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欧洲更新世晚期的人口替换:古mtDNA

本帖最后由 Ryan 于 2016-2-15 13:25 编辑

Pleistocene Mitochondrial Genomes Suggest a Single Major Dispersal of Non-Africans and a Late Glacial Population Turnover in Europe

Cosimo Posth et al.


Summary

How modern humans dispersed into Eurasia and Australasia, including the number of separate expansions and their timings, is highly debated [ 1, 2 ]. Two categories of models are proposed for the dispersal of non-Africans: (1) single dispersal, i.e., a single major diffusion of modern humans across Eurasia and Australasia [ 3–5 ]; and (2) multiple dispersal, i.e., additional earlier population expansions that may have contributed to the genetic diversity of some present-day humans outside of Africa [ 6–9 ]. Many variants of these models focus largely on Asia and Australasia, neglecting human dispersal into Europe, thus explaining only a subset of the entire colonization process outside of Africa [ 3–5, 8, 9 ]. The genetic diversity of the first modern humans who spread into Europe during the Late Pleistocene and the impact of subsequent climatic events on their demography are largely unknown. Here we analyze 55 complete human mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) of hunter-gatherers spanning ∼35,000 years of European prehistory. We unexpectedly find mtDNA lineage M in individuals prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). This lineage is absent in contemporary Europeans, although it is found at high frequency in modern Asians, Australasians, and Native Americans. Dating the most recent common ancestor of each of the modern non-African mtDNA clades reveals their single, late, and rapid dispersal less than 55,000 years ago. Demographic modeling not only indicates an LGM genetic bottleneck, but also provides surprising evidence of a major population turnover in Europe around 14,500 years ago during the Late Glacial, a period of climatic instability at the end of the Pleistocene.


http://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822%2816%2900087-7
Posth2016, Figure 1.jpg
人类之子全都是为死而生。
              --------《阙特勤碑》
欧洲人口更替的激烈性超出旧有想象,估计这与其气候不稳定有关。
O3a3c* (M134+, M117-)
欧洲人口更替的激烈性超出旧有想象,估计这与其气候不稳定有关。
hercules 发表于 2016-2-15 13:46
文章内容和附图似乎暗示了末次冰盛期和新仙女木事件所造成的瓶颈作用对欧洲线粒体DNA多样性的影响。如果能对东亚地区的古人类遗骨进行检测的话,很有可能也会呈现出类似的情况。
我数年前就多次做过推测,不光尼安德特人的mtdna和ydna消失了,同时代的欧洲克鲁马农人留下直系mtdna和ydna的可能性也非常低。幸存者模式。。。
新技术方案尝试:低覆盖全基因组,最低成本深度解析父系源流,略有成效,大家一起摸索。微博@基因人王冰 QQ群:387100816。
我数年前就多次做过推测,不光尼安德特人的mtdna和ydna消失了,同时代的欧洲克鲁马农人留下直系mtdna和ydna的可能性也非常低。幸存者模式。。。
Yungsiyebu 发表于 2016-2-15 21:44
可怜的克鲁马农人,都没对尼安德特人笑多久。。。话说他们的洞穴壁画,真是达到相当的高度啊
很正常连新石器时代欧洲腹地繁荣的农业文化,在父系血统方面也贡献率极低。
新技术方案尝试:低覆盖全基因组,最低成本深度解析父系源流,略有成效,大家一起摸索。微博@基因人王冰 QQ群:387100816。
文章内容和附图似乎暗示了末次冰盛期和新仙女木事件所造成的瓶颈作用对欧洲线粒体DNA多样性的影响。如果能对东亚地区的古人类遗骨进行检测的话,很有可能也会呈现出类似的情况。
豢龙氏 发表于 2016-2-15 15:31
别忘了欧洲整体纬度比中国高,一旦北大西洋暖流不来,气候就跟东北差不多。
O3a3c* (M134+, M117-)
别忘了欧洲整体纬度比中国高,一旦北大西洋暖流不来,气候就跟东北差不多。
hercules 发表于 2016-2-16 20:54
是的,东亚地区南北跨度要大于欧洲地区,冰期来临时,南方可以作为“避难所”。几次冰盛期的瓶颈作用还是存在的,只是可能并没有欧洲体现的那么明显。而且还可能造成了南北方向上多次的人群迁徙过程。
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