返回列表 回复 发帖
20# 癯鹤 被鬼控制了?没法编辑了!多么气人,我就是看考古、科技新闻,半点也不敏感,破网络都慢得要死!大半时间都浪费了,愚民至此,就是希望我华人落后挨打呀!呜呼!眈眈无理恪!

上一楼图片里那些穿着丽皮古装的演员挺河北的,王宝强、王莎莎一样看起来笨笨的,莫见笑!河北也出咱这样的文化人儿!

还有则新闻也跟这里有关:

阳原发现2万至5万年前人类活动场所

为探寻泥河湾古人类生存模式提供重要资料


2017年06月05日 09:53 来源:河北日报 作者:龚正龙 [url=]字号[/url]
打印纠错分享推荐



内容摘要:5月31日 , ,阳原县泥河湾遗址群又有考古新发现,考古工作者们近日在该遗址群西白马营遗址发现了两处距今2万至5万年人类活动场所,出土石制品、化石等近万件,这为进一步探寻泥河湾古人类生存模式提供了重要资料。
关键词:人类活动;遗址;阳原县;古人类;白马
作者简介:
  本报讯(记者龚正龙)5月31日,记者从省文物局获悉,阳原县泥河湾遗址群又有考古新发现,考古工作者们近日在该遗址群西白马营遗址发现了两处距今2万至5万年人类活动场所,出土石制品、化石等近万件,这为进一步探寻泥河湾古人类生存模式提供了重要资料。
  西白马营遗址位于阳原县西白马营村南。1985年,省文物研究所曾对该遗址进行过发掘。2015年,省文物研究所、中国社会科学院考古研究所和阳原县文管所共同对该遗址进行小规模试掘。今年4月起,中国社会科学院考古研究所继续对该遗址进行发掘,发掘面积近100平方米。
  记者了解到,此次发掘最大收获是发现的古人类生活场所,既有用火遗迹,也有肢解、处理动物的场所。在距今2万至5万年的文化层里,发现了多件大型砍砸器及带有砍砸痕迹的动物骨骼。据中国社会科学院考古研究所副研究员周振宇介绍,今后,还将继续对该遗址不同地点进行发掘,以便采集多学科研究样品,复原当时古环境,并深入研究古人类如何应对这种生存环境。
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2017-6-23 22:07 编辑

昨天看到凤凰周刊一篇文章霍比特人再可爱,也敌不过人类祖先的残忍屠杀_凤凰资讯,勾起了我对佛罗勒斯人的兴趣,特地搜录一篇新闻:

研究称真实“霍比特人”或是最早人种之一
http://www.CRNTT.com 2017-04-25 10:57:23


网络图片:电影《霍比特人》海报
  中评社北京4月25日电/外媒称,新研究显示,由于身材矮小而被称为“霍比特人”的已灭绝佛罗勒斯人也许是最古老人种之一。

  据英国《独立报》网站4月21日报道,自2003年在印度尼西亚弗洛勒斯岛发现其遗骸后,关于他们在进化树上位居何处,学界一直争论不休。甚至有人提出,他们不过是一些身材矮小的智人。

  但澳大利亚研究人员如今表示,已最终确认佛罗勒斯人实际上与大约175万年前生活在非洲的能人有关,因此是已知最早人种之一。

  这一人种大约1米高,使用石器,到迄今大约5万年前一直存在,但后来神秘消失。此前一些研究认为,也许是现代人将他们消灭了。

  新研究的带头人、澳大利亚国立大学的黛比·阿格博士说:“分析显示,在家族树上,佛罗勒斯人可能是能人的一个姐妹人种,意味着这两个人种有共同祖先。一种可能性是,佛罗勒斯人在非洲进化,然后迁移至别处;另一种可能性是,他们的共同祖先走出非洲,然后在别处进化成佛罗勒斯人。”

  她说,佛罗勒斯人可能在最早期能人之前就已进化出现。这样的话,他们就是一个非常古老的人种。

  另一种对立的观点是,这些“霍比特人”从直立人进化而来。直立人存在于180多万年前至大约3.5万年前。

  然而,阿格说,他们的研究——包括观察佛罗勒斯人的骨头——并未发现佛罗勒斯人是从直立人进化而来的证据。

  另一位研究者、弗林德斯大学和南澳大利亚博物馆的迈克·李教授说,对佛罗勒斯人遗骸的统计学分析以及与其他人种进行的比较表明,佛罗勒斯人几乎完全不可能是身材矮小的现代人。他说:“有非常明显的证据支持他们与能人之间的关系。我们可以百分之九十九地断定,他们与直立人无关,而且绝对不是一种畸形智人。”

  研究成果刊登在英国《人类进化杂志》双月刊上。

  (来源:参考消息网)

(自:http://www.crntt.com/doc/1046/5/6/8/104656837.html?coluid=61&kindid=1290&docid=104656837&mdate=0425105723

忽然想到佛罗勒斯人遗骸出土了很多具,虽然热带地区不利于保存有机物,但既然骨骸都那么完整,应该也还会有遗传物质封存在其中吧!至今未见有机构测试分析佛罗勒斯人的基因,真是奇怪!
虽是矮人,但是对于人类演化史绝对意义非凡,测试基因说不定会有石破天惊的发现呢!
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
哟西,天人感应每如此。贫道一关注,相关领域就出大发现!

Nature: Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago

The time of arrival of people in Australia is an unresolved question. It is relevant to debates about when modern humans first dispersed out of Africa and when their descendants incorporated genetic material from Neanderthals, Denisovans and possibly other hominins. Humans have also been implicated in the extinction of Australia’s megafauna. Here we report the results of new excavations conducted at Madjedbebe, a rock shelter in northern Australia. Artefacts in primary depositional context are concentrated in three dense bands, with the stratigraphic integrity of the deposit demonstrated by artefact refits and by optical dating and other analyses of the sediments. Human occupation began around 65,000 years ago, with a distinctive stone tool assemblage including grinding stones, ground ochres, reflective additives and ground-edge hatchet heads. This evidence sets a new minimum age for the arrival of humans in Australia, the dispersal of modern humans out of Africa, and the subsequent interactions of modern humans with Neanderthals and Denisovans.

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v547/n7663/full/nature22968.html?foxtrotcallback=true

激动呀,假如现代人类出非洲说正确,可见最初那波很可能是岛夷——另有塞人北上。
但是,一个问题,基因古老型和遗传多样性到底怎么说?澳洲可是有非洲现代人型、尼安德特型、丹尼索瓦型以及其他未知人种的基因混合。为什么不可能是东亚进化出现代人类?然后其一支小分支——非洲型现代人因为自然淘汰和进化选择一支独大,并西进非洲成了主宰?让人科的几个远亲的真正的种级的种混交容易,还是人科的某亚种去开辟新大陆容易(美洲不就是例子嘛)?虽然难点是东亚的石器和人骨化石不如非洲的古老、丰富和长期地质历史上的相对先进,但万一真相真像古人说的那样“上帝”灭过几次本来繁盛的人族,而选择的新人都如亚当夏娃那样,僻处伊甸园呢?上帝神创当然可以不值一哂,但若人类进化确实是出于这种偶然呢?
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
哟西,天人感应每如此。贫道一关注,相关领域就出大发现!

Nature: Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago

The time of arrival of people in Australia is an unresolved question. It ...
癯鹤 发表于 2017-7-20 13:36
呵呵,赫赫!看链接里那些石器,非常明显现代智人的工具。然而对于抱着非洲爹地不放的兰筛海来说,可该吓成什么样子,估计脸都蓝了:
Tocharian_2

中级会员


Tocharian_2 当前离线
UID8523 帖子156 精华0 积分250 贡献250 威望242 Y HGOα2a Y-SNPF666,F2781+ mt HGF2c mt突变姓氏彭 族裔方言/支系出生地籍贯阅读权限50





中级会员


帖子156 精华0 Y HGOα2a Y-SNPF666,F2781+ mt HGF2c mt突变族裔籍贯
1# 打印 字体大小: tT

发表于 2017-7-20 12:57 | 只看该作者





Nature: Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago
The time of arrival of people in Australia is an unresolved question. It is relevant to debates about when modern humans first dispersed out of Africa and when their descendants incorporated genetic material from Neanderthals, Denisovans and possibly other hominins. Humans have also been implicated in the extinction of Australia’s megafauna. Here we report the results of new excavations conducted at Madjedbebe, a rock shelter in northern Australia. Artefacts in primary depositional context are concentrated in three dense bands, with the stratigraphic integrity of the deposit demonstrated by artefact refits and by optical dating and other analyses of the sediments. Human occupation began around 65,000 years ago, with a distinctive stone tool assemblage including grinding stones, ground ochres, reflective additives and ground-edge hatchet heads. This evidence sets a new minimum age for the arrival of humans in Australia, the dispersal of modern humans out of Africa, and the subsequent interactions of modern humans with Neanderthals and Denisovans.

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v547/n7663/full/nature22968.html





本主题由 Ryan 于 2017-7-20 16:17 移动
收藏 分享 评分



回复 引用 订阅 TOP




Ryan


Ryan 当前离线
UID16964 帖子1229 精华1 积分1315 贡献1315 威望2895 Y HGD1* Y-SNPM15+,N1- mt HGpre-F2a2 mt突变姓氏族裔华人 方言/支系出生地籍贯柳州 阅读权限250 性别男





超级版主


帖子1229 精华1 Y HGD1* Y-SNPM15+,N1- mt HGpre-F2a2 mt突变族裔华人 籍贯柳州
2#
发表于 2017-7-20 16:20 | 只看该作者





6.5万年,这么古老? 有可能并不是 现代智人的遗址。




人类之子全都是为死而生。
--------《阙特勤碑》


回复 引用 TOP


http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2017-7-23 23:16 编辑
哟西,天人感应每如此。贫道一关注,相关领域就出大发现!

Nature: Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago

The time of arrival of people in Australia is an unresolved question. It ...
但是,一个问题,基因古老型和遗传多样性到底怎么说?澳洲可是有非洲现代人型、尼安德特型、丹尼索瓦型以及其他未知人种的基因混合。为什么不可能是东亚进化出现代人类?然后其一支小分支——非洲型现代人因为自然淘汰和进化选择一支独大,并西进非洲成了主宰?让人科的几个远亲的真正的种级的种混交容易,还是人科的某亚种去开辟新大陆容易(美洲不就是例子嘛)?虽然难点是东亚的石器和人骨化石不如非洲的古老、丰富和长期地质历史上的相对先进,但万一真相真像古人说的那样“上帝”灭过几次本来繁盛的人族,而选择的新人都如亚当夏娃那样,僻处伊甸园呢?上帝神创当然可以不值一哂,但若人类进化确实是出于这种偶然呢?
癯鹤 发表于 2017-7-20 13:36
本帖最后由 guwei0001 于 2017-7-23 14:35 编辑
感觉k值高一些比较真切.
52261


明显可以看出,东亚人包括南岛人与尼格立坨人(小黑人)差别巨大,尽管二者的主成分都是EE衍生而来的。

有意思的是,夏威夷土著尽管外表上与大多数东亚人差别不大,但是他们的 ...
imvivi001 发表于 2017-7-14 01:31

k值高低都一样表明Agta是混血尼格利托。
泛亚一文采样了5菲律宾尼格利托人群,只有mamanwa受南岛人影响小些。其他4个群体混合不少南岛血统。European admixture in Chinchorro DNA 从K=5到K=13也表明Agta是混血尼格利托。

关于田园洞人,从K=5到K=13都显示最接近他的现代人是印度人。K=5,田园洞人的类澳美成份和Agta一样多。田园洞人常染上是比较南的。古人类所要找北方本地人的话可能要失望了。
K=5-2.png (133.44 KB)
下载次数:0
2017-7-23 14:16





K=13 -4.jpg (30.84 KB)
下载次数:0
2017-7-23 14:16









guwei0001 发表于 2017-7-23 14:16
(自:http://www.ranhaer.org/viewthread.php?tid=35460&page=16#pid512195
可见,古老型人类的基因多样性更丰富(尤其是那些成为多个族群祖先的古人,更显出各后裔族群的基因比例——这当然不能孙子决定爷爷,说古人是今人基因交流的结果),而新近型人类的相对单纯(除非混血儿)。不能因为基因类型多样就说是晚近混合的结果(当然史前和历史时期大部分族群可能经历多次异族混血,历史时期的还好说,史前的则不好说了),说不定有些是远古孑遗呢。另外南美洲五六千年前发现欧洲型基因比例较高的人种的遗骸,应该是史前全球化的证据,但也可能是更古老的小族群经过遗传漂变把祖先携带的“欧洲基因”给富集了(当然基因检测应该能看出来到底是哪种情况,本人对基因了解不多,无能力判断)。
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
史前一万年真是一个奇特的节点,不但旧新大陆各自开始了农业,并加速了技术进步,连巴布亚新几内亚人这种相对孤立的人群也是在那时产生了明显的分化。量子纠缠一样的心灵感应?还是天地发生特殊大事件导致各地的人类不约而同?

巴布亚新几内亚人展示了极大的基因多元性


来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2017年9月15日 10:39






巴布亚新几内亚人展示了极大的基因多元性


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据EurekAlert!:对巴布亚新几内亚人进行基因分析后揭示:从1万至2万年前,居住在高地与低地的人之间出现了明显的基因分别。该分水岭出现的时间大约与人们开始在岛上培植作物的时间相同,这表明,种群结构受到向新石器生活方式过渡的影响。基于巴布亚新几内亚可能是人类从亚洲向澳大利亚迁徙的踏脚石这一事实,因此,该种群结构从种群遗传及考古的角度看都令人十分感兴趣。但是,来自现今人群的样本大体上一直颇为有限。

Anders Bergström和同事在这里对整个PNG上的85个语言群组的381位个人的基因型进行了检测,他们还分析了39个先前得到的高度覆盖的全基因组序列。数据表明,高地居民和塞皮克(Sepik)低地居民在1万至2万年前分开,而在高地人群中的所有分离都出现在最近的1万年内。分别在欧亚大陆西部和非洲所见的青铜器时代和铁器时代的人类创新和迁徙事件驱动了基因的多样性,其特征是Y染色体谱系的快速扩展,但作者们在这些PGN数据中却没有发现这样的证据。不管怎样,高地和低地种群都显示了程度强烈且出乎意料的基因分化。


因此,作者提出,在PNG,所观察到的分化可能是遗传学、语言学及文化多元性的结果,而久坐型人类社会可在没有大规模技术驱动扩张的情况下就能取得这种多元性。

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2017-11-3 19:58 编辑

尼安德特人时代似乎已经有过一次全球化了!而澳洲已经有六七万年前晚期智人的遗迹,比这个年代晚的蒙戈湖人是不是现代智人还不能确定。美洲不是据说发现了十几万年前屠宰乳齿象的遗迹了吗?这么来说,东亚偶见的十几万年到几万年前的莫斯特式石器也说不定是遗迹。不要抱着现在的国界洲籍刻舟求剑,以为自己应该是万古一系土著什么的!

内蒙古金斯太遗址石制品组合具有明确的旧石器时代中期莫斯特技术特征




来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2017年11月03日 12:45






金斯太遗址的地理位置



金斯太遗址的地层与年代



金斯太遗址出土的石制品


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所(李锋 供图、供稿):近日,高星课题组对内蒙古金斯太遗址下部第7-8层的年代、动物化石和石制品等进行了详细分析和报道。新的研究表明,出自上述层位的石制品组合具有明确的旧石器时代中期(莫斯特)技术特征,此项研究成果将莫斯特技术遗存在欧亚大陆的分布从西伯利亚往东推进了近2000公里。这一方面对我们研究旧石器时代中期人群与技术的扩散、互动具有重要意义,另一方面也有助于我们理解中国旧石器时代文化遗存的阶段性和区域性特征。《Journal of Human Evolution》于2017年10月31号在线发表了该项研究成果。


金斯太遗址位于内蒙古东乌珠穆沁旗阿拉坦合力苏木,2000-2001年内蒙古考古研究所与吉林大学对该遗址进行了发掘。2012-2013年中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所与内蒙古博物院合作对该遗址进行了再发掘,最大发掘面积约10平方米。遗址分为9个层位,其中第1-8层出土文化遗物:第1-2层出土青铜时代及新石器时代文化遗存,第3-8层出土旧石器时代文化遗存。本次研究重点分析了第7-8层的年代、动物化石和石制品。碳十四年代分析显示遗址第8层为距今约4.7-4.2万年,第7层年代为距今约4.0-3.7万年。第7-8层出土的动物化石数量较少且破碎,主要以普氏野马为主。两层出土的石制品比较类似,皆存在典型的勒瓦娄哇产品,如勒瓦娄哇尖状器(Levallois Point),比例较高的盘状石核,以及旧石器时代中期典型石器组合,如较高比例的刮削器(陡刃加工的横刃刮削器、斜轴刮削器等)。与中国相近时段石制品组合的对比研究表明,其与晚更新世早期(如泥河湾板井子遗址)、旧石器时代晚期初段遗址(如宁夏水洞沟遗址第1地点)的石制品组合大不相同,而更接近于欧亚大陆西侧、中亚等地的旧石器时代中期莫斯特石制品组合,尤其与俄罗斯西伯利亚Okladnikov、Chagyrskaya洞穴发现的莫斯特遗存类似。


金斯太遗址的莫斯特石制品组合的认定对于我们理解旧石器时代中期人群的迁徙和技术的扩散具有重要启示。虽然在未发现人类化石的情况下,界定石制品遗存的人群归属存在较强的不确定性。然而除了极个别区域,如以色列、北非等地,莫斯特石制品组合一般与尼安德特人共存。欧洲、中亚和西伯利亚阿尔泰地区等出土莫斯特遗存的多个遗址中出土尼安德特人化石,尤其是西伯利亚的Okladnikov、Chagyrskaya洞穴的莫斯特遗存为尼安德特人所制作。据此,我们提出金斯太遗址出土的莫斯特遗存很可能也为尼安德特人所遗留。若此假设成立,那么金斯太的发现将尼安德特人的分布范围从西伯利亚往东推进了2000公里,这大大扩散了尼人可能的分布范围,对讨论该人群对不同区域的适应能力及其消亡的原因等具有重要意义。当然,此假说需要将来人类化石的发现或者古DNA研究的确认。


如若金斯太的莫斯特石制品遗存并非尼安德特人所制作,此发现也极具启发意义。首先,可为我们研究石制品和人群的对应关系提出理论性的思考;其次,考虑到金斯太与西伯利亚阿尔泰地区的距离,这反映了距今约4-5万年间不同人群间远距离的技术和思想交流远比我们从前预想的频繁和广泛。同时也预示着晚更新世不同人群(如尼安德特人、现代人或东亚人群)的行为(文化)差别并不大。然而,为什么尼安德特人却最终大面积消亡?这是一个颇值得我们思考的问题。


中国旧石器时代中期遗存的研究长期以来是个极具争议的问题,学者们一般认为中国境内不存在具有欧亚大陆西方旧石器时代中期技术的考古学遗存,故而建议中国乃至东亚旧石器时代分为早、晚两期。金斯太的发现表明东亚地区的确存在具有明确旧石器时代中期技术特征的石制品组合。但此类旧石器时代中期遗存的分布仍局限在中国北方的北部,所以目前中国其他地区的旧石器考古学材料仍可应用“两期法”。金斯太的发现揭示出了晚更新世复杂多样的人类和技术的扩散证据,为我们理解欧亚大陆不同类型古人类的生存适应策略及互动关系提供了材料,同时也提醒我们看待中国旧石器时代人类行为的演化应具有区域视角。


该研究获得国家自然科学基金、中科院古脊椎所化石发掘经费、中国科学院战略性先导科技专项、中国科学院青年促进会等的资助。


原文链接:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047248417303032

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
感觉这则旧新闻很有意思:
巴卡俾格米人幽门螺杆菌
Recent Acquisition of Helicobacter pylori by Baka Pygmies

Sandra Nell etc.

AbstractBoth anatomically modern humans and the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori originated in Africa, and both species have been associated for at least 100,000 years. Seven geographically distinct H. pylori populations exist, three of which are indigenous to Africa: hpAfrica1, hpAfrica2, and hpNEAfrica. The oldest and most divergent population, hpAfrica2, evolved within San hunter-gatherers, who represent one of the deepest branches of the human population tree. Anticipating the presence of ancient H. pylori lineages within all hunter-gatherer populations, we investigated the prevalence and population structure of H. pylori within Baka Pygmies in Cameroon. Gastric biopsies were obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy from 77 Baka from two geographically separated populations, and from 101 non-Baka individuals from neighboring agriculturalist populations, and subsequently cultured for H. pylori. Unexpectedly, Baka Pygmies showed a significantly lower H. pylori infection rate (20.8%) than non-Baka (80.2%). We generated multilocus haplotypes for each H. pylori isolate by DNA sequencing, but were not able to identify Baka-specific lineages, and most isolates in our sample were assigned to hpNEAfrica or hpAfrica1. The population hpNEAfrica, a marker for the expansion of the Nilo-Saharan language family, was divided into East African and Central West African subpopulations. Similarly, a new hpAfrica1 subpopulation, identified mainly among Cameroonians, supports eastern and western expansions of Bantu languages. An age-structured transmission model shows that the low H. pylori prevalence among Baka Pygmies is achievable within the timeframe of a few hundred years and suggests that demographic factors such as small population size and unusually low life expectancy can lead to the eradication ofH. pylori from individual human populations. The Baka were thus either H. pylori-free or lost their ancient lineages during past demographic fluctuations. Using coalescent simulations and phylogenetic inference, we show that Baka almost certainly acquired their extant H. pylorithrough secondary contact with their agriculturalist neighbors.

http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1003775


收藏 分享 评分


198401 发表于 2013-9-24 09:43 [url=http://www.ranhaer.org/viewthread.php?tid=25849&page=1#pid355749][/url]
俾格米人的幽门螺杆菌历史很晚近。却又说非洲的幽门螺杆菌类型古老。我怎么感觉有点……,莫非非洲古人在几万年中一直都是老死不相往来(这样的确也会使基因库离散而多样化,造成古老表象呀?),然后在最近两千年尤其是欧洲人大航海奴隶贸易才使得人口混合变得普遍?但是科伊桑人的菌株又是最古老的类型。纷乱哟!感觉有某种故意的亲非洲起源论在作怪!学术里面莫非也有尚黑大幕?
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2017-11-17 11:53 编辑

为啥我每次提出重大科学命题,就天人感应般给出这样让人激动的回应?只遗憾,买彩票总不中,是我难于立业成事保家为民!


外媒称中国古人类头骨或改写人类起源:也可能来自亚洲

分享 0评论
2017年11月17日00:46 参考消息
外媒称中国古人类头骨或改写人类起源:也可能来自亚洲
参考消息网11月17日报道 英媒称,人类的起源恐怕有待重新思考。科研人员对中国一个古代头骨的分析显示,它与在西面大约1万公里开外的摩洛哥发现的已知最早现代人类化石惊人类似。这具头骨表明,现代人类并非普遍认为的那样,全部是非洲祖先的后裔。
据英国《新科学家》网站11月14日报道,根据化石证据,大多数人类学家认为,大约20万年前我们这个人种在非洲兴起。另外,对现代人的遗传学研究表明,我们来自一个共同的族群,这个族群在过去12万年间离开非洲,散布到世界各地。这个非洲族群是所有现代人类基因的源头,只有少数基因是通过与尼安德特等人种通婚获得的。
然而,大荔人头骨跟这一说法恐怕不吻合。大荔头骨于1978年在中国的陕西省发现,这具头骨保存得极其完整,既有面部又有头盖骨。今年4月发表的研究文章断定,这枚头骨距今约有26万年之久。
报道称,1979年研究人员第一次描述大荔人头骨时,他们推断头骨属于直立人头骨。这个人种在180万年前来到东南亚,大约14万年前从这一地区消失。这跟权威的说法是一致的。
然而1981年时,中国社科院的吴新智就注意到,大荔人头骨的面部有许多特征与我们这个种群智人一致。这表明东亚的直立人可能对智人的起源发挥了作用。换句话说,现代人身上至少有一部分DNA可能来自亚洲直立人。
报道称,这一观点遭到许多研究人员的否定,因为与传统的非洲单一起源模式是矛盾的。然而,吴新智与得克萨斯农业与机械大学的希拉·阿特雷亚说,我们对智人的起源仍然没有全面的了解。于是,两人对这具头骨重新分析,并将其与其他人种的头骨比对,包括直立人和早期智人。
他们发现,大荔人头骨与上世纪60年代在摩洛哥伊古德山发现的两具智人头骨很相似。
报道称,今年早些时候,研究人员在伊古德山发现了第三具智人头骨的碎片,推算出这些化石距今大约有31.5万年。由此把人类的起源时间大幅前推了11.5万年。与大荔人头骨一样,伊古德山头骨也有着与智人类似的面部,但是头盖骨看上去更加原始。
摩洛哥头骨跟智人完全从非洲起源的观点是不矛盾的。但是阿特雷亚说,大荔人头骨表明人类起源恐怕没有这么简单。
她说,有可能在遗传学上,非洲古人与欧亚大陆古人没有隔绝开来。少数群体的小规模迁徙累积起来,可能使得基因在非洲与欧亚大陆之间流动。在这种情况下,31.5万年前摩洛哥智人出现的遗传特征有可能在26万年前生活在中国的古人身上显现——比如大荔人头骨的所有者。
阿特雷亚说,还有一种可能。“基因流动也有可能是多方向的,那么欧洲、非洲显现的一些特征也有可能来自亚洲”。
换句话说,与智人有关的一些特征可能起源于东亚,后来带入非洲。如果是这样的话,那么我们就不是全部来自非洲了。(编译/于晓华)

责任编辑:时鑫
——————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
然后回头考虑现代智人的起源问题,就很有意思了!即使非洲人的基因类型古老,但是也可能就是因为一批早期(30多万年前)迁徙非洲的孑遗人群留下的基因多而已,亚洲可是有更古老基因的,比如尼安德特人(其实非洲人也有其少量基因)、丹尼索瓦人等等,澳洲蒙戈湖人的基因类型也不在现代人基因库里,然而已经是现代智人,美洲也据说发现十几万年前的人类猎杀乳齿象的遗迹,当时人类应没有横渡大西洋的本领,只能从亚洲过去呀,而且应该已经是智人了,这明明可以说亚洲人类基因多样性和古老程度比非洲人还要深广呀!只是由于亚洲经历太多天灾人祸,导致人口繁衍经历多次严重瓶颈,保留下来的不如非洲的古老罢了!!!再看看巴布亚新几内亚发现的这个头盖骨,还有直立人特征,充分说明亚洲人类多样性确实是很高的,多样性高没有混血也不奇怪,有混血也不奇怪,反正由此繁衍出大量新新人类,他们呢,基因库已经是大大地被瓶颈化了,丢失了很多古老人类的基因。

科学家重验1929年在巴布亚新几内亚出土的6000年前人头骨 或发现最古老海啸遇难者


来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2017年11月10日 16:38






出土的头骨有多条裂痕。



巴布亚新几内亚有不少原住民。


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)外国一批科学家早前重新检验一件在1929年于巴布亚新几内亚出土的头骨,证实该头骨有6000年历史,其主人更可能是史上最早死于海啸的人。今次的发现将会带来新冲击,专家或需要重新检视沿海地区的考古发现。


一队由多国科学家组成的团队表示,发堀骸骨出土地点附近在1998年时曾受海啸侵袭,他们将当年的土壤与头骨上的土壤比较,发现出土地点在6000年亦曾被海啸淹没,故此认为头骨的主人当年也可能死于海啸。


有份参与研究的戈尔夫表示,虽然该骨头被人仔细检验,但却没有人太多人会认真注视出土地点的泥土。亦有部分学者表示,头骨的主人可能在海啸发生前已经死亡。团队今次的研究将会刊登在科学期刊上。

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2017-12-12 11:53 编辑
最新研究认为尼安德特人13万年前或已抵达 最新研究认为尼安德特人13万年前或已抵达美洲视频:...

不知道蒙戈湖人的基因和骨骼性状是否也有尼安德特人特征!?看来在现代人类之前,尼安德特人(或同其远亲丹尼索瓦人)已经开拓殖民五大洲了!他们的灭绝到底是现代人类“出非洲”后制造的李辉式人祸还是天灾造成的呢?如果是天灾,到底什么样的天灾让他们全部灭绝了呢?...
癯鹤 发表于 2017-5-14 13:56
想了想,还有可能是丹尼索瓦人呢!这个人种特神秘,和尼安德特人一样可能与现代智人的智力快速进步很有关系。或许他们就是最早的塞人岛夷之北源(南源为出非洲智人)。是美洲、澳洲的最初开拓者。丹尼索瓦人得名于丹尼索瓦洞,丹尼索瓦洞得名于隐士丹尼斯,丹尼斯这名字得自岛夷“疍民”(“尼安德特”——鸟头,得名于“鸟夷”),有道之士呀,也是天人感应,言与神同在。这里竟是三大人种汇聚钟灵毓秀之地——帝之下都——上帝的实验室?然而为何他们没留下Y-DNA呢?丹尼索瓦人留下适应高山高原基因,所以这些山人先人就是“仙”人!得道仙人,不执名相,涅磐升天大解脱(至今藏民犹笃信,虹化而去果然乎?)?抑或是被上帝毁灭的上一代人群?



20 September, 2017 - 01:58ancient-origins
Extinct Denisovans from Siberia Made Stunning Jewelry. Did They Also Discover Australia?


By Siberia Times Reporter, Olga Gertcyk
The distance from the only currently known home of the Denisovans in Altai region to the nearest point of Australia is roughly akin to the length of the Trans-Siberian railway, and yet it is looking increasingly likely that these ancient species of humanoids somehow made this epic journey deep in pre-history, perhaps 65,000 years ago.
Separate evidence from the Denisova cave in southern Siberia certainly shows they had myriad talents at least 50,000 years ago, even if their ultimate fate was extinction.
Yet remarkably their DNA lives on in the Aboriginal people of Australia and the Melanesians of Papua New Guinea to a far greater extent than in any other modern-day populations worldwide.

Professor Richard 'Bert' Roberts (left) and Dr Maxim Kozlikin (right) in Denisova cave. Picture: Richard Roberts

Moreover, on their way towards Australasia, they appear to have interbred sufficiently with other early humans to have provided Tibetans with the EPAS1 gene that enables them to survive in high-altitude low oxygen environments.



The Denisovans influenced not only Aboriginal people (up), but also modern Tibetans (bottom). Pictures: Steve Evans, Dr. Ruediger Wenzel

Pictures shown here illustrate their remarkable Paleolithic handiwork from artifacts - for example a stunning green-hued chlorite bracelet, a marble ring, and beads from an ostrich eggshell necklace, all at least 50,000 years old, but possibly soon to be revealed by scientists as significantly older - found in a cave they shared variously with Neaderthals and Homo sapiens.

Jewelry from Paleolithic era at least 50,000 years old (The Siberian Times)

Now Professor Richard 'Bert' Roberts, director of the Centre for Archaeological Science at the University of Wollongong, has urged deep study of ancient migration routes to understand how the Denisovan DNA exists to this day in the native people of Australia.

Professor Richard 'Bert' Roberts in his laboratory in the Centre for Archaeological Science at the University of Wollongong. Picture: Richard Roberts

'Many of ancient people's migration routes went through the territory of Russia, via the Altai mountains,' he told gazeta.ru. 'If we don't get to the bottom of what happened regarding human evolution in Altai, we will never understand evolution in say, China.
'The first migration wave of Homo erectus left Africa about two million years ago, moving in two main directions: via the Middle East to the south of Europe, the Caucasus, to the Mediterranean and the Pyrenees, and through the western areas of Asia.
'To the east they most likely moved via two routes as well. One must have gone south of Himalayas and Tibet via Indostan to Eastern and South-Eastern Asia. The other, Northern one, most likely went via Central Asia and Siberia.
'Perhaps two of these streams met at some point. We will learn it by meticulous dating of all finds... To me personally the most interesting question is how 4% of Denisovan' DNA got into the Aboriginal people? Look where Australia is, and where Altai is! How is it possible?!'
The distance as the crow flies is some 8,500 kilometers (5282 mi), and doubtless any such Denisovan migration happened over multiple generations and many millennia - yet there is also the question of a treacherous sea crossing long before boats or rafts were known to have been invented, even if sea levels then were 110 meters (361 ft) lower than today because of the Ice Age.
People first came to Australia some 65,000 years ago, but who were they, and how did they cross the so-called Wallace's Line separating Asia from Australia, which at the time involved eight separate sea crossings?

The distance between the Denisova cave and Australia as the crow flies is some 8,500 kilometers. Picture: The Siberian Times

'That's a very interesting and controversial question,' said Prof Roberts, a regular visitor to Russia, whose pioneering dating methods are being used to fix the Denisovans in time.
'We assume they were modern humans, that is members of our species, Homo sapiens, because we have no evidence to the contrary.
'We don't have any fossil remains of the humans, we have only the stone tools left behind, pigments, ochres, all the other attributes that are very typical of what modern humans use whenever they arrive somewhere,' he told the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

People first came to Australia some 65,000 years ago, but who were they, and how did they cross the so-called Wallace's Line separating Asia from Australia, which at the time involved eight separate sea crossings? Picture: Maximilian Doerrbecker

'And it came with the whole kit and caboodle. All these sites come with the sorts of things we imagine modern humans are using to make all the symbolic things we associate with ourselves.’
'But the reality is we don't actually know who were the first people into Australia by species.'
He cannot rule out Denisovans, he said, because of the presence of their DNA in Aboriginal people.
'We know that Aboriginal people in Australia contain both Neanderthal DNA, as do you and I, we have Neanderthal DNA, but neither you nor I have Denisovan DNA, which is another group of people actually the home base, as it were, up in Siberia, Denisova Cave in southern Siberia in Russia.’



Handiwork made of bones and teeth, find in 11th layer of Denisova cave. Pictures: Anatoly Derevyanko, The Siberian Times

'But it's miraculously in Aboriginal people at the present day in much greater quantities than any other people around the world. How did it get into Aboriginal people? That's still very much a moot point and we're not sure. Did Denisovan people themselves make it across Wallace's Line, a big biogeographic boundary separating Asia from Australasia? We don't know. These are very much still questions that we want to get a handle on, so who were the first people into Australia? We still think it's modern humans but perhaps it might have been Denisovans. It's a question mark still hanging there.'


World oldest needle found in Denisova cave. Picture: Mikhail Shunkov, Vesti

Scientists Professor Alan Cooper, of the University of Adelaide in Australia, and Professor Chris Stringer, of the Natural History Museum in the UK, have already suggested in a Science opinion article that this is precisely what happened.
'In mainland Asia, neither ancient human specimens, nor geographically isolated modern Indigenous populations have Denisovan DNA of any note, indicating that there has never been a genetic signal of Denisovan interbreeding in the area,' said Professor Cooper, Director of the University of Adelaide's Australian Centre for Ancient DNA.
'The only place where such a genetic signal exists appears to be in areas east of Wallace's Line and that is where we think interbreeding took place - even though it means that the Denisovans must have somehow made that marine crossing.'



Denisovan necklaces and pendants. Pictures: Mikhail Shunkov, The Siberian Times

Prof Stringer said: 'The recent discovery of another enigmatic ancient human species Homo floresiensis, the so-called Hobbits, in Flores, Indonesia, confirms that the diversity of archaic human relatives in this area was much higher than we'd thought...
'The morphology of the Hobbits shows they are different from the Denisovans, meaning we now have at least two, and potentially more, unexpected groups in the area.
'The conclusions we've drawn are very important for our knowledge of early human evolution and culture. Knowing that the Denisovans spread beyond this significant sea barrier opens up all sorts of questions about the behaviors and capabilities of this group, and how far they could have spread.'
For him 'the key questions now are where and when the ancestors of current humans, who were on their way to colonize New Guinea and Australia around 50,000 years ago, met and interacted with the Denisovans.

Marble ring found in the cave. Picture: Scientific Russia

'Intriguingly, the genetic data suggest that male Denisovans interbred with modern human females, indicating the potential nature of the interactions as small numbers of modern humans first crossed Wallace's Line and entered Denisovan territory.'
The Denisovans also influenced modern Tibetans, according to Rasmus Nielsen, a faculty member of the Center for Theoretical Evolutionary Genomics, at Berkeley, University of California.
He investigated how Tibetans can withstand the effects of hypoxia in low-oxygen environments. Seven years ago, his team published a paper indicating the EPAS1 gene was the cause of this this beneficial mutation.
The gene regulates the body's reaction to low oxygen environments, allowing Tibetans to produce fewer red blood cells and less hemoglobin, it was reported.
Yet it did not originate from Neanderthals but there was an exact match with Denisovans.
Back in Denisova cave, some 150 km (93 mi) south of the city of Barnaul, finds like the bracelet, a ring, and beads as well as the world's oldest needle, were all made in layers of this underground complex identified as being occupied by Denisovans, after tiny fragments of these archaic humans were found and analysed.

A stunning green-hued chlorite bracelet, found in 2008 in a layer that contained remains of Denisovans. Pictures: Anastasia Abdulmanova, Konstantin Tynayev

Initially this jewellery and other artifacts was dated as being between 40,000 and 50,000 years old, with the latter currently the officially accepted figure.
Now, however, as previously disclosed by The Siberian Times, scientists from Russia, the UK and Australia are reexamining the dates of these objects amid suspicions that they are as old as 65,000 to 70,000 years.


At 50,000 years the know-how involved in these items - the bracelet has a hole made by drilling and rasping devices - are already breathtaking. Any older, and it challenges our entire understanding of the technological development of man.
Russian scientists say the bracelet was found in 2008 in a layer that contained remains of Denisovans (homo altaiensis) rather than Homo sapiens or Neanderthals, although all these groupings shared the cave at various times, and interbred.
'The bracelet is stunning - in bright sunlight it reflects the sun rays, at night by the fire it casts a deep shade of green,' said Professor Anatoly Derevyanko, former director of the Institute of Archeology and Ethnography, in Novosibirsk.


Denisova cave, some 150 km (93 mi) south of the city of Barnaul, is the only source of Denisovan's remains. Pictures: The Siberian Times

'It is unlikely it was used as an everyday jewelry piece. I believe this beautiful and very fragile bracelet was worn only for some exceptional moments," he said.
The manufacturing technology used in the bracelet is seen as being more typical of a later period, for example the Neolithic era, which began around 12,000 years ago.
His successor Professor Mikhail Shunkov has suggested that the long-extinct Denisovans were significantly more advanced than Homo sapiens and Neanderthals.
Did this technological superiority also help them reach Australia before anyone else?
Top image: Denisova cave, some 150 km (93 mi) south of the city of Barnaul, is the only source of Denisovan's remains. Pictures: The Siberian Times
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
30# 癯鹤
没法在一帖发两篇,另一篇相关新闻,饰物是否跟萨满通灵宗教有关,不然为什么远古之人为之耗费大量精力,并成为后人惯用装饰品(然而已经失去灵性)。羊大为美,上帝喜欢羔羊!
最新研究认为尼安德特人13万年前或已抵达 最新研究认为尼安德特人13万年前或已抵达美洲视频:...

不知道蒙戈湖人的基因和骨骼性状是否也有尼安德特人特征!?看来在现代人类之前,尼安德特人(或同其远亲丹尼索瓦人)已经开拓殖民五大洲了!他们的灭绝到底是现代人类“出非洲”后制造的李辉式人祸还是天灾造成的呢?如果是天灾,到底什么样的天灾让他们全部灭绝了呢?...
癯鹤 发表于 2017-5-14 13:56
想了想,还有可能是丹尼索瓦人呢!这个人种特神秘,和尼安德特人一样可能与现代智人的智力快速进步很有关系。或许他们就是最早的塞人岛夷之北源(南源为出非洲智人)。是美洲、澳洲的最初开拓者。丹尼索瓦人得名于丹尼索瓦洞,丹尼索瓦洞得名于隐士丹尼斯,丹尼斯这名字得自岛夷“疍民”(“尼安德特”——鸟头,得名于“鸟夷”),有道之士呀,也是天人感应,言与神同在。这里竟是三大人种汇聚钟灵毓秀之地——帝之下都——上帝的实验室?然而为何他们没留下Y-DNA呢?丹尼索瓦人留下适应高山高原基因,所以这些山人先人就是“仙”人!得道仙人,不执名相,涅磐升天大解脱(至今藏民犹笃信,虹化而去果然乎?)?抑或是被上帝毁灭的上一代人群?








1 November, 2016 - 20:49ancient-origins
Paleolithic Jewelry: Still Eye-catching After 50,000 Years


By Tamara Zubchuk | The Siberian Times
Beads made from ostrich eggs buried in the Siberian cave around 2,000 generations ago reveal amazing artistic (and drilling) skills of our long-ago ancestors.
The fascinating collection of jewelry made of ostrich eggshells is being assembled by archeologists working in the world famous Denisova cave in Altai region. Ostriches in Siberia? 50,000 years ago?
Yes, it seems so. Or, at least, their eggshells made it here somehow.
In a month that has seen disclosures of the fossil of a tropical parrot in Siberia from at least five million years ago in the Miocene era, this elegant Paleolithic chic shows that our deep history (some 2,000 generations ago, give or take) contains many unexpected surprises.
Pictured here are finds from a collection of beads in the Denisova cave, perfectly drilled, and archeologists say they have now found one more close by, with full details to be revealed soon in a scientific journal. They are in no doubt that the beads are between 45,000 and 50,000 years old in the Upper Paleolithic era, making them older than strikingly similar finds 11,500 kilometers away in South Africa.


Beads found inside Denisova Cave in the Altai mountains. Pictures: Maksim Kozlikin

Maksim Kozlikin, researcher at the Institute of Archeology and Ethnography, Novosibirsk, said of the Siberian ostrich egg beads: 'This is no ordinary find. Our team got quite excited when we found the bead.
'This is an amazing piece of work. The ostrich egg shell is quite robust material, but the holes in the beads must have been made with a fine stone drill.
'For that time, we consider this to be an exquisite jewelry work of a very talented artist.'
The skills and techniques used some 45,000 to 50,000 years ago are remarkable and more akin to the Neolithic era, dozens of millennia later.
He believes the beads may have been sewn into clothing - or formed part of a bracelet or necklace.


The Denisova Cave. Pictures: Vera Salnitskaya

The latest discovery 'is one centimetre in diameter, with a hole inside that is slightly wider than a millimetre,' he said.
Yet he admits: 'As of now, there is much more that we do not know about these beads than we do know. For example, we do not know where the beads were made.
'One version is that the egg shells could have been exported from Trans-Baikal or Mongolia with the beads manufactured here.
'Another possibility is that the beads were purchased elsewhere and delivered to the Altai Mountains perhaps in an exchange.
'Whichever way we look at it, it shows that the people populating the Denisova Cave at the time were advanced in technologies and had very well-established contacts with the outside world.'


Denisova Cave marked on the world map. Picture: The Siberian Times

Today ostriches are an exotic import into a couple of areas in Siberia, but were they endemic 50,000 years ago, or were they brought from afar?
Kozlikin acknowledged there are far more questions than answers.
'We don't know if they (prehistoric people) decorated elements of men, or women, or children or their clothing with these beads,' he said. 'We do not know where the beads were sewn on the clothing, if they were. Did they only decorate wealthy members of society? Were they a sign of a special religious status, or did they signify that the person had more authority than the others?
'How did the beads, or the material for them get to Siberia? How much did they cost?
'What we do know for sure is that the beads were found in the Denisova Cave's 'lucky' eleventh layer, the same one where we found the world's oldest bracelet made from rare dark green stone. All finds from that layer have been dated as being 45,000 to 50,000 years old.
'We had three other beads found in 2005, 2006 and 2008. All the beads were discovered lying within six metres in the excavation in the eastern gallery of the cave.
'We cannot say if they all belonged to one person, but visually these beads look identical.'


Ostich eggshell beads from Border Cave in South Africa, dated 44,856-41,010. Picture: Lucinda Backwell

Yet they also appear similar to ostrich egg beads found in an area called Border Cave in South Africa that have been dated up to 44,000 years old. The site is in the foothills of the Lebombo Mountains in KwaZulu-Natal.
Dr. Lucinda Backwell, senior researcher in the palaeo-anthropology department at Wits University, has previously highlighted how this African proto-civilisation 'adorned themselves with ostrich egg and marine shell beads'.
The Siberian beads is the latest discovery from the Denisova Cave which is possibly the finest natural repository of sequential early human history so far discovered anywhere on the planet.
The cave was occupied by Homo sapiens along with now extinct early humans - Neanderthals and Denisovans - for at least 288,000 years, and excavations have been underway here for three decades, with the prospect of many exciting finds to come in future.


Archeologists working inside the eastern gallery of the Denisova Cave. Pictures: The Siberian Times

In August, we revealed the discovery of the world's oldest needle in the cave - still useable after 50,000 years.
Crafted from the bone of an ancient bird, it was made not by Homo sapiens or even Neanderthals, but by Denisovans.
Professor Mikhail Shunkov, head of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography in Novosibirsk, said: 'It is the most unique find of this season, which can even be called sensational. It is a needle made of bone.
'As of today it is the most ancient needle in the word. It is about 50,000 years old.'


Denisova Cave, pictures by Vera Salnitskaya

1

评分次数

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2017-12-17 23:50 编辑
7# 癯鹤
昆仑,轮辐横竖放置,指向六合八方,通天地发散能量,不知道是不是神的旨意,估计由阿尔泰山曾数次发起全数迁移运动。比如蒙戈湖人可能是最早派遣出去向东南进发的,他们路上携手其他现代人走到了澳大利亚,克罗马农人的部分祖先(不排出更多是从中东北上、西去)是最早派遣向西进发的,闪含人种的部分祖先向西南,融入中东现代人,并有进入非洲融入黑人的,随后东亚人向东向南,印第安人向东向东再向东到了美洲,印欧人种向西向西再向西,印伊雅利安人向南。所以估计汉藏语系、印欧语系、乌戈尔语系、阿尔泰语系、南岛语系、美洲各语系甚至闪含语系等等,都是源自这一带的扩散。阿尔泰的塞人和传说中的亚特兰蒂斯的岛夷,是人类文明的源头。

上面没提向北进发,这壁厢找到一个不晚于克罗马农人,向北进发的例子(如果附近有人类遗骸发现就好了,北极冻土,遗骨的基因应该保存得更好,测一下到底是乌斯季辛人还是克罗马农人还是原始印第安人的同族):

人类早在4.5万年前就在北极用鱼叉攻击长毛象 ...
癯鹤 发表于 2016-12-30 11:00
发轮常转,辐轮扩散!严寒的北极,竟然并非原始人的畏途!向北进发的例子还真不少呢,而且能在北极立足的,也是当时技术能力最好的族群。只是不知道是什么Y染色体单被群的,按理,由于留下后代的男性总是少数,越是远古,现代生活的人的直系远祖在当时人群中所占比例越小(虽然现代人的远祖若论血缘关系随代数做2的指数来增长,实际远祖数是远远小于理论值,也就是大部分都是疏远的“近亲”不断内部纯化而已,留下后代的远古人又少,相当于噪音淹没效应,也就越发难以寻找真正的直系远祖了),难说是不是现代人的重要始祖,若现代的数千万数亿人的基因类型当时只是一两个人,在哪个角落真不好说,所以真该重视之,因为他们是技术最先进的族群,说不定有我们中国人的始祖也未可知哩!

Is this proof early man weaponised ivory from woolly mammoth tusks to kill....woolly mammoths?
By The Siberian Times reporter
11 October 2017
Deadly paleolithic spears - pictured here and manufactured from the ivory from extinct beasts - show the lethal genius of ancient craftsmen up to 28,500 years ago.

Three deadly spears. Picture: Michil Yakovlev

These deadly spear tips were all found in inhospitable Arctic areas of Yakutia, two made by Stone Age man from the tusks of woolly mammoths, the other hewn from the horn of a long-gone hairy Siberian rhinoceros.
Of the three, special interest currently surrounds the front end of a lance or javelin dating back 10,000 to 12,000 years, says Dr Semyon Grigoryev, Director of the Lazarev Mammoth Museum at Northeastern Federal University.
This weapon was found in the tundra close to the Syalakh River 'inside the ribs' of 'adult mammoth bones', he revealed.



This weapon dated as 28,500 seems to have been a collapsible weapon for Arctic dwellers of the time. Pictures: Michil Yakovlev

It was dug last year from 'a known permafrost layer, which suggests it originates from the Upper Paleolithic time period'.
In other words, the mammoth tusk spear appears to have been used in an ambush attack by ancient man on a woolly mammoth at the time the creatures were veering towards obliteration.
The beast probably lumbered on but eventually expired with the spear still piercing its rib cage to be found by modern-day tusk hunters.


This weapon dated between 12,000 and 10,000 was found in the tundra close to the Syalakh River 'inside the ribs' of 'adult mammoth bones'. Pictures: Michil Yakovlev

'These weapons could have been used in a mammoth hunt,' acknowledges Dr Grigoryev.
'For now, we can only speculate that this mammoth was injured by the spear.
'Then it managed to escape, with the broken spear inside, and died somewhere.'
He made clear: 'We are now undertaking radiocarbon dating for the spear tip and for the bones of mammoth.
'If the dates are close, we can propose they are indeed related.'


The spear tip, almost 90cm in length and seemingly still sharp enough to kill. Picture: The Siberian Times

The length of the slim prehistoric spear tip is 36.5 centimetres, but it was originally longer.
At the point where it had snapped - possibly soon after striking the mammoth - it was 1.03 cm thick.
The surface of the spear had been 'entirely polished' by its human owner and had an 'excellent finish', without ornaments.
The weapon would have been fitted with microliths - tiny deadly sharp stones such as flint or quartz 'sharpened to kill'.
'What seems amazing for me is the skill of ancient master, who made this spear,' he said.

'The grooves for the microliths are so nicely crafted, as if with some mechanic tool. Picture: Michil Yakovlev

'The grooves for the microliths are so nicely crafted, as if with some mechanic tool.
'Archaeologists say it was some stone implement.'
The next 'spear or javelin' is more than twice as old, also made of mammoth ivory, possibly made 28,500 years ago and found at the famous Yana site.
This seems to have been a collapsible weapon for Arctic dwellers of the time.


Yana site destroyed by mammoth tusk hunters and climate change. Picture: Andrey Shubenki

It is a 'fragmented rod with a sharp pointed tip made of mammoth ivory', wrote Dr Grigoryev in an academic paper on the spears, all now held by the mammoth museum at the Institute of Applied Ecology of the North at the North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk.
It comprises 'three large parts with an overall length of 73 cm.
'The length of the largest fragment... is 39.9 cm.
'The second and third fragments are 16.6 cm and 20.1 cm respectively.'

A weapon with the tip with microliths. Picture: Antropogenez.ru

These three parts of the weapon 'match but cannot be joined with the first fragment due to a missing piece'.
The cross-section of the tip is round with a maximum diameter of 2.2 cm.
'The sharp pointed tip is made of the outer layers of the tusk, as evidenced by the polished outer surface of the tusk exhibiting a yellow colour, preserved on the tip.'


Reconstruction of Sungir man with mammoth tusk spear made by Roman Yevseev for Antropogenez.ru. A mammoth tusk spear with microliths found in Kostenki, via drive2.ru

Dating to around 13,300 years ago, the final - and 'unprecedented' - spear shown here was made from woolly rhino horn and discovered in 2013 in the northern part of the Great Lyakhov Island, the largest of the New Siberian group, between the Laptev and East Siberian seas.
Our story on its discovery is here: 13,300 year old spear made of woolly rhinoceros horn found on Arctic island.
'The artifact was made from the horn of a woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) and represents a 83.2 cm long rod-shaped spear tip,' said Dr Grigoryev.
It is also 'the world's northernmost discovery of a Paleolithic tool'.

Semyon Grigoryev, Director of the Lazarev Mammoth Museum at Northeastern Federal University. Picture: The Siberian Times

Indeed, it proved paleolithic man hunted hundreds of kilometres further north than previously understood.
'The cone shaped spearhead's lenticular-section is at about 2 cm in diameter and is partially longitudinally fragmented.
'The tip width gradually expands in the middle the blade and decreases towards the neck, which is a narrowed flat petiole.
'Such a massive spear head, manufactured from the horn of a woolly rhinoceros, is unprecedented.'
The three weapons were introduced recently to a scientific audience in Taiwan.

————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————

上面提到的“Yana RHS”,我查到这样一篇文献,里面有图有真相,很像是从丹尼索瓦洞穴往北发散的人群,他们的技艺真是惊人,不愧是天之骄子。不过基因主要只在澳洲和亚洲部分地区留存?有没可能现代人类智力的突飞猛进跟他们脱不开干系?北达北冰洋,南到澳大利亚,东面说不定曾进入美洲,西面也跟欧洲很有交流:

The oldest art of the Eurasian Arctic: personal ornaments and symbolic objects from Yana RHS, Arctic Siberia

1

评分次数

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-1-26 22:36 编辑

重磅古人类化石新发现!以色列发现17.5——20万年前“现代智人”化石!咱也是一直对这地儿有好感,言与神同在嘛!上帝选的地儿,错不了。三大洲文明起源的中心!
话又说回来,大家想想这个问题,二百万年前出非洲的直立人、百万年前出非洲的海德堡人、三四十万年前出非洲的早期智人、二十万年前出非洲的晚期智人、十万年前出非洲的现代智人,都被8——6万年前出非洲的现代人种消灭取代了!?!?
咦,匪夷所思!虽然可能性确实可能有,比如出非洲人群那话儿长,一个特长就够了!
但是,亚欧人群那么笨?非洲智人那么强?欧洲近代反过来吊打老祖先的兄弟,这是不是有点太那个了?为那话儿变短不服气?要出气?假如依然竞于那话儿,估计还得重演人类“出非洲记”!上帝就是钟爱阿非利加呀!
其实我还是赞同吴老前辈的多地区起源说,人类很可能是东方古猿西进在地中海一带跟非洲型(包括欧洲)古猿“杂交”的产物。
重大新闻,欧洲970万年前就有接近400万年前非洲古人的牙齿出现,几乎是人科的出现时间,早于黑猩猩和人类的分化时间,,接近大猩猩和人类的分化时间,那么当然得是更早的“猩猩”(古猿)进化出的这种原始猿人,对俺的一个假设——“就是亚洲古猿(亚当)、非洲古猿(夏娃)可能就是在地中海区域邂逅,然后全新的人科就诞生了”,是很有意义的!哦,欧洲本来也有古猿呀!这个问题就很有意思了,人类或许就是五洲古猿结合而形成的,最早是北美洲的古猴,然后迁徙到亚洲,然后到非洲、欧洲,然后欧、非古猿分别演化,其中有一支变成了黑猩猩,大猩猩的祖先,有一支进化成了人类祖先,其中人类祖先可能是欧洲(亚洲)古猿、非洲古猿互相结合然后进化而成的,然后人类最关键的进化步骤经历了澳洲大陆的参与(或许是躲避拓跋火山的原始人类暂避澳洲,这是除了少数非洲人群之外的现代人类最主要祖先),五洲合一,是为伍豪,灵长类豪杰就如石猴出世了!

Do these 9.7 million-year-old teeth suggest EUROPE is the cradle of humanity? Controversial discovery could 'rewrite the history of mankind' ...
癯鹤 发表于 2017-10-21 11:23
甚至现代人类也很可能是这么来的。是更晚近的亚洲早期智人跟欧非智人在地中海东部交换基因的结果!

The Israeli fossil that could rewrite the history of mankind: Oldest known human remains found outside of Africa suggest modern humans left the continent 100,000 years earlier than thought

  • The fossil was found in one of several prehistoric cave sites in Israel
  • Dating techniques of the jawbone say it is 175,000 - 200,000 years old
  • This pushes back modern human migration out of Africa by 100,000 years
By Phoebe Weston For Mailonline
Published: 19:02 GMT, 25 January 2018 | Updated: 20:38 GMT, 25 January 2018

1.5k shares
227
View
comments


The oldest known human fossil found outside of Africa suggests modern humans left the continent around 100,000 years earlier than previously thought.
The fossil, an upper jawbone with several teeth, was found in one of several prehistoric cave sites in Israel.
Dating techniques of the jawbone suggest it is between 175,000 and 200,000 years old, pushing back the modern human migration out of Africa by 100,000 years.
Scroll down for video

+6



The oldest known human fossil (pictured) found outside of Africa suggests modern humans left the continent 100,000 years earlier than previously thought

Before the latest discovery, the earliest modern human fossils found outside of Africa were those estimated to be between 90,000 to 120,000 years old.
And scientists say it suggests that early man interbred with Neanderthals and other hominin groups for longer than thought




The find was made at a site called Misliya Cave on Mount Carmel, a coastal mountain range in northern Israel.
Anthropology associate professor Rolf Quam from Binghamton University, State University of New York, said: 'Misliya is an exciting discovery.
'It provides the clearest evidence yet that our ancestors first migrated out of Africa much earlier than we previously believed.

+6



Before the latest discovery, the earliest modern human fossils found outside of Africa were those estimated to be between 90,000 to 120,000 years old. And scientists say it suggests that early man either displaced or interbred with Neandertals and other hominin groups


+6


The fossil, an upper jawbone with several teeth, was found in one of several prehistoric cave sites in Israel (pictured)

WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT HUMANKIND'S JOURNEY OUT OF AFRICA?The traditional view
The traditional 'Out of Africa' model suggests that modern humans evolved in Africa and then left in a single wave around 60,000 years ago.
The model often holds once modern humans left the continent, a brief period of interbreeding with Neanderthals occurred.
This explains why individuals of European and Asian heritage today still have ancient human DNA.
There are many theories as to what drove the downfall of the Neanderthals.
Experts have suggested that early humans may have carried tropical diseases with them from Africa that wiped out their ape-like cousins.
Others claim that plummeting temperatures due to climate change wiped out the Neanderthals.
The predominant theory is that early humans killed off the Neanderthal through competition for food and habitat.
How the story is changing in light of new research
Recent findings suggest that the 'Out of Africa' theory does not tell the full story of our ancestors.
Instead, multiple, smaller movements of humans out of Africa beginning 120,000 years ago were then followed by a major migration 60,000 years ago.
Most of our DNA is made up of this latter group, but the earlier migrations, also known as 'dispersals', are still evident.
This explains recent studies of early human remains which have been found in the far reaches of Asia dating back further than 60,000 years.
For example, H. sapiens remains have been found at multiple sites in southern and central China that have been dated to between 70,000 and 120,000 years ago.
Other recent finds show that modern humans reached Southeast Asia and Australia prior to 60,000 years ago.
Based on these studies, humans could not have come in a single wave from Africa around this time, studies have found.
Instead, the origin of man suggests that modern humans developed in multiple regions around the world.
The theory claims that groups of a pre-human ancestors made their way out of Africa and spread across parts of Europe and the Middle East.
From here the species developed into modern humans in several places at once.
The argument is by a new analysis of a 260,000-year-old skull found in Dali County in China's Shaanxi Province.
The skull suggests that early humans migrated to Asia, where they evolved modern human traits and then moved back to Africa.

[url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url]

'It also means that modern humans were potentially meeting and interacting during a longer period of time with other archaic human groups, providing more opportunity for cultural and biological exchanges.'
Researchers analysed the fossil remains relying on microCT scans and 3D virtual models and compared it with other hominin fossils from Africa, Europe and Asia.
Prof Quam added: 'While all of the anatomical details in the Misliya fossil are fully consistent with modern humans, some features are also found in Neandertals and other human groups.
'One of the challenges in this study was identifying features in Misliya that are found only in modern humans.
'These are the features that provide the clearest signal of what species the Misliya fossil represents.'

+6


The fossil dubbed Misliya-1, exhibits teeth that are in the upper size range of what's seen in modern humans, but that otherwise shows clear patterns and features of our species (computer generated image)


+6


As well, the foramen and aspects of the skull support the classification of the specimen as human. Yet Misliya-1 lacks certain unique features of Neandertals and earlier hominin species, such as a low and broad tooth crown

The archaeological evidence revealed the inhabitants of Misliya Cave were capable hunters of large game species, controlled the production of fire and were associated with an Early Middle Paleolithic stone tool kit, similar to that found with the earliest modern humans in Africa.
The fossil dubbed Misliya-1, exhibits teeth that are in the upper size range of what's seen in modern humans, but that otherwise shows clear patterns and features of our species.
As well, the foramen and aspects of the skull support the classification of the specimen as human.
Yet Misliya-1 lacks certain unique features of Neanderthals and earlier hominin species, such as a low and broad tooth crown.
Stone tools excavated near Misliya-1 are shaped in a sophisticated way, called the Levallois technique.
Tools shaped this way have been discovered in a cave close by, but the material at Misliya represents the earliest known association of the Levallois technique with modern human fossils in the region.
While older fossils of modern humans have been found in Africa how and when they left the continent are key issues for understanding the evolution of our own species.

+6


The find was made at a site called Misliya Cave on Mount Carmel, a coastal mountain range in northern Israel

The region of the Middle East represents a major corridor for hominin migrations during the Pleistocene and has been occupied at different times by both modern humans and Neandertals.
Professor Quam said the new discovery opens the door to demographic replacement or genetic admixture with local populations earlier than previously thought
Evidence from Misliya is consistent with recent suggestions based on ancient DNA for an earlier migration, prior to 220,000 years ago, of modern humans out of Africa.
Several recent archaeological and fossil discoveries in Asia are also pushing back the first appearance of modern humans in the region and, by implication, the migration out of Africa.
The study was published in Science Magazine.



Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5312979/The-fossil-rewrite-history-mankind.html#ixzz55IblLCvr
Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
33# 癯鹤
回头看看这俩新闻,我所谓的进化的要津重地,帝之下都,亚当夏娃的伊甸园,果然是地灵人杰,钟灵毓秀:

阿尔泰卡拉马旧石器时代村落遗址考古发现:80万年前俄罗斯西伯利亚就有人类出现


来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年1月24日 11:56






阿尔泰卡拉马旧石器时代村落遗址考古发现:80万年前俄罗斯西伯利亚就有人类出现


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)俄罗斯科学院西伯利亚分院考古学和人种学研究所所长米哈伊尔·舒恩科夫星表示,阿尔泰卡拉马旧石器时代原始人村落的遗址的新的考古发现,证明了原始人大约80万年前出现在如今的西伯利亚欧亚大陆中心的假设。


他解释说,目前,阿尔泰是地区是研究人类最初在欧亚大陆定居的关键地区。 考古学家们对一系列层次不同的原始人村落的遗址进行了研究,通过这些遗址可以跟踪它们几千年来的发展。 今年,科学家们在卡拉马旧石器时代的三个洞穴进行了考古研究,所有的出土文物都是在阿努伊河河谷发现的。


舒恩科夫透露,今年收集到了新的石头文物,这是人类历史上最古老的鹅卵石工具,看上去与著名的非洲出土文物最接近。


“这些数据再次让我们证实了这样一个假设,即人类在欧亚大陆,包括在西伯利亚定居是来自非洲的人类祖先的第一次移民浪潮。现在我们能够准确地确定这些出土文物的时间,大约在80万年前,西伯利亚首次有人类出现。”舒恩科夫说。





以色列繁忙公路边发现50万年前直立猿人狩猎聚集点


来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年1月09日 09:40






以色列繁忙公路边发现50万年前直立猿人狩猎聚集点



遗址中有大批手斧



专家希望透过发挖的文物有助了解史前人类的行为


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)以色列古物管理局一批考古学家,早前联同特拉维夫大学的考古部门,在该国其中一条最繁忙公路旁仅5米深的地下,挖出了数百件?燧石手斧,估计最少有50万年历史,相信该处是已灭绝史前人类直立猿人当时的狩猎聚集点。


位于特拉维夫东北部卡法萨巴的遗址深约5米,当中藏有数以百计阿舍利(Acheulian)时代、估计用以屠宰及挖掘的手斧。从发现的文物推算,考古学家相信该处是已灭绝史前人类直立猿人当时用以狩猎及采集的聚集点。专家希望透过发现,追溯史前人类由非洲移居亚洲及欧洲的历史。


古物管理局的谢默(Maayan Shemer)表示,从未想过会在当地有如此重大的发现。特拉维夫大学的巴尔卡伊(Ran Barkai)则希望,今次发现有助了解史前人类的行为,以及重现他们的生活模式。

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-1-27 14:01 编辑

圆滑的大脑,进化而成的历史却不久?然而何以圆滑就聪明了?

The modern human brain may be younger than previously thought: Study reveals it took shape as recently as 40,000 years ago as we learned to build tools and socialize

  • The earliest-known Homo sapiens specimen traces back to 300,000 years ago
  • But the modern human brain's rounded shape may be only 35,000 years old
  • Scientists say our brains evolved from an elongated form to a globular shape to compensate for more complex processes, like tool building and self-awareness
By Annie Palmer For Dailymail.com
Published: 16:28 GMT, 26 January 2018 | Updated: 04:07 GMT, 27 January 2018

52 shares
96
View
comments

The earliest-known specimen of a Homo sapiens dates back to roughly 300,000 years ago.
Though much has changed since then, scientists long believed that our species still retained one common feature - our brains.
It turns out that our brains actually look much different from our ancestors that lived hundreds of thousands of years ago.
Now a team of scientists have discovered, for the first time ever, exactly when our brains began to take on their unique, modern shape.
A team of researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany pinpointed the period when the human brain achieved its current form as being between 100,000 and 35,000 years ago.


New research from a team of scientists in Germany pinpoints the exact period when our brains achieved their modern shape. Pictured, a Neanderthal brain (left) appears more elongated than the present-day Homo sapiens (right) brain, which is 'rounder and less overhanging'

By contrast, Neanderthals and 'other archaic Homo individuals' possessed elongated brains.
Neanderthals are our species' closest relative, going extinct tens of thousands of years ago.
Over time, the frontal area of our brains became taller and the parietal areas began to bulge, while the side walls became parallel.
Present-day skulls have a globe-like shape, with a smaller and more delicate facial structure.
Most importantly, the occipital area -- which is located in the back of the head and processes visual information -- 'becomes rounder and less overhanging,' according to the study.

'The brain is arguably the most important organ for the abilities that make us human,' says Simon Neubauer, a co-author of the study.
'We already knew that brain shape must have evolved within our own species, but we were surprised to discover just how recent these changes to brain organization were.'

Two features predominantly contribute to the brain's globular appearance: The bulging of the brain's parietal area and the cerebellum.

Researchers estimate that roughly 100,000 to 35,000 years ago, our brains evolved from an elongated shape to a globe-like shape. The evolution in brain shape coincided with the introduction of new processes like tool building, self-awareness and long-term memory

These areas serve as an 'important hub' of brain organization, responsible for functions like motor control, balance, memory, language, social cognition and the ability to process things around us.
This suggests that evolutionary changes to our brain were key to the evolution of the human condition, the scientists said.
'The evolution of endocranial shape within Homo sapiens suggests evolutionary changes of early brain development -- a critical period for neural wiring and cognitive development,' said Philipp Gunz, a co-author of the study.
The scientists point out that these evolutionary changes were gradual, taking place over tens of thousands of years.
HOW HAS THE SHAPE OF OUR BRAINS EVOLVED OVER TIME?

New research suggests key evolutionary changes in our brain shape occurred 100,000-35,000 years ago. Stock image

Researchers at Germany's Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology discovered that key evolutionary changes in our brain shape occurred roughly 100,000 to 35,000 years ago
The Homo sapiens brain took on a globe-like shape that's 'rounder and less overhanging'
By contrast, our Neanderthal ancestors' brains had a more elongated shape
The evolution of our brain shape coincided with major developments in behavior, as Homo sapiens began to:
  • Build tools
  • Develop a working and long-term memory
  • Possess self-awareness
  • Use language
  • Plan activities
  • Understand numbers
  • Pay attention to their surroundings
  • Develop emotions
The brain began to look more like a globe as a result of bulging in the parietal area and the cerebellum

[url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url]

Using CT scans, the scientists examined changes in the brain's curvature, surface size and other details to chart gradual changes in its shape.
From that, they determined that our brains reached their present-day variation between 100,000 and 35,000 years ago.
Neubauer told Business Insider that the globular brain shape isn't what caused us to develop those new brain functions.
Instead, Neubauer said the rounder shape is 'related to our modern behavior.'
This latest study follows research from the same team of scientists, published last year, where they discovered that the earliest-known Homo sapiens specimen were 100,000 years older than previously thought.
The oldest fossils date back to 300,000 years ago and were located in Jebel Irhoud, Morocco.
Scans revealed that the bones have similar structure to modern humans.

Read more:
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
33# 癯鹤
真可谓现代智人起源的枢纽证据,足以撼动非洲说,来段中文的介绍:

以色列史前洞穴遗址发现非洲之外最古老现代人类化石——米斯利亚-1




来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年1月27日 15:58












以色列史前洞穴遗址发现非洲之外最古老现代人类化石——米斯利亚-1


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据新华社华盛顿1月25日电(林小春 周舟):一个国际科研小组25日说,他们在以色列一处史前洞穴遗址发现了非洲之外最古老的现代人类化石,将人类首次走出非洲的时间推前了至少5万多年。


发表在新一期美国《科学》杂志上的研究显示,这块化石属于现代人类的上颌骨,上面带着几颗牙齿,它被发现于一个叫作“米斯利亚”的洞穴,是位于以色列迦密山的几个史前洞穴遗址之一。


据3种独立的测年法测定,这块化石的年龄介于距今20万年至17.5万年间,此前在非洲以外发现的最早现代人化石年龄估计介于距今12万年至9万年之间,这块化石将人类首次走出非洲的时间推前了至少约5.5万年。


参与研究的美国宾厄姆顿大学人类学教授罗尔夫·夸姆说,这是一个令人激动的发现,“提供了迄今最清晰的证据,表明我们的祖先离开非洲的时间比我们以前认为的要早得多”。


研究显示,这块被称作“米斯利亚-1”的化石所带的牙齿属于现代人牙齿尺寸最大之列,但这些牙齿清楚显示了现代人类的生存模式和特征。


考古学证据显示,“米斯利亚”洞穴的居民能够猎取大型野生动物,并能使用火以及与非洲最早现代人类相似的石制工具。


中东地区是更新世时期人类迁徙的主要走廊。最新发现意味着当地古人类被现代人替代或基因渗入发生的时间比以前想象的要早。事实上,“米斯利亚-1”所显示的人类走出非洲时间与遗传学研究提示的时间较为接近。


相关报道:以色列洞穴中发现的颚骨化石或可改写现代人祖先离开非洲的历史


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据cnBeta:外媒报道,近日在以色列一个洞穴中发现的颚骨化石可能可以改写现代人祖先离开非洲的历史。这个化石由部分上部成人颚骨和牙齿组成。一个由研究人员组成的国际小组预计化石可追溯到17.5万至20万年前。


宾厄姆顿大学研究人员表示:“这一发现表明,现代人比以前想象的更早离开非洲大陆,可能至少提前5万年。研究人员周四在《科学》杂志上发表了他们的发现。


在2017年年中,科学家们宣布在摩洛哥的一个山洞里发现了最古老的已知智人化石,将它们追溯到约30万年前。以前,非洲之外发现的最古老的现代人类化石约追溯到9万年至12万年前。颚骨化石的发现大大改写了历史。


研究人员在文章的摘要中说: “这一发现改变了我们对现代人类分布的看法,并且与最近的基因研究一致,这些研究已经提出了在22万年前更早分布智人的可能性 。”


宾厄姆顿大学人类学教授Rolf Quam指出:“这也意味着现代人类可能会在更长的时间内与其他古老的人类群体进行交流和互动,从而为文化和生物交换提供更多的机会。”


考古学家2002年在以色列卡梅尔山西坡的Misliya洞穴发现了颚骨化石。认定化石来自现代人祖先还是尼安德特人需要仔细检查发现。研究人员扫描颚骨,创建3D虚拟模型,与其他人种和尼安德特人的化石进行比较。


根据《科学》杂志的报道,三个研究小组“使用铀同位素衰变和其他几种方法”独立追溯化石历史,“这些方法可以确定矿物质颗粒最后暴露在光下的时长”。在同一层沉积物中发现的火石工具有助于确定下颚骨的年龄。


德国莱比锡马克斯·普朗克进化人类学研究所的古人类学家Jean-Jacques Hublin告诉纽约时报,颚骨的主人可能与今天的人类没有任何遗传关系。它可能属于一群不知名的智人,他们离开非洲后就相继死亡。


相关报道:以色列发现距今20万年化石 改变现代人类演化概念


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据中新网:外媒报道,一个国际科研小组在以色列一个史前洞穴遗址,发现非洲以外最古老的现代人类化石,将人类首次走出非洲的时间推前至少5.5万年,或彻底改变现代人类的演化概念。


据悉,研究发表于新一期《科学》期刊。研究人员发现的化石属于现代人类的上颌骨,上面带着几颗牙齿,它被发现于一个名叫“米斯利亚”的洞穴,是位于以色列迦密山的几个史前洞穴遗址之一,因此命名为“米斯利亚-1”。


据3种独立的测年法测定,“米斯利亚-1”的年龄介乎距今20万年至17.5万年间,由于此前在非洲以外发现的最早现代人化石,年龄估计介乎距今12万年至9万年之间,意味这块化石将人类首次走出非洲的时间,大幅推前至少约5.5万年。


研究人员指出,此次发现显示现代人类在更早时间,已经与其他地区的人类接触,代表双方有更多机会进行文化和生理交流,影响现代人类演化过程。


事实上,遗传学研究早已估计人类应该在距今22万年前左右走出非洲,这与“米斯利亚-1”的时间也较接近。


相关报道:以色列发现古老人类颚骨化石 人类走出非洲时间或再次推前!


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据中国日报网1月26日电(涂恬):《科学》杂志网站1月25日刊登的一篇文章称,一块从以色列迦密山一个塌方的洞穴中发现的古老人类颚骨化石,或将改写已知的人类起源史,把人类走出非洲的时间再次提前。


文章称,这块颚骨的主人可能是第一批离开非洲的现代人中的一员。在这个地中海边的巨大洞穴里,还留下了古老人类烤野兔、海龟、鸵鸟蛋为食的残迹,同时还留有用作打火石的碎石工具。


如果研究人员的估算最终被证明无误,那么这块颚骨以及工具的历史可以追溯到17.7万-19.4万年前。这就证明,现代人离开非洲大陆的时间要比预计的还要更早。这项发现还具备其他寓意,或许会改变我们对人类崛起的方式和时间,以及到底有几批早期人类离开非洲等问题的认知。


文章称,此前,在非洲大陆以外发现的最早的现代人化石,来自以色列迦密山的斯虎尔山洞以及卡夫扎山洞,这两处山洞遗迹的历史大约在8-12万年之间。而去年在摩洛哥发现的一块人类头骨则可以证明,人类30万年前就已经在非洲大陆上兴起。因此一些科研人员一直宣称,出现在中东地区、阿拉伯半岛以及中国的化石碎片和工具可以证明,我们的祖先中有一大批人很早以前就已离开非洲。不过,在非洲大陆之外,人们很少能找到遗址年份清晰、人类骨骼化石获得公认的案例。


据了解,25日在《科学》杂志上刊登的人类上颚骨化石,是在2002年被一群在米斯利亚洞穴中进行挖掘的学生发现的。这个塌方后残存的洞穴位于迦密山西侧悬崖壁内,距离海法市约12公里。


文章称,这块上颚骨左侧的一排牙齿保存得非常完整,研究人员一看就可以得知,颚骨的主人是我们的同类——智人。此外,犬齿和其他的牙齿形状也都与斯虎尔山洞以及卡夫扎山洞中发现的现代人极其相似。


相关报道:这块新化石可能解释了,为什么中国12万年前就发现现代人类


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据观察者网:近日,一支国际研究团队公布了他们在以色列洞穴中的发现,将现代人类走出非洲的时间往前推到大约20万年前,这一研究也有助于解释为何在12万年前在中国道县发现现代人类化石。


据美国有线电视新闻网(CNN)1月26日报道,以色列特拉维夫大学教授赫希科维茨(Israel Hershkovitz)和纽约州立大学宾汉姆顿分校教授罗孚?奎姆(Rolf Quam)等人25日将相关研究成果发布在美国《科学》杂志上。他们在以色列的卡梅尔山(Mount Carmel)的米斯利亚(Misliya)洞穴发现了一块颌骨和几颗牙齿的脸部遗骸化石,这些化石的年代大约在17.4万年至18.8万年。


研究人员认为,化石被发现的位置再次支持了现代人类从非洲迁徙到尼罗河河谷和地中海东部海岸的假设。这也有助于解释在中国发现了12万年前的现代人化石。


赫什科维茨教授在给CNN的电子邮件中写道,“丰富的考古证据显示,米斯利亚洞穴的居民是捕猎大型动物的猎人,他们的猎物包括野牛(已灭绝的大型奶牛)、波斯小鹿和羚羊,他们已经懂得用火、制作旧石器时代的石器、并广泛利用植物,他们有先进的石器制作技术,这类似于在非洲发现的最早的现代人类。”


赫什科维茨教授表示,“这是目前为止最清楚的证据,证明我们有很长的生物学历史,我们的祖先最早迁移出非洲的时间,比我们之前相信的还要早许多。我们早在25万年前就离开了非洲。斯虎尔人(Skhul)和卡夫扎人(Qafzeh)并不是先前认为的非洲以外最早的现代人类。事实上,他们根本不是移民,而是米斯利亚(Misliya)洞穴人的后裔。”


赫什科维茨教授还说,“我们必须重写整个人类演化的故事,不仅仅是为了我们物种,而且也是为了当时在非洲以外生活的其他物种。”


罗孚?奎姆教授表示,“米斯利亚化石真是令人兴奋的发现。这是目前为止最清楚的证据,证明我们的祖先最早迁移出非洲的时间,比我们之前相信的还要早许多。”


2015年10月,中国多位科学家曾在中国湖南省道县发现47枚具有完全现代人特征的人类牙齿化石,表明8万至12万年前,现代人在该地区已经出现,是当时已知最早的具有完全现代形态的人类。这一发现也质疑了古人类学界此前关于智人在大约6万年前大规模离开非洲的观点。


此前在湖南道县发现的8-12万年前的人类牙齿化石,中国科学院多位研究员当时在《自然》杂志发表论文,宣布在湖南省道县发现47枚具有完全现代人特征的人类牙齿化石,表明8万至12万年前,现代人在该地区已经出现,是当时已知最早的具有完全现代形态的人类。


现代人在东亚地区的起源与演化一直是古人类学研究与争议的热点,学术界对于具有完全现代形态的人类在东亚地区的出现时间尚不清楚。2010年以来,中科院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所刘武研究员、吴秀杰研究员,中科院地球环境研究所蔡演军研究员等合作,在道县境内的福岩洞进行连续发掘,先后发现47枚人类牙齿化石以及大量动物化石。


当时的研究显示,道县人类牙齿尺寸较小,明显小于欧洲、非洲和亚洲更新世中、晚期人类,位于现代人变异范围。道县人牙齿齿冠和齿根呈现典型现代智人特征,如简单的咬合面和齿冠侧面形态、短而纤细的齿根等。铀系测年结果表明,这些人类化石的埋藏年代在8万至12万年前。据此可以确定,具有完全现代形态的人类至少8万年前在华南局部地区已经出现。


中国科学家的研究公布后,德国和美国等国机构基于基因分析和化石研究,对智人从6万年前才走出非洲的说法提出质疑,认为智人离开非洲的时间更早,而且与欧亚大陆的其他人族发生交集。


德国马克斯·普朗克人类历史学研究所和美国夏威夷大学在DNA技术、化石研究和跨学科合作的基础上展开研究,最终认为上述传统理论站不住脚,并于2017年12月在《科学》杂志上发表了相关研究结果。


研究指出,智人大规模离开非洲大约发生在6万年前。虽然现在的非洲以外人口的遗传结构主要来源于这次大迁徙,但这并不意味着此前从未有过人口迁徙。


与此同时,最新的遗传学研究指出,现代人类与早已在亚洲生活的其他人族发生过交集,而不是只和尼安德特人杂交。智人还与丹尼索瓦人和其他尚未确定身份的人族发生过杂交。


研究显示,目前所有非洲之外人口都有1%至4%尼安德特人的基因。还有研究显示,现代的美拉尼西亚人拥有5%丹尼索瓦人的基因。


上述所有研究表明,生活在亚洲的现代人类、尼安德特人、丹尼索瓦人和其他人族在时间和空间上都相互吻合,因此他们有很多相互交流的机会。


而以色列和美国科学家的最新发现正是补上了关于现代人类更早从非洲走出来,并迁徙到各地的证据。

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
出非洲理论屡被石器击破呀!

印度38.5万年前旧石器引发科学家重新考虑对早期人类走出非洲的传统理解


来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年2月01日 10:14







印度38.5万年前旧石器引发科学家重新考虑对早期人类走出非洲的传统理解


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据中国科学报(张章):《自然》杂志2月1日发表的一篇研究称印度的古人类可能在约38.5万年前就发展出了一种旧石器时代中期文化——比此前认为的早很多。这些发现可能引发科学家重新考虑对早期人类走出非洲的传统理解。


最晚170万年前,古人类走出非洲时,他们带走了一种标志性的工具——阿舍利手斧。由于鲜有遗骸证据,所以人类在欧亚大陆的演化通常依照工具的变化被记录下来。印度金奈夏尔马遗产教育中心的Shanti Pappu及同事研究了来自印度南部Attirampakkam考古现场的7000多件石器。这些石器共同记录了从阿舍利技术到旧石器时代中期技术(如典型的勒瓦娄哇剥片技术)的转变。这些发现表明印度在约38.5万年前就产生了一种旧石器时代中期文化——这与旧石器时代中期文化在非洲和欧洲的形成时间大致相同。


研究人员表示,理解欧洲和非洲以外地区进入旧石器时代中期的过程对研究欧亚大陆古人类的生活和时代至关重要,尤其是解剖学上的现代人在非洲和非洲以外的出现及迁移。这些新发现表明早在现代人类迁移出非洲并传播旧石器时代中期技术之前很久,印度就已出现一种成熟的旧石器时代中期文化。这意味着迁移比之前认为的发生得更早,以及本地影响在印度的旧石器时代中期发展过程中扮演了一定角色。

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-2-2 19:28 编辑
33# 癯鹤
回头看看这俩新闻,我所谓的进化的要津重地,帝之下都,亚当夏娃的伊甸园,果然是地灵人杰,钟灵毓秀:

阿尔泰卡拉马旧石器时代村落遗址考古发现:80万年前俄罗斯西伯利亚就有人类出现


以色列繁忙公路边发现50万年前直立猿人狩猎聚集点

癯鹤 发表于 2018-1-27 11:28
今天看到这么则新闻,发现我还是忽略了与本帖可算很有关系的中东和欧洲的很多考古新发现(当然这根本不是我的专业,作为外行,连爱好都谈不上)。

科学家称发现了40万年前人类的学校
2018年01月18日 16:32:27 科技在浪尖 0 微博微信QQ空间打印 增大字体减小字体

[size=+0]来自以色列特拉维夫大学的考古学家发现了一个洞穴,这洞穴可能是历史上最古老的学校,因为科学家在其中发现了40万年前人类教导别人的工具。

[size=+0]传统上意义上,我们科学家认为我们这个物种所拥有语言和技术能力,已经有10万年的历史了。但是这个洞穴的发现可能意味着现代人已经存在了更长的时间。因为考古学家在以色列的奎西姆洞穴发现了一堆火石工具和打猎劳作的工具。
[size=+0]科学家说:如果你是一个古老的人类,此时正在制作工具,那么很有可能你正在拿一大块火石,用来做矛和其他工具。考古学家在山洞里发现了很多熟练的拆分件,考古学家们认为教师们可能在那里教导学生如何去制作工具。

[size=+0]“我不会讲这是现代意义上的一所学校,但是我们可以看到一群人在山洞里一起制作工具的传统,而且这个传统是代代相传的。”特拉维夫大学的埃拉·阿萨夫解释说。

[size=+0]通过窑洞里的炉灶表明,那里居住的人可以很好地控制火,这个迹象说明,人类比以前想象的更先进。事实上,一些科学家说,所有这些先进的制火技术和制模技巧都意味着人类必须拥有语言,因为如果没有它,教这些东西就太难了。
[size=+0]我不是科学家,而且我也不知道如何用火石制造一支矛。对于当时的人类是否如考古学家说的那般,这也只能在未来的考古发现中得到答案了。
—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
二十进制很重要,上帝选择这个数(大洪水四十昼夜),是有考量的!劫数、天数、定数、……,冥冥中,南无number量子纠缠无量天尊摩诃般若波罗蜜!我这人数学不好,只认识几个简单数字,不敢感慨太多!
顺带搜集出一串我以前没注意现在发现于本帖很有关系的旧闻:
以专家称发现40万年前智人骸骨 人类或起源中东


2010年12月29日 07:30 来源:中国新闻网 参与互动(0)  【字体:↑大 ↓小】

考古人员在加西姆洞穴进行发掘工作。

【点击查看其它图片】


  中新网12月29日电 据香港《文汇报》29日报道,人类源自非洲之说可能被推翻!以色列考古学家前天表示,他们在以色列中部的加西姆洞穴中,发现8颗人类牙齿,约有40万年历史,比先前在非洲发现最早的智人骸骨,早了20万年。这些牙齿不但可能成为智人存在的最早证据,甚或证实人类是源自中东,而非外界普遍认为的非洲。  特拉维夫大学考古人员在《美国自然人类学报》发表文章称,加西姆洞穴发现的8颗牙齿,形状和大小都非常接近“现代智人”的牙齿。他们对这些牙齿进行X光和计算机断层扫描,并化验洞穴的泥土层,相信它们约有40万年历史,来自于中更新世纪(Middle Pleistocene Age)。   洞穴中还有打火捕猎工具
  以色列考古学家弗戈表示,相信会在加西姆洞穴挖掘出头骨和人骨等,以进一步证实“人类源自中东”之说,若然属实,将完全改变整个人类进化论理。
  据悉,除牙齿以外,考古人员也在这批遗骸中,发现人类社会早期发展的证据,显示这批人类已开始系统化地使用尖锐工具,并有用燧石打火、捕猎、切肉和分享猎物的习惯。加西姆洞穴于2000年被发现,考古学家在2004年开始挖掘。
  剑桥大学史前专家迈拉尔表示,以色列考古学者的发现十分重要,但若现在断言那些牙齿是来自现代智人,属言之尚早,又指以牙齿作判断物种来源的根据并不可靠,最好是有头骨和人骨作分析。学者普遍认为,智人在20万年前起源于非洲,其后逐渐北移,扩散至中东、欧洲和亚洲。

科学家发现人类40万年前煮汤化石 为甲鱼汤

2016年02月05日10:34来源:环球网

  【环球科技综合报道】 据俄罗斯"时代新观点"新闻网2月3日消息,以色列科学家发现人类的祖先开始食肉的时间。他们发现,40万年前人类祖先就开始用甲鱼做汤。

  研究员在一处洞穴中成功发现了独一无二的化石。以色列人类学家和古生物学家对该化石进行了研究,发现40万年前人类祖先就开始用甲鱼做汤。正是这一发现证实远古人类不食肉的说法是错误的。
  研究人员称,远古人类最开始更偏爱植物类饮食,之后开始狩猎跑得慢且易追捕的动物为食。(实习编译:杨爽 审稿:翟潞曼)

—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
四十万年前的智人牙齿化石!确实挺让人震惊的。这样的话
33# 癯鹤
真可谓现代智人起源的枢纽证据,足以撼动非洲说,来段中文的介绍:

以色列史前洞穴遗址发现非洲之外最古老现代人类化石——米斯利亚-1
所报道的那二十万年前的智人牙齿化石可就更不奇怪了!
我还是觉得千万年前亚洲猩猩类的古猿与欧非古猿的杂交,可能是在地中海一带形成了最古老的猿人。然后呢,跟出非洲说不同,是从千万年前到四十万年前之前数次进入非洲,给予非洲人类持续进化的动力,由于地理阻隔各自演化。这主要是因为种群变大,又由于文化隔绝,导致各地基因库倾向于越来越纯化(旧石器时代的文化,也难保没有近四万年来地理隔绝形成不同人种——亚种种族的力量)——这就像纯化育种不停近亲交配一样。造成了各地古人类的基因差异越来越大,乃至于尼安德特人、丹尼索瓦人和亚洲直立人的基因与他们差得越来越多。考虑到这个问题,混交和纯化是一种多次发生的过程,所以用简单数学模型计算人类进化年代,我觉得还不太妥帖(虽然我数学很差,逻辑表达能力不强,但是直觉告诉我,问题不能像直肠子那样考虑)。
此话不表,且说那话儿,涉及现代人类出非洲理论:为嘛非洲人出道,一次一次都取得基因胜利?看看欧洲现代圣母婊泛滥,我怀疑尼安德特人、丹尼索瓦人等等可能是对出非洲的移民发扬舍己为人国际主义精神造成了自身的仙蜕!
唉,本是同时生,何汝得道早?又见卌万年,四万年前消!

葡萄牙发现40万年前人类头骨化石 或挑战线性进化史观

用微信扫描二维码
分享至好友和朋友圈

2017-04-11 14:41:38 观察者网 参与评论(0)人
【观察者网综合报道】日前,考古学家在葡萄牙南部阿罗埃拉洞穴发现了40万年前人类头骨化石,或改写整个人类进化史。
中国文物报社下属微信公号“在线文博”近日文章称,参与发掘的考古学家认为:这个头骨的发现很有可能推翻了古人类线性进化的旧有观点,代之以“多路进化”的非线性进化方案,无论是新发现的阿罗埃拉3号头骨所属的族群还是海德堡人,甚至于尼安德特人和智人,都不过是进化之树上或粗或细、或长或短的枝干而已。

头骨复原示意图


冰河时期的严寒让这些原始人部落逐渐孤立,天气转暖后这些人再相遇并有机会繁育后代,基因组互相交叉传播开去,因此尼安德特人的基因得以流传到了现代人的身上。
尼安德特人(学名:Homo neanderthalensis,简称尼人)是一群生存于旧石器时代的史前人类,1856年,其遗迹首先在德国尼安德河谷(Neanderthal)被发现。
据西班牙《国家报》此前报道,此项研究成果已于3月13日发表在美国《国家科学院学报》月刊上。根据通过岩石年代测定法得出的结论,这是一个生活在40万年前的人类右半边头盖骨化石。

头骨复原示意图


巴塞罗那大学研究员、此项研究的带头人若昂·齐良表示,这个原始人综合了该时期人类的所有特征,在某些方面类似于阿塔普埃尔卡山的原始人,但某些方面又不像。
由于这个原始人的特征与以往发现的所有人种都不相同,因此发现者尚未确定其属于哪个人种。这种情况类似于在阿塔普埃尔卡山发现的人类遗骨,但目前这个人种已经被命名为海德堡人,并被认为是尼安德特人的祖先。在葡萄牙发现的原始人与海德堡人非常相似,但又具有其独有的特征。
齐良表示,这些人种都是直立人的后代,是在100万年前最早离开非洲的人类。他们在欧洲不断进化,变成了阿塔普埃尔卡山的先驱人,在数十万年后又进化成尼安德特人。他还认为,新的发现促使科学界放弃旧有观点,即某个人种曾经战胜另一个人种,或者说智人是物竞天择、优胜劣汰的产物。
此项研究的合作者胡安·路易斯·阿苏瓦加指出,这个原始人的脑容量约为1200立方厘米,低于现代人的1300立方厘米,更低于尼安德特人的脑容量。这个时期的欧洲是一个“动荡不安的世界”,各个原始部落之间纷争四起,时有部落全体灭亡的情况发生。新发现的化石将有助于了解这段历史。
文章全文如下:
近日,由葡萄牙考古学家João Zilhão和宾厄姆顿大学(Binghamton University)人类学家Rolf Quam联合带领的大型跨国考古队伍发现了葡萄牙目前出土最古老的人类颅骨化石,为了解欧洲大陆中更新世的人类演化进程和尼安德特人的起源提供了重要契机。
头骨发现于葡萄牙南部阿罗埃拉洞穴后部,发现时头骨正包裹在厚厚的石化沉积物里。当天是野外工作的最后一天,头骨的出现纯属意外,其顶部还清晰地保留着液压破碎机留下的钻孔。
“考古学家们刚发现它的时候,还不知道该怎么取出来。”Quam告诉记者,“最后不得不把头骨和它周围的石块一起锯下来。”研究人员将之带去了马德里人类发展与行为中心的文物修复研究室。修复技师表示:“这是我在职业生涯中遇到过的最为艰巨的挑战,不仅因为这批化石至关重要,更因为从岩石中提取化石极为困难。”
提取工作异常艰难,甚至一度中断。直到两年后,经过了漫长的准备和细致的剥离,这块头骨终于得以重见天日。“真是一项浩大的工程。”Quam这样感慨道。

头骨复原示意图


化石破损极为严重,现存部分仅有一部分蝶骨、接近完整的颞骨、左眼眶上弓及中部、鼻骨基部和接近完整的右眼眶,一小堆可以拼合成鼻骨下半部的碎片,以及一小部分右上颌骨,上面附有一小块牙槽和两个破碎的臼齿;牙齿的齿冠已经破碎,虽然牙釉质仍有保存,但已经很难通过它来复原口腔结构或咬合模型,因此无法进行更深入的形态学分析。但已经可以明显看出,这个头骨属于一个成年个体。
研究人员把刚剥离出来的头骨放入了CT扫描仪中,据此复制出了头骨的3D结构。它被命名为“阿罗埃拉3号”。经测量,阿罗埃拉3号的脑容积为67立方英寸(1100立方厘米,),与同期发现的其他古人类头颅大致处于同一水平。

阿罗埃拉1号、2号和3号


早在1987年,考古学家们就已经开始了针对艾尔蒙达洞穴古人类聚落遗址群的发掘和研究,在这里发现了大量旧石器时代和新石器时代早期的遗迹遗物。针对阿罗埃拉洞穴的发掘集中于1998–2002,期间出土了两枚人类牙齿,分别命名为阿罗埃拉1号和阿罗埃拉2号。阿罗埃拉3号的发现,为艾尔蒙达聚落遗址的资料又增添了详实的力证。虽然破损严重,但是这个头骨对于欧洲中更新世人类演进的研究有着极为重大的意义。


阿罗埃拉洞穴地层示意图


阿罗埃拉3号的年代非常久远
头骨出土于阿罗埃拉洞穴遗址的第二层,根据放射性同位素检测,这一地层大约形成于39到43.6万年前。Quam表示,它是葡萄牙出土的最古老的古人类头骨。“它的年代非常古早,这一事实非常关键,它能给人类进化历程带来更深的思考。”例如,当尼安德特人最初出现的时候,“是什么最先发生了变化。”除了头骨本身的年代,它也是迄今为止于欧洲发现的最早的阿舍利石器工业遗址。它有力地阿舍利文化年代上限向前推进了一大步,也刷新了欧洲大陆相关考古学文化的年代地图。

阿罗埃拉洞穴的位置较为偏远
阿罗埃拉洞穴位于整个欧洲大陆的西南端,换言之,阿罗埃拉3号也是欧洲出土的中更新世头骨中最靠西的一个。

阿舍利文化手斧和燧石


地层中发现了大量可以明确年代的工具,以及使用火的痕迹
这枚头骨出土的阿罗埃拉洞穴遗址不仅可以明确上溯到距今40万年前,还伴随着大量动物残骸和石器的发现。其中就包括大量阿舍利文化手斧和燧石。结合其出土地点,我们可以推断出,这项发源于中东的石器制造工艺,在短短的十万年间,就已经横跨欧洲大陆,扩散到了葡萄牙地区。相比同时期的其他考古发现,这一遗址的保存环境较好,该遗址具有清晰的地层信息和考古脉络,使其测年数据更为可信。
阿罗埃拉3号表现出了综合性的人种特征
这块头骨的眶上圆枕薄而连贯,乳凸更为短小,下颌后突呈稍大的三角形,另有一个凸起的关节结节将它们连接起来。由于它综合了该时期人类的所有特征,研究团队并不敢断言这个头骨是否是一种新发现的古人类人种,但是Quam注意到,头盖骨的眼眶、颞骨和下颌骨上有着显著的尼安德特人特征——眉骨和耳后乳凸的轮廓都更为窄小。“这块头骨与西班牙、法国、意大利等地发现的其它同时代人类化石有些相似之处……虽然它的部分特征或许与晚期尼安德特人相似,但它并非来自于尼安德特人。”Quam这样说道。
类似的情况出现在阿塔普埃尔卡山发现的人类遗骨身上,但目前这个人种已经被命名为海德堡人,并被认为是尼安德特人的祖先。在葡萄牙发现的原始人与海德堡人非常相似,但在具体细节上又有所不同。Quam认为,他们都是直立人的后代:100万年前最早离开非洲的直立人在欧洲经历了漫长的进化,变成了海德堡人,又在数十万年后又演变成尼安德特人。换言之,这个头骨的发现很有可能推翻了古人类线性进化的旧有观点,代之以“多路进化”的非线性进化方案,无论阿罗埃拉3号头骨所属的族群还是海德堡人,甚至于尼安德特人和智人,都不过是进化之树上或粗或细、或长或短的枝干而已。冰河时期的严寒让这些原始人部落逐渐孤立,天气转暖后这些再相遇并有机会繁育后代,基因组互相交叉传播开去,因此尼安德特人的基因得以流传到了现代人的身上。

阿罗埃拉洞穴远景及近景、艾尔蒙达地区图示、发掘图示


除此之外,阿罗埃拉3号头骨的发现还给考古学家提供了另外一个猜想:“飞地”。艾尔蒙达洞穴古人类聚落遗址群里,包含有三处较为重要的遗址,除了阿塔普埃尔卡山、阿罗埃拉之外,还有一处阿拉戈遗址。这三处遗址无论时间还是年代都较为接近,但是它们出土的化石却大不相同。这一方面证明了当时人类种群的多样性,另一方面也在说明,各个族群之间沟通交流的活跃度各不相同。换言之,未必不可能有些族群较为孤立,固守“桃源”。这个时期的欧洲是一个“动荡不安的世界”,此消彼长的人种之间,保留有一块早期尼安德特人的“飞地“”也不是没有可能的。
此次发现将在今年10月,于位于葡萄牙里斯本的国家考古博物馆进行展出。

除了形态学,古基因检测是很重要的:
中国很多历史时期人骨样本都测不出基因类型,人家欧洲洞穴里化成灰土的几十万年前的人体组织的DNA都有得测!差距呀!你们那帮整天拿着自己和同行测出的现代人基因数据就对历史、考古、文化等等学科叽叽歪歪不停,却不容许其他研究者质疑的基因学实验工作者(砖家),咋不拿块豆腐碰死!

研究人类进化史现新曙光:欧洲多个洞穴泥土沉积样本发现尼安德特人和丹尼索亚人基因
……
癯鹤 发表于 2017-5-3 09:00
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
38# 癯鹤
你整理的资料都是很有价值的~
物格而后知至,知至而后意诚,意诚而后心正,心正而后身修,身修而后家齐,家齐而后国治,国治而后天下平...
类似例子!驯化物种可能很多都是远亲物种多次驯化附带杂交,经过N多瓶颈清洗而形成了现代品种的。


新的基因组研究显示波泰马并非当今驯化马的父系祖先



来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年2月23日 10:22






新的基因组研究显示波泰马并非当今驯化马的父系祖先


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据EurekAlert!:新的基因组研究显示,已知最古老的驯化马群(它们在约5500年前生活在中亚草原)并非当今驯化马的父系祖先。然而,它们的血统却在野马中保持着。已知的最古老的驯化马的文化源自波泰人,这群人曾经生活在现代的哈萨克斯坦。古代的波泰遗址有驯马的清晰迹象,如那里有与马有关的工具,那里的陶瓷上留有马奶残迹。然而,这些坐骑是否是现代驯服马匹的开山始祖则仍不清楚。


Charleen Gaunitz和同事在此分析了88匹古代和现代马的基因组,它们跨越欧亚大陆一系列的时代和地点,其中包括20匹波泰马。据作者报告,数据显示,样品中的驯化马匹中没有一匹是原先波泰马群的后代,然而有7匹普热瓦尔斯基马(它们是在中亚草原上漫游的一群濒危野马)则是原先波泰马群的后代。因此,他们提出,最晚到公元前3000年,一个不同的马群成为所有驯化马的来源,该马群在后来得到扩充。不幸的是,在这个时代找到的马基因组缺如,这意味着组成我们如今所知驯马的马群,就目前而言,仍是一个谜。

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
返回列表
baidu
互联网 www.ranhaer.org