-Leste

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5190411/Cave-paintings-dogs-Indonesian-island.html#ixzz5812zgDQ0
Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

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又找到史前全球化的证据喽!咯咯咯!
第一,岩画里有狗狗,狗年哟,《狗际歌》响起来!据说还有马?不过似乎没显示?是不是真的?什么年代的?马可是跟塞克人有关呀,不有个词叫“马赛克”嘛!
第二,“Kisar”发音接近“吉萨”、“格萨尔”,“Timor”发音接近“帖木儿”、“铁门”、“天目”、“泰米尔”、“泰梅尔”,很有意思,亚洲最北端有“泰梅尔半岛”,最南端是泰米尔半岛或帝汶岛。“努沙登加拉”似乎也跟“诺苏”、“唐古拉(腾格里)”有些语源关联。可见香料群岛的重要性,自古就是岛夷塞人念兹在兹的目的地之一呀!食物、香料影响人类进化,而帝汶岛有一些MNOPS的古老型分布,也说明塞人岛夷史前进行全球化探索的悠久。更何况这里有可能就是冰期人类的避难所,后人怀念故地也是很自然的。
第三,中国铜鼓的南传是跟南岛民族扩张有关的证据。十字太阳纹之类都是史前全球化的普遍符号。岩画里岛夷的那些船,在世界各地岩画里也都差不多,证明这是世界范围的共同现象,正是史前全球化又一证明。
第四,那些众多的多环圆圈图形,很多不像是太阳纹,也不像花纹,倒是挺像亚特兰蒂斯的形制。嘿嘿嘿!这种形状的图形、建筑、城池世界已经发现很多,我都懒得一一例举了,可以参详: Atlantis Heritages from Chinese New Point of View
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
岭南交广自古以经商知名,导致汉字“南”大门朝南开,里面装的就是“人民币”,是有原因的:

“王至海滨,途穷无舟楫可渡。王呼曰:“王丧乎!清江使何在?速来救我!”金龟涌出江上,叱曰:“在马后者,贼也。”王乃拔剑斩媚珠。”

“媚珠死于海滨,血流水上,蚌蛤吸之,化成明珠。”

“后人事东海明珠,以此井水洗之,愈明洁。因避媚珠名,故呼明珠为大玖、小玖是也。”

----《岭南摭怪卷》之二 《金龟传》
...
癯鹤 发表于 2015-11-8 17:42
某年月日,我在某帖子里论述了炎帝、雄王、越裳氏(可惜已被板猪弄没),并论及金龟清江使或许就是斑鳖,沅江、元江或许跟鼋有关,越地以斑鳖为特产之异物。天地造化钟灵毓秀。
前两年越南一只斑鳖死了,这个物种岌岌可危。热爱自然喜欢动物的我也挺伤心的。社会主义好啊,越南社会主义制度还比较传统的时候,爪哇犀、中南大羚、白臀叶猴、斑鳖等等珍稀动物都还有,资本主义熏风一来,全都水深火热了!
好在这个新闻还是很让人欣慰(转载这个新闻我已经用了一天时间!!!!!!试了很多次都无功而弃!!!程序都像被鬼扯着!!!有时打开个像这种人畜无害的网页得几分钟,看政经新闻网页就更是时常卡死,现在是我最吃力的事儿!!!!!!):

越南发现世上现存第4只斑鳖:用DNA技术确认其存在越南发现世上现存第4只斑鳖:用DNA技术确认其存在
2018年04月12日 20:23澎湃新闻
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  原标题:越南发现世上现存第四只斑鳖:通过环境DNA技术确认其存在
2017年5月,研究人员拍到的宣汉湖斑鳖。 本文图片均来源于国际龟鳖生存联盟网站
  越南又发现一只斑鳖!
  4月12日,全球最权威的龟鳖保育组织TSA(国际龟鳖生存联盟,Turtle Survival Alliance )在其官网上宣布了这一消息。美国华盛顿州立大学助理教授Caren Goldberg通过检测环境DNA(eDNA),确证了该斑鳖的存在。
  斑鳖(Rafetus swinhoei)被称为世界上最孤独、最稀有的动物。它是世界上最大的淡水鳖,曾广泛分布于长江流域(钱塘江、太湖)和云南红河流域。但此前被确认存活的个体全球仅剩下三只:两只栖身在中国苏州动物园,一雄一雌,多次人工授精均失败;另一只斑鳖生活在越南的东莫湖(Dong Mo Lake),据传是雄性个体,未予证实。
拍摄于2008年的越南东莫湖斑鳖是目前唯一一只在野外生活确认存活的个体。
  目前新发现的第四只斑鳖栖身于越南河内西部的宣汉湖(Xuan Khanh Lake)。
  6年前,2012年,有人称,在宣汉湖里看到过一只巨鳖。经过不懈地努力,2017年5月,阮文雄(Nguyen Van Trong)在这里拍摄到一张大型软壳龟的照片。
研究人员在宣汉湖观测。
  但照片不足以确认宣汉湖里的巨鳖就是斑鳖。
研究人员在处理湖水样本。
  研究人员采集了宣汉湖的湖水等样本,与华盛顿州立大学合作,检测样本中的环境DNA。Caren Goldberg博士证实,在该样本中,R。 swinhoei DNA明确呈阳性。这意味着,湖里生活的巨鳖就是斑鳖。
  TSA官网消息称,这一新个体的发现,显著增加了斑鳖这一物种的存活机会。
  据纽约时报等媒体消息,2016年1月,越南的另一只斑鳖“龟祖”(Cu Rua)死亡。它生活在河内市中心的还剑湖中,体重约163公斤。曾有人提议将中国苏州动物园的斑鳖与越南的斑鳖跨境“约会”,或者运输其精子,以进行人工授精。但目前尚未实施。
  环境DNA(environmental DNA)技术被称为生物黑科技,“DNA GPS。”水生动物在水里游动,其表皮细胞等样本会扩散在水体中。研究人员通过检测水体中有哪些DNA,就能特征性地识别出水体中的活跃物种及其分布状况。该技术目前已被广泛用于生态学等研究领域。
责任编辑:张玉
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
……
突然感觉不但英语单词“pot”与“缶”是同源词,英语单词“phone”跟“缶”也可能是同源词!!!激动呀,瓦缶雷鸣吧!!!秦人真威武,霸西戎,让西戎的后裔应龙的后裔英吉利直接把“缶”作为发声工具的通称!!!若木——戎——Rome,大秦与老秦,真是量子纠缠一般!!!
“phone”发音接近“冯”,呵呵,也是河伯冯夷的姓氏,又可以跟老彭家拉上干系! ...
癯鹤 发表于 2018-2-19 20:05

天人感应每如此,昨日才提到“phone”与岛夷的关系!无语言不航海,今儿就见到这样一条新闻:
Man 'began using words 1million years ago': Researchers believe humans would not have been able to build boats and sail the world to populate the planet without speech ...
癯鹤 发表于 2018-2-20 22:00
又一则新闻,鼓声和语言有关,简直就是“编码电报”,不由得让人想到那句俗语:“听话听声,锣鼓听音。”
看来热带的确是好地方,在寒冷的白领挤压没见有这项技术,到了热带雨林因为环境郁闭,声音传播不远,美洲人竟有这样别出心裁的发明!
我甚至怀疑南美洲蒂亚瓦纳科真有万余年历史,就是亚特兰蒂斯人的一个古老分支的所在(昌昌古城很像九黎——昌黎,划分九城——九州,黧黑,使用黑陶,这种文化很让人熟悉,商人祭祀心宿,而美洲用人心祭祀)。
南美洲虽然在西半球,但是如果把那里当做起点,相对于各大洲,位置在东南方。做事者必于东南。那样的话,亚特兰蒂斯作为文明起源地,位于南美洲甚至更东南的南极洲,也是真有可能的哟!

The remarkable Amazonian people that can communicate their ENTIRE language using the rhythm and pitch of drum beats
  • This unusual form of communication copies spoken language in many ways
  • The Bora are an indigenous group that occupy the Amazon of Peru and Colombia
  • Researchers studied 169 messages sent by five expert drummers
  • The Boras use manguaré drums traditionally carved from single logs
By Phoebe Weston For Mailonline

Published: 15:28 BST, 25 April 2018 | Updated: 16:39 BST, 25 April 2018

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The Amazonian Bora tribe can convey their entire language using the rhythm and pitch of drum beats.
They use traditional manguaré drums to transmit information over a distance of at least 12 miles (20km), researchers found.
This unusual form of communication copies spoken language in many ways and different beats imitate specific words and sentences.
Scroll down for video

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The Amazonian Bora tribe can convey their entire language using just drumbeats that mimic speech. They use incredible traditional manguare drums (pictured) to transmit information over a distance of at least 12 miles (20km), researchers found

The Bora are an indigenous group that occupy the Amazon of Peru and Colombia.
There are only 1,500 people left in the tribe and researchers from the University of Geroble Alpes in France studied 169 messages sent by five expert drummers.
The Boras use manguaré drums traditionally carved from single logs, each about 6.5 feet (two metres) long.
Each drum can produce two pitches and is used in two ways.
One is the 'musical mode' which is used to perform memorised drum sequences with little or no variation.
These are generally for rituals and festivals.







The other is 'talking mode' when they want to transmit informal messages or public announcements.
The lengths of pauses between beats were related to spaces in Bora spoken words, writes New Scientist.
Certain beats identify nouns while others are verbs.
Each message has four sections - an introduction, the sender's ID, the main message and a sign-off.
The message is usually a short instruction, such as 'to go fishing' and their sign-off can often be humorous - for example 'now don't say I'm a liar'.

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The Boras do this with manguaré drums traditionally carved from single logs (each about two metres) through burning. Each drum can produce two pitches, a pair four in total


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The Bora are an indigenous group that occupy the Amazon of Peru and Colombia. The tribe are divided into different clans

WHO ARE THE BORA TRIBE?The Bora are an indigenous group that occupy the Amazon of Peru and Colombia.
The tribe are divided into different clans. Each one is typically represented by an animal - so for example one person might be in a jaguar clan and someone else in a turtle clan.
Each clan lives apart and has its own farms and hunting territories but they all speak the same language - Witotan.
They have no distinction between the physical and spiritual worlds and have an elaborate knowledge of plant life.
In around 1900 there were around 15,000 Bora.
However, the 20th century rubber boom had a devastating impact on them and their numbers were reduced to around 1,500.
In the last 40 years they have become largely settled in permanent dwellings in the forest.
Their land continues to be threatened by illegal logging practices.

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'For example, the manguaré is used to ask someone to bring something or to come do something, to announce the outcome of non-alcoholic drinking competitions or the arrival of visitors', said lead researcher Frank Seifart of the former Department of Linguistics at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
'In this model, only two pitches are used and each beat corresponds to a syllable of a corresponding phrase of spoken Bora.
'The announcements contain on average 15 words and 60 drum beats.'
The human voice can generally only travel 650 feet (200 metres) but by using these drums, the Bora can communicate 100 times as far.
This drummed Bora mimics the tone and rhythm of their spoken language, researchers write in the paper published in Royal Society Open Science.



Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5656151/The-remarkable-Amazonian-people-convey-ENTIRE-language-drumbeats.html#ixzz5DseVNebZ
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