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本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-2-23 13:58 编辑

感觉使用象形文字不善于惟妙惟肖绘画雕刻的东亚人,似乎继承了更多尼人(或其他旧大陆古老人类))基因。

关于尼安德特人有无艺术专长,两个互相PK的理论:

新研究揭示尼安德特人的灭绝竟然是因为不会画画

新研究揭示尼安德特人的灭绝竟然是因为不会画画
2018年02月21日 09:20环球网
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  尼安德特人拥有大脑,但似乎从未画出可识别的图像,但是早期的现代人类却生动地渲染了动物和人物形象。现在,新的研究揭示了这种艺术能力的缺乏与尼安德特人低劣的狩猎技能密切相关,而这些差异也可以解释为什么人类比尼安德特人更聪明。无论是绘画还是狩猎,都需要手眼协调,尼安德特人在这些方面却非常缺乏,科学家表示也许就是这种协调能力导致了他们的灭绝。


  12万年至35万年前尼安德特人次要存在于欧亚大陆,并用近间隔刺杀方式捕猎马,驯鹿,野牛以及其他大型猎物。与此同时,晚期人类在超越50万年工夫里在撒哈拉以南非洲地域用长矛刺杀猎物。
  尼安德特人主要存在于欧亚大陆12万至35,000年前,擅长近距离杀死马,驯鹿,野牛以及其他大型猎物。与此同时,早期人类在撒哈拉以南非洲地区用长矛刺杀猎物已有50万年。
  根据了解,尼安德特人非常聪明,他们可能是人类中最先祭奠亡灵的人们,他们甚至会使用鲜花。考古学家曾经发现了一个尼安德特少年的骸骨。他被安放成睡眠的姿势,头搁在右前臂上。
  在少年的周围,环绕着很多骨头。一个手斧被小心地放在他的头边,从这个骸骨身上我们能看到生者的哀痛,也许是他的父母,也许是他的朋友,为他的身后准备了这一切。
  此外尼安德特人还具有制作各种有效的石制工具的能力,他们擅长集体围猎大型动物,他们还具有唱歌和初步的语言交流的生理条件。20万年前,他们主要生活在欧洲和亚洲的西部地区。而大约三万年前,他们突然消失得无影无踪了 。
  加利福尼亚大学心理学家,艺术家理查德?科斯教授认为,由于非洲动物已经可以摆脱早期智人的狩猎策略,所以我们的祖先必须摆脱矛刺方式猎杀猎物,并开始投掷长矛。
  因此,他们也就开发出更大的大脑顶叶皮层,大脑中也就形成了相应视觉输入和运动技能的区域。
  这意味着他们也可以进行艺术创造,而绘画发展了他们的手眼协调能力,这对于我们的祖先来说是一种实践,而尼安德特人之所以无法生存下去,与他们天生缺乏艺术感息息相关。




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洞穴艺术和彩绘贝壳表明我们已灭绝的表亲“尼安德特人”是理解符号象征的艺术家


来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年2月23日 09:59



洞穴艺术和彩绘贝壳表明我们已灭绝的表亲“尼安德特人”是理解符号象征的艺术家


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据EurekAlert!:在欧洲发现的最古老的洞穴艺术估计要比早期现代人到达欧洲的时间早至少2万年,这表明,这些洞穴艺术家是我们的已经灭绝的表亲——尼安德特人。在《科学》杂志中报道的一则研究称,这标志了尼安德特人创制了洞穴艺术的第一个明晰证据。同样地,在《科学-进展》中的一则研究重点介绍了所发现的染色和装饰过的海洋贝壳;这些也比现代人类在该地区出现的已知时间要早。


在《科学》杂志发表的研究中,Dirk Hoffmann和同事指出,数个例证的洞穴艺术表明它们出自尼安德特人之手;然而,这些艺术作品的年代以及它们是否为刻意的创作还存在争议。作者在此对来自3个西班牙洞穴(La Pasiega, Maltravieso 和 Ardales)的同位素样品(它主要含有红色和黑色的动物绘画、线状符号、棒状符号、点甚或手的模板;尽管完整的手印可能是偶然留下的,但作者指出,对手制作模板艺术明显是故意为之)进行了分析。


在他们使用的测年方法中,在洞穴艺术表面之上和之下的碳酸盐都得到了分析,这样做的目的是为了获得该艺术创建的可能的最短和最长特定日期。从洞穴艺术的3个收集的样品所测得的最古老最小年龄一直被定在约6万4800年前或更早时间之前。作者说,化石证据表明,尼安德特人是当时欧洲仅有的人科物种,提示这些艺术家是尼安德特人。他们指出,早期现代人到达欧洲的估计时间要晚得多:在4万5000年至4万年前间。在Ardales洞穴,作者报告,那里的不同的绘画时段跨度长达2万5000年,表明该艺术的创制并非一次性的爆发,而是一个悠久的传统。


在《科学-进展》期刊发表的另外一项研究中,Hoffman和同事描述了穿孔和染色的海洋贝壳,它们是在另一处不同的西班牙洞穴(Cueva de los Aviones)中发现的,该洞穴也比被认为的早期现代人到达欧洲的估计时间显著要早。作者说,符号写实主义的出现代表了我们这个物种演化的一个关键时刻,因为具有指定“价值”的人工制品表明的是要传达的信息,因此那时已经有语言存在。然而,迄今所发现的最早的符号文物(其估计存在时间约为9万2000年前)是在非洲发现的,它们被认为是由早期现代人创制的。


在Cueva de los Aviones,Hoffman等人用沉积物同位素数据来确定海洋贝壳以及染上红色和黄色色素的贝壳容器的年代。他们发现,在所分析的4个样品中有2个的测算年代大约在11万5000年前--这又比该地区早期现代人已知存在的时间要早得多。作者发现,这些发现(洞穴艺术和装饰物品)“毫无疑问地显示,尼安德特人与早期现代人共同拥有符号性思维。”因此,他们提出,符号象征可能是从共同祖先那里继承的。

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
“中国发现新型古人类化石-许昌人”入选2017年度“中国科学十大进展”


来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年2月28日 10:22






2017年度入选的“中国发现新型古人类化石”(吴秀杰供图) 河南灵井遗址发现的2件人类头骨化石(右侧:许昌1号;左侧:许昌2号)


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所:2018年2月27日,在科技部举行的新闻发布会上公布了2017年度“中国科学十大进展”。中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所主持研究的“中国发现新型古人类化石-许昌人”入选。这是该所古人类课题组继2010年度“中国发现10万年前的早期现代人化石”和2015年度“发现东亚最早的现代人化石”,第三次获得该荣誉。


“中国科学十大进展”是由科技部基础研究管理中心等部门组织,由两院院士、973计划顾问组和咨询组专家、973计划项目首席科学家、国家重点实验室主任等专家学者,从推荐的“年度270项自然科学各领域重要研究成果”中经过初选和终选两轮投票选出。截至2018年2月已举办13届,是我国基础研究传播工作的品牌项目。


长期以来,古人类学界对在中国境内发现的中更新世晚期至晚更新世早期过渡阶段古人类成员的演化地位一直存在争议。争论的焦点是:他们是由本地的古人类连续进化而来?还是外来人群的成功入侵者?以及在现代人出现与演化过程中的作用。河南灵井遗址发现的两件古人类头骨化石——许昌人,为探讨这一阶段中国古人类的演化模式提供了重要信息。


2005-2016年,河南省文物考古研究院李占扬研究员带领的考古队对位于许昌市的灵井遗址进行了连续12年的挖掘,发现了45件人类头骨碎片化石,年代为距今10.5-12.5万年。2014年以来,吴秀杰研究员等对许昌人头骨化石开展了修复、拼接、复原和研究工作。许昌人头骨化石出土时已经破裂成45块碎片。经过鉴定,确认这些头骨碎片代表5个个体,其中1号和2号个体相对较为完整(图1):许昌1号由26块游离的头骨碎片组成,复原后的头骨保留有脑颅的大部分及部分底部, 代表一个年轻的男性个体;许昌2号头骨由16块游离的碎片拼接而成, 复原后的头骨保存有脑颅的后部,为一较为年轻的成年个体。研究显示,许昌人颅骨既具有东亚古人类低矮的脑穹隆、扁平的颅中矢状面、最大颅宽的位置靠下的古老特征,同时又兼具欧亚大陆西部尼安德特人一样的枕骨(枕圆枕上凹/项部形态)和内耳迷路(半规管)形态,呈现出演化上的区域连续性和区域间种群交流的动态变化。此外,许昌人超大的脑量(1800 cc)和纤细化的脑颅结构,又体现出中更新世人类生物学特征演化的一般趋势。目前还无法将其归入任何已知的古人类成员之中,许昌人可能代表一种新型的古老型人类。 这项研究填补了古老型人类向早期现代人过渡阶段中国古人类演化上的空白,表明晚更新世早期中国境内可能并存有多种古人类成员,不同群体之间有杂交或者基因交流。许昌人化石为中国古人类演化的地区连续性以及与欧洲古人类之间的交流提供了一定程度的支持。


2017年3月3日,《Science》杂志报道了河南灵井遗址出土的两件新型古人类化石——中国许昌发现的晚更新世古老型人类头骨。文章发表后,引起了国内外学术界和媒体的极大关注,《Science》、《Current Biology》等国际顶端学术期刊都发表了专题评论,认为这项研究填补了古老型人类向早期现代人过渡阶段东亚地区古人类演化上的空白,是中国学者在古人类研究领域取得的重大突破。


中国古人类学研究始于上世纪初周口店北京猿人化石的发现。经过几代人的努力,迄今已经在中国境内70余处地点发现了更新世时期人类化石。21世纪以来,国际古人类学界对东亚地区人类起源与演化的关注不断增加,尤其现代人在东亚的出现与扩散引发了许多研究和争论。组建于这一背景下的古脊椎所古人类研究团队围绕中国古人类起源与演化的前沿问题,开展了大量的野外调查、发掘和研究,取得了一系列重要化石发现和原创性研究成果。近10年来,在刘武研究员和吴秀杰研究员带领下,该团队连续在湖北郧西黄龙洞、湖南道县福岩洞、安徽东至华龙洞发现重要古人类化石;完成了对广西崇左智人洞、许家窑、马坝、盘县大洞、道县、许昌等中更新世晚期及晚更新世早期人类化石形态、病理、创伤、先天畸形等研究,提出早期现代人至少10万年前在华南地区出现、部分中国更新世晚期人类化石具有欧洲尼安德特人形态特征等观点。同时,在研究中他们也注意到东亚地区更新世晚期人类演化不同步,在化石形态方面呈现明显区域性差别,这一地区早期现代人直接祖先的地区分布及化石特征还不清楚,尤其缺乏可靠的人类化石证据。


2007年,金昌柱研究员带领的野外队在广西崇左木榄山智人洞发现一件人类下颌骨和两枚牙齿化石,年代为距今10-11.3 万年(图2)。刘武研究员等对智人洞人类化石进行了研究,显示这件下颌骨已经出现一系列现代人类的衍生特征,如突起的联合结节、明显的颏窝、中等发育的侧突起、近乎垂直的下颌联合部、明显的下颌联合断面曲度等。这些特征明显区别于古老型智人,而与现代人接近,智人洞的人类可能是东亚的最早的现代人,将早期现代人在东亚出现时间提早了6万年。相关研究论文2010年11月9日在《PNAS》发表,并入选2010年度中国科学十大进展。


2010-2015年,刘武研究员和吴秀杰研究员率领的古人类研究团队对湖南省道县境内的福岩洞进行连续调查和发掘,先后发现47枚人类牙齿化石,年代为距今8-12万年(图3)。研究显示,道县人类牙齿较小,明显小于欧洲、非洲和亚洲更新世中、晚期人类,位于现代人变异范围;齿冠和齿根呈现典型现代智人特征,如简单的咬合面和齿冠侧面形态、短而纤细的齿根等,说明道县人类牙齿已经具有完全现代形态,可以明确归入现代智人。据此可以确定,具有完全现代形态的人类至少8万年前在华南局部地区已经出现。这项研究填补了现代类型人类在东亚地区最早出现时间和地理分布的空白。该项研究的论文发表于2015年10月29日《Nature》杂志,入选2015年度中国科学十大进展。


近年来,国际古人类学界对现代人在东亚大陆出现与演化的规律和细节过程予以日益增多的关注,引发了一些前沿与争议。广西智人洞、湖南道县、许昌灵井古人类化石的发现为探讨这些学术问题提供了关键的研究材料。该研究团队对这三批化石的研究取得了了一系列重要发现和认识,提出早期现代人和完全现代类型的人类至少10万年前在华南地区已经出现。同时,揭示现代人在东亚大陆出现与演化过程中具有非常复杂的多样性和区域间差别,在现代人在华南地区出现的同时,在华北地区仍生存有古老类型的人类,并可能与欧洲古人类发生基因交流。需要指出的是,东亚古人类的演化比以往研究认为的要复杂的多,目前的发现和认识只是基于现有的化石证据。寻找人类化石,犹如“大海捞针”,需要多学科合作,长期不懈地坚持野外工作,经过几代人的不懈努力,“众里寻她千百度”,总会有所收获。


相关报道:“许昌人”研究项目负责人李占扬:“中国的古人类学研究,不再边缘化”


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据大河报·大河客户端(李岩):从省科技厅、省文物局获悉,2月27日,科技部发布2017年度中国科学十大进展评选结果,我省学者李占扬团队“许昌人”研究成果榜上有名,这是科技部发布13次年度十大科学进展后,我省学者主持的科研项目首次获此殊荣。


这一进展题为“中国发现新型古人类化石”,专家组在颁奖词中说,“在河南灵井许昌人遗址发现的头骨化石,填补了古老型人类向早期现代人过渡阶段东亚地区古人类演化上的空白,是中国学者在古人类学研究领域取得的一项重大突破,中国人正在改写人类起源的历史”。


评选结果公布后,大河报记者第一时间采访了河南省文物考古研究院研究员李占扬。2014年启动的“许昌人”头骨化石研究,李占扬是项目负责人,并承担地质地层等方面研究,中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所、北京大学城市与环境学院承担头骨化石研究和年代学方面的研究。经十余年的考古发掘和近三年的联合攻关,李占扬为第一作者的论文《中国许昌出土晚更新世人类头骨研究》发表于2017年3月3日《科学》杂志上,在国内外产生重大影响。此项研究得到国家自然科学基金和山东大学环境与社会考古学科创新引智基地等基金项目的支持。


研究显示,距今10.5万-12.5万年,东亚大陆生存着一类具有东亚中更新世直立人、欧洲尼安德特人和早期现代人混合形态的特殊人群。表明晚更新世早期,中国境内可能并存有多种古人类群体,不同群体之间有杂交或者基因交流产生。“许昌人”为中国古人类演化的地区连续性以及与欧洲古人类之间的交流提供了一定程度的支持。


据介绍,东亚现代人起源研究项目,以李占扬教授主持发掘的河南灵井许昌人遗址为依托,已连续开展了13年,2007年和2014年分别发现“许昌人1号头骨”和“许昌人2号头骨”,被评为2007年度全国十大考古新发现。该遗址出土有丰富的人类化石、动物化石和人类文化遗物,对于探索现代人起源,了解早期人类的行为艺术,都有着极大的潜力。目前,省科技厅已设立“河南省东亚现代人起源国际联合试验室”,试验室负责人李占扬已组织若干个国际团队对这些热点问题进行集体攻关。


“中国科学十大进展”遴选程序分为推荐、初选和终选3个环节。《中国基础科学》《中国科学院院刊》《科学通报》等5家编辑部推荐年内270项科学研究进展,项目涵盖自然科学和交叉学科的各个方面。初选邀请专家从推荐的项目中遴选30项进入终选。终选采取网上投票,邀请包括两院院士在内的2000余名专家学者进行网上投票,得票数排名前十位的进入2017中国科学十大进展。


对话


“中国的古人类学研究,不再边缘化”


记者:您是一位知名考古学家,此次获得的是一个“科技奖项”,您怎么看待这个奖项?


李占扬:近年,我国的基础科学发展很快,得益于国家对科学事业尤其是基础科学的大量投入,科学家赶上了好时代。这次“许昌人”研究项目能获此殊荣,是对我们团队中外科学家的最大鼓励。人类演化研究虽然不能解决国计民生的重大问题,但能在世界上发出我们自己的声音,提高国民的文化自信,外国同行说中国正在改变人类演化的历史,正如国外同行评价的那样,中国正在改写人类的演化历史,这是非常令人激动的。我国的古人类学研究已经受到国外同行的高度重视,不再被边缘化。


“这是集体荣誉,感谢团队的合作”


记者:在此次考古科研过程中,团队的合作是不是很重要?


李占扬:我虽然在灵井坚持考古发掘12年,发现了“许昌人”,但就科研成果而言,我要感谢我们的团队,感谢众多科学家的支持和付出。这个荣誉,可以说是集体的荣誉。


我是考古出身,在地质地层方面也有些专长,但术业有专攻,比如人类化石就必须要由中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人研究所吴秀杰研究员和美国圣路易斯华盛顿大学的埃瑞克来完成。另外,北京大学城市与环境学院周力平教授等用光释光等方法,测定可以信服的“许昌人”年代数据。还有其他科学家,也给予了重要的支持。这些都是至关重要的。


“许昌人”跟“炎黄”部落连不上


记者:一些人认为,许昌人的研究挑战了学术界流行的中国现代人源自非洲的说法,您怎么看?“许昌人”与“炎黄”部落有什么关联?


李占扬:“许昌人”的研究成果只解决了从中国猿人和中国华北地区早期现代人之间的缺环,“许昌人”之后这一地区又进入了一个文化上的空白期,到距今1.35万年,才有新的人群到来,这就是灵井许昌人遗址第5层的细石器文化。细石器文化是外来的,不排除从非洲经欧洲、西伯利亚,再从华北北部传过来。大约一万年前左右,随着全球气候转暖,这些使用细石器的猎人消失了。所以“许昌人”和后来的人群例如传说中的“炎黄”部落连不上。


记者:2017年,您带领中国第一支现代人起源考古队赴肯尼亚考古发掘,为什么要去非洲做研究,目前的考古成果对于中国现代人研究有哪些帮助?


李占扬:我们去非洲发掘就是想解决灵井许昌人遗发掘中不能解释的疑惑,例如同时期的非洲石器长什么样?人类行为技术怎样?来验证“许昌人”是不是从非洲来的,这是去的初衷。但是,发掘后又遇到一大堆新问题。去非洲发掘最大的收获是发现了当地早中晚三期文化,细石器和灵井的非常接近,所以说,如刚才所说,灵井的细石器可能是外来的。


今年还将继续发掘“许昌人”遗址


记者:针对灵井许昌人遗址,今后还有没有发掘计划?


李占扬:自2007年首次发现“许昌人1号头骨”以来,“许昌人”研究成果关注度很高,也引发了公众对现代人起源的浓厚兴趣,但还有很多谜团待解。


通过近年的研究,我们发现“许昌人”制作的刻画艺术品,是目前世界最早的。艺术的产生是划时代的,但材料未发表,现在还不能说太多。“许昌人”的研究侧重形态学方面,我们也试图作了遗传学方面的尝试,请遗传学家提取DNA,但是没有成功。因为化石是长期埋于地下,通过含碳酸钙的水长期置换形成的,形成化石后,原来的物质被置换掉了。但封闭相对较好的牙齿上可能提取到胶原蛋白(获得DNA的必要条件),但目前还没有发现牙齿化石。这些都是今后我们工作的重点。今年,我们已经申报了60平方米的遗址发掘面积,还将继续努力,争取有新的收获。


链接


2017中国科学十大进展名录(按得票多少排序)


1.实现星地千公里级量子纠缠和密钥分发及隐形传态
2.将病毒直接转化为活疫苗及治疗性药物
3.首次探测到双粲重子
4.实验发现三重简并费米子
5.实现氢气的低温制备和存储
6.研发出基于共格纳米析出强化的新一代超高强钢
7.利用量子相变确定性制备出多粒子纠缠态
8.中国发现新型古人类化石
9.酵母长染色体的精准定制合成
10.研制出可实现自由状态脑成像的微型显微成像系统


相关报道:在人类演化研究中发出中国声音——访“许昌人”研究项目主持人、著名考古学家李占扬


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据河南日报(尹江勇):人物简介


李占扬,1961年生,太康县人,古人类学家、古生物学家、旧石器考古学家,河南省文物考古研究院研究室主任、研究员、国家文物局考古领队。


他主持的西峡盆地恐龙蛋化石发掘与研究,入选“1993年世界十大科技新闻”;他主持发掘的“许昌人”头骨化石,入选“2007年全国十大考古新发现”;2月27日,他和团队对于“许昌人”的研究成果,入选“2017年度中国科学十大进展”。


这位屡屡带给人们惊喜的学者,就是著名考古学家、河南省文物考古研究院研究室主任李占扬教授。


中国古人类源自非洲吗?


2007年,“许昌人1号头骨”在李占扬主持发掘的河南灵井许昌人遗址被首次发现,从此这项研究就受到了学术界和公众的广泛关注。有学者称,这一发现挑战了学术界流行的“中国现代人源自非洲”的说法。


去年,李占扬为第一作者的“许昌人”研究论文发表在《科学》杂志上,展示了“许昌人”是中国古人类跟尼安德特人交流并向现代人过渡的证据,为中国境内古人类连续演化的证据链又增添了非常关键的一环。


“‘许昌人’的出现说明,东亚的人类进化可能比之前人们所想象的要复杂得多,甚至可能存在与其他地区不同的演化模式。”李占扬解释道,“许昌人”头骨化石同以往发现的其他人类化石既有相同又有不同,已经构成了一个新的人种的要素。“所以我们说,‘许昌人’是中国古人类连续进化的,不是外来的,并有同欧洲人种交流的证据,这就支持了现代人多地起源说,而排斥了非洲单一起源说。”


“许昌人”与“炎黄子孙”有关系吗?


众所周知,黄河流域是中华文明的源头,“许昌人”的发现也因而引起了很多人的联想:“许昌人”与“炎黄子孙”概念之间是否存在着直接联系?


“虽然这个想法很吸引人们的兴趣,但是目前并没有证据支持这二者之间存在关联。”李占扬解释说,“炎黄”部落生活在距今约6000年至5500年之间,而“许昌人”生活在距今10.5万年至12.5万年之间,二者相距时间太远,而且,“许昌人”之后这一地区又进入了一个文化上的空白期,直到距今1.35万年,才有新的人群到来,形成了灵井许昌人遗址第5层的细石器文化。李占扬认为,细石器文化是外来的,不排除从非洲经欧洲、西伯利亚,再从华北北部传过来。“距今约一万年左右,随着全球气候转暖,这些使用细石器的猎人消失了。所以,‘许昌人’和后来的人群例如传说中的‘炎黄’部落连不上。还不能说‘许昌人’就是我们今天华北现代人的直接祖先,但有过渡迹象,我们在考古中也致力于寻找‘许昌人’与今天华北地区现代人之间的链条。”


“许昌人”研究还会带来啥惊喜?


对于“许昌人”的研究已经产出了众多突破性成果,后续是否还会有更重要的发现?


“许昌人化石的研究结果发表,只是完成多项前沿课题的一小部分。”李占扬说,在省科技厅支持下,“河南省东亚现代人起源国际联合实验室”已设立。作为实验室负责人,李占扬表示将按照“开门研究、合作共赢”的思路,组织若干个国际团队进行联合攻关。


为了验证和解决许昌人遗址发掘中的一些疑惑,2017年,李占扬带领中国第一支现代人起源考古队赴肯尼亚考古发掘,正式加入了在非洲探索人类起源的“国际考古俱乐部”。


“中国学者走出国门开展考古工作,是整个国家经济和文化发展的必然产物。”李占扬表示,这种以中国考古学者为主体,以长期课题为导向的出国考古工作,正逐渐成为中国考古的“新常态”。


“人类演化研究虽然不能解决国计民生的重大问题,但能在世界上发出中国自己的声音,提高国民的文化自信。”李占扬告诉记者,如果把“中国改写人类的演化历史”假设为一本书的题目,“许昌人”现在的成果仅仅是其中的一个章节或片段。

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本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-3-2 00:42 编辑

大片大量大号石斧集中出现?什么意思?让人不禁想到“桂南大石铲”、“三星堆祭祀坑”之类,会是类似现象么?


Giant 300,000-year-old hand axes that may have been used to cut up prey by a mystery ancestor are uncovered in Spain


  • Study reinforces idea human groups from different origins coexisted in Europe
  • Laboratory analyses indicate that the tools were used to process hard materials
  • Researchers say they could also have had a symbolic role
  • Although they are double the size of most handaxes the people that used them would have been no larger than people today
  • 'This is an interesting time in human evolution', Dr Chris Lepre, a researcher at Lamont-Doherty and teaching professor at Rutgers University told MailOnline
By Phoebe Weston For Mailonline
Published: 19:15 GMT, 28 February 2018 | Updated: 19:20 GMT, 28 February 2018

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    Giant handaxes that are between 200,000 to 300,000 years old would have been used by mystery ancestors to cut up prey in prehistoric Europe, research suggests.
    Laboratory analyses indicate that the giant tools, found at Porto Maior, northwest Spain, were used to process hard materials such wood and carcasses.
    While these tools were being used in one area, a different stone tradition (Early Middle Palaeolithic) was present in Iberia.
    Scientists believe this reinforces the idea human groups from different origins and evolutionary stages coexisted when Neanderthals first started to emerge.
    Researchers say that although they are double the size of most handaxes the Neanderthals or near modern human sapiens species that used them would have been no larger than humans today.
    Scroll down for video

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    Giant handaxes that are between 200,000 to 300,000 years old would have been used by mystery ancestors to cut up prey in prehistoric Europe, research suggests

    The archaeological site at Porto Maior is home to these ancient tools which were part of the Acheulean culture.
    'This is an interesting time in human evolution', Dr Chris Lepre, a researcher at Lamont-Doherty and teaching professor at Rutgers University told MailOnline.
    'Broadly speaking these tools would have been used by something called 'archaic homo sapiens'. That may be a Neanderthal or a close almost near modern human sapiens species.
    'There is evidence these species are coexisting in this area at the time', he said.

    Tools from the Acheulean cuture are characterised by symmetrically knapped stones and are the first sophisticated handaxe technology known in early Europe.
    While Acheulean sites are widespread across the continent, Porto Maior represents Europe's first extensive accumulation of large cutting tools (LCTs) in the Acheulean tradition.
    'This is just another bit of evidence that shows some of these advanced behaviours such as making large handaxes are not something exclusive to one species', said Dr Lepre.
    'Our predecessors were capable of a wider range of behaviours than previously thought', he said.
    Until now, such high densities of LCTs had only been found in Africa.
    'Porto Maior introduces further complexity to this overlapping technological pattern, and suggests that distinct early human populations of different geographical origins coexisted during the Middle Pleistocene (between 773,000 and 125,000 years ago)', researchers, led by Dr Martina Demuro, a research fellow at the University of Adelaide wrote in the Conversation.

    +4


    The find reinforces the idea human groups from different origins and evolutionary stages coexisted across Europe as the emergence of Neanderthals was taking place

    Handaxe from Porto Maior PM4 level by Eduardo Mendez-Quintas on Sketchfab



    WHEN DID HUMANS START USING TOOLS?It is hard for scientists to say precisely when humans started making tools because the more primitive remains look like a natural object rather than a human artefact.
    The oldest-known instruments are the Oldowan stone tools from Ethiopia, which date back about 2.6 million years.
    The Acheulean tool technology period - up to 1.76 million years ago - featured large stone hand axes made from flint and quartzite.
    Towards the end of this period, the tools became more refined and then followed the so-called Levallois technique, which saw the creation of scrapers, slicers, needled and flattened needles.
    About 50,000 years ago more refined and specialised flint tools were made and used by Neanderthals and it is believed it was at this stage tools were constructed out of bone.
    As human culture advanced, artefacts such as fish hooks, buttons and bone needles were used.
    Cut marks have found on animal bones that have been dated to be 3.4 million years old - around the time that a squat ape-like ancestor called Australopithecus afarensis - known as Lucy - roamed Africa.

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    In total, 3,698 discarded artefacts were recovered from river sediments at the site, 101 of which were LCTs that were on average 18cm long with a maximum length of 27cm.
    This is exceptionally large considering most handazes are typically 8-15cm long.
    'Conventional interpretation of such large handaxes usually focuses on the idea that they were used for ceremonial purposes', Dr Lepre said.
    'Normally when we see exceptionally large tools they are not use for digging or processing food. They are symbolic.
    However, Dr Lepre dismissed the idea that these giant tools could have belonged to larger people.

    +4


    Laboratory analyses indicate that the tools, found in the area in Galicia, northwest Spain, were used to process hard materials such wood and bone and breaking up of carcasses

    The Porto Maior acheulian siteby Eduardo Mendez-Quintas on Sketchfab



    'There's not much evolution of the human body going on since then - most of what you see today was present back then. Our size and statue has not changed'.
    At 9.5 pieces per m², the density of the Acheulean stone tool accumulation is one of the highest recorded globally.
    'The Spanish site of Porto Maior clearly resembles extensive accumulations of very large tools previously only seen in Africa and the Near East', researchers wrote.
    'These similarities reinforce the idea of an African origin for the Acheulean tradition of southwest Europe.'


    Researchers say they could also have had a symbolic role - and although they are double the size of most handaxes the people that used them would have been no larger than people today


    +4


    The archaeological site at Porto Maior in Galicia is home to these ancient tools which were part of the Acheulean culture. Tools from the Acheulean cuture are characterised by symmetrically knapped stones and are the first sophisticated handaxe technology known in early Europe

    Researchers used post-infrared infrared stimulaed luminescence dating and electron spin resonance to date the tools.
    This technique provided researchers with an estimate of the last time sand grains in the sedient was exposed to sunlight.
    This gives an idea of when the site was last occupied.
    'The specific type of Acheulean tools described at Porto Maior is exclusive to southwest Europe, suggesting that the technology was brought into the region by an 'intrusive' population', researchers wrote.
    'The age of Porto Maior is consistent with previous findings from Iberia that suggest that the Acheulean culture experienced an expansion in the region between 400,000 to 200,000 years ago.'
    'While it is clear that more human fossil and stone tool sites need to be reliably dated across the region, a picture appears to be emerging of a turbulent 'Game of Thrones' style scenario of hominin evolution in Eurasia during the Middle Pleistocene period', researchers wrote.



    Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5446227/Giant-300-000-year-old-handaxes-ancient-Europe.html#ixzz58W3PNY6i
    Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook
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天人感应每如此,我不科研有人做!寒士修道求真知,惯看学者报成果!
现代人经历过两次与丹尼索瓦人的混合
Analysis of Human Sequence Data Reveals Two Pulses of Archaic Denisovan Admixture

Sharon R. Browning, Brian L. Browning, Ying Zhou, Serena Tucci, Joshua M. Akey
Published: March 15, 2018

全文链接:http://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(18)30175-2

Highlights

Asian genomes carry introgressed DNA from Denisovans and Neanderthals

East Asians show evidence of introgression from two distinct Denisovan populations

South Asians and Oceanians carry introgression from one Denisovan population


Summary

Anatomically modern humans interbred with Neanderthals and with a related archaic population known as Denisovans. Genomes of several Neanderthals and one Denisovan have been sequenced, and these reference genomes have been used to detect introgressed genetic material in present-day human genomes. Segments of introgression also can be detected without use of reference genomes, and doing so can be advantageous for finding introgressed segments that are less closely related to the sequenced archaic genomes. We apply a new reference-free method for detecting archaic introgression to 5,639 whole-genome sequences from Eurasia and Oceania. We find Denisovan ancestry in populations from East and South Asia and Papuans. Denisovan ancestry comprises two components with differing similarity to the sequenced Altai Denisovan individual. This indicates that at least two distinct instances of Denisovan admixture into modern humans occurred, involving Denisovan populations that had different levels of relatedness to the sequenced Altai Denisovan.

文中的两段话:

“We found evidence that Asians carry Denisovan introgression, confirming previous reports that used alternative methods (Prüfer et al., 2014, Qin and Stoneking, 2015, Sankararaman et al., 2016, Skoglund and Jakobsson, 2011). Further, we found evidence for two waves of Denisovan admixture, one from a population closely related to the Altai Denisovan individual, and one from a population more distantly related to the Altai Denisovan. The component closely related to the Altai Denisovan is primarily present in East Asians, whereas the component more distantly related to the Altai Denisovan forms the major part of the Denisovan ancestry in Papuans and South Asians. The East Asian populations are the only populations with relatively equal and non-negligible contributions from both components, and it is in these populations that the two waves of Denisovan admixture are most evident.

“In contrast, we did not find evidence for two or more waves of Neanderthal admixture from diverged Neanderthal populations. The higher rates of Neanderthal introgression in East Asians relative to Europeans may be due to dilution of Neanderthal admixture in Europeans as a result of migration from a population without Neanderthal admixture (Meyer et al., 2012, Vernot and Akey, 2015). If there was an additional pulse of Neanderthal admixture into East Asians after the Europe-Asia split, then it was from a population closely related to the primary admixing Neanderthals.
(自:http://www.ranhaer.org/viewthread.php?tid=37827&page=1#pid538082

上午才写的,字犹在坛,立场一贯!当然具体细节并不保证正确,只是思索远古人类起源和文化传播的一些个人心得。有些路线本人还有一些其他思路,而且还没有什么资料支持:
东亚最初的现代人类,应该是类似丹尼索瓦、尼安德特还有灵井人的混血,具体基因目前不可知。然后是Y-C1Y-DY-FY-K的到来,都是极少量,后来很多都在冰期南迁,退到西藏东南、东南亚、澳洲了。同时Y-NO躲避冰期从中央欧亚南逃到中国南部,在这里诞生了Y-O,后来又在稍北诞生Y-N,再然后可能是东南亚沿东亚海岸北返的Y-PY-C3(可能不是同一历史时期结伴而行),他们没有深入东亚腹地,经东北亚直到南西伯利亚,Y-P分化出Y-RQY-R西去,Y-QY-C3形成原初蒙古人种的底色之一,Y-Q东迁美洲,Y-C3后来也有小部分过去。然后Y-N北上,正式形成了东北亚蒙古人种。Y-O在东亚发展壮大,混合了多种其他单倍群演化成古中原类型蒙古人种(虽然跟今日蒙古人种差别巨大),在北部边缘地区的Y-单倍群更进一步形成古华北型古西北型蒙古人种。然后史前全球化文化大交流期,农作物、牲畜、冶金技术、文字和其他技术等等得到广泛传播。西北地区的一支人群东进结合东北夷又南下控制东夷,南方沿海人群形成岛夷,扩散至整个南中国、东南亚,远及南亚与大洋洲,控制东夷的那拨人就是蚩尤九黎部落(九黎、交黎、昌黎),因为海侵向内陆争地盘,被其领导炎帝拒绝,然后开战。崛起于东北夷的黄帝成了鹬蚌相争故事里的渔翁。黄帝因为起于东北夷,为了控制整个中国,就与西南夷结盟通婚,并且开采蜀山的铜,分封嫡子于蜀地。黄帝宾天,少昊暂理政局,偏向东夷,华夏重心失稳,华夏族元老从蜀地迎接黄帝嫡孙回中原即位。少昊部落被强行迁徙到西部(从此少昊成为西方上帝),这开启了后世三苗西迁的先河。
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-3-16 23:45 编辑
出非洲理论屡被石器击破呀!

印度38.5万年前旧石器引发科学家重新考虑对早期人类走出非洲的传统理解


来源: 神秘的地球
时间:2018年2月01日 10:14


http://www.uux.cn/attachments/2018/02/1_ ...
癯鹤 发表于 2018-2-1 13:00
“出非洲理论教”因为感觉不自在,所以弄出这个新闻么:

随着智人的演化 非洲东部的环境与技术发生重大变化

来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年3月16日 11:23


随着智人的演化 非洲东部的环境与技术发生重大变化


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据EurekAlert!:3项新的研究凸显了非洲东部的环境、生态和技术上的重大改变,这些变化发生在大约30万年前的中石器时代之前,那时差不多是现代人在解剖结构上正在发生演化的时候。这些结果提示,环境因素可能刺激了人类行为的改变,激发了他们更广泛的扩散、交易及制作新型的工具。


在第一项研究中,Rick Potts等人分析了得到良好保存的沉积物,它们来自肯尼亚的欧罗结撒依立耶盆地(Olorgesailie Basin),结果发现,从大约80万年前开始,该地区发生的变化可能触发了早期人类行为的重大演化。那里的沉积物表明,欧罗结撒依立耶盆地过去大多数时间为洪泛平原,但到约80万年前,那里越来越多地在潮湿和干旱状态间波动。此外,土壤样本的碳同位素表明,该地区已演化成为一片辽阔的草原。大约在这个时候,哺乳动物群也发生了翻天覆地的变化,许多体型硕大的专性食草动物(包括某些大象和马的品种)灭绝了,代替它们位置的体型较小的有关类群出现了 -- 对此,作者说,这是气候变化的又一迹象。他们指出,这些气候变化令人类的狩猎-采集者对食物的获取变得难以预料,这转而驱使他们进行更大范围的活动、信息收集及对社会资源交换网络的投入。Potts等指出,这些变化在考古证据中是明显的;尽管以前用于工具制造的岩石有98%来自欧罗结撒依立耶盆地的一个极小地区(方圆仅5公里),但到约32万年前,制作工具所用岩石被远处的黑曜石取代,表明当时人们可以旅行到更远的地方并可能有贸易活动。作者说,这代表了非洲古人类行为的一个重大改变,那时正值或接近智人起源的时间。


Alison Brooks所做的另一项研究对在欧罗结撒依立耶盆地出土的人造物品提供了更多的细节,这些物品包括了武器和颜料,它们提供了早期技术和贸易的线索。值得注意的是,他们对大约50万年前 至 29.8万年前这段时期的5个遗址进行了观察;结果发现,在较早期的遗址与较近期的遗址所发现的工具类型有着明显的差异。较古老的遗址所发现的武器较大及笨重(如手斧),它们是用当地的火山岩制造的,但在多个较为近来的遗址之一所发现的则为不同款的、小得多而且精致的武器。作者指出,这些较近时期制造的工具中约有42%是用黑曜石制成的,而当地没有黑曜石。此外,从该遗址中发现了约4万6000个黑曜石片,这表明,黑曜石是作为原材料被带入该遗址进行加工的,而不是作为成品引进的。研究人员还发现,第二种最常见的外来原料是绿色、棕色或白色的燧石(一种有色岩石)。作者说,尤其令人感兴趣的是一块带有2个穿孔的赭石颜料,这使它跻身于已知最古老的明显加工过的颜料之列;他们指出,这些奇异的鲜红与黑色岩石的运输可能是受到重视的,因为它们有着浓烈的色彩并可能是用作象征身份地位的交流物。Brooks等人最后还讨论了在这些遗址附近范围内发现的动物遗骸,后者提示,早期现代人的生存可能部分依赖于小型动物。


由Alan Deino等进行了的第三项研究提供了欧罗结撒依立耶盆地内遗址的详细的测年结果,它们捕捉到了从阿舍利时期向中石器时期的关键性的过渡。据作者报告,他们用氩和铀测年技术确定了该盆地内各遗址的时间线,证实了较早的阿舍利遗址中有着较大的工具;从大约32万年前开始,这些遗址中便缺乏阿舍利样的工具;他们指出,这些结果确立了迄今为止在非洲中部发现的中石器时期人造物品的最古老储库。


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环境影响人类进化的证据!话说历史上那些智慧人物爆发期,会不会是类似太空辐射爆发的事件影响?道理是显而易见的,太空育种就是利用这个原理嘛!所以很不奇怪,如果地质历史时期有这种突发的大规模变异,那么所谓利用分子钟恒定速率计算,我觉得是不可靠的。还有晚更新世大灭绝,以及全新世人类智力大飞跃,是不是什么太空超强辐射的影响,我觉得真是值得研究!!!古代动植物遗骸的基因什么的,需要进行细致研究,看看是不是在全新世有过一个大跃进式的快速变异时代!


NASA:太空生活令宇航员DNA发生重大变化
来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年3月16日 12:25
...
癯鹤 发表于 2018-3-16 16:50
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现代智人“入非洲理论”也有新情况:

摩洛哥古人类的DNA研究揭示他们有着意想不到的祖先



来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年3月16日 11:22






摩洛哥古人类的DNA研究揭示他们有着意想不到的祖先


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据EurekAlert!:在对北非的数个1万5000年之久的人类骨骸物质进行DNA测序之后,研究人员报告,他们的样本与古代欧洲人之间明显缺乏关系;这一结果否定了在某个特定时间人类基因从欧洲南部流入非洲北部的假设;北非地区对了解人类历史至关重要;但在该区域内,要想破解人类基因走向的拼图则一直颇具挑战。作者说,相反,这些研究的样本与更远地区的人群有更密切的关系;这一结果表明,晚更新世非洲人群间有着动态的交互关系。


到目前为止,在北非进行探索的研究人员已经在史前遗址(包括摩洛哥)中发现了人类的骨骸,但它们的源头则一直不清楚。为了解这些个体与地球其它地方人群的关系,Marieke van de Loosdrecht、Matthias Meyer和同事在此从摩洛哥的几个古代北非人的骨骸样本中提取了DNA,这些北非人被认为属于所谓的Iberomaurusian文化,但其来源存在争议。研究人员将他们的基因数据与其他古代(及现代)人的基因数据进行了比对,他们发现了几乎60万个重叠的遗传标记。在后续建模研究中,他们得出结论:他们的北非人样本表明,这些人的祖先不是欧洲人。


相反,这些人与古代近东人及与撒哈拉以南非洲人群共有先祖基因成分,表明非洲与农业出现前的近东之间有关联。这些数据为晚更新世中现代人在广袤的地理范围内存在遗传互动提供了证据。

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
气死我了,白写了一个钟头,很有分量的新发现和我的深入探讨。两次着重点击发表,而且也还登录着,等了一分钟以为已经好了刷新页面,但却没有传过来!!

算了,不多说了。通天洞,天人感应,阿尔泰山真是帝之下都 ...
癯鹤 发表于 2016-12-23 10:00
天人感应每如此,天女散花又有知。但愿研究永无止,弄清远古求真实!

【多图】新疆北部迎强降雪 积雪厚度超10厘米
受西伯利亚强冷空气影响,4月1日,地处新疆北部阿勒泰地区的新疆生产建设兵团第十师一八六团迎来强降雪,气温骤降到零下11℃。 此次积雪厚度达10厘米以...
新浪新闻 17小时前




吉木乃县通天洞遗址火塘遗迹可能是新疆迄今发现的人类点燃的第一堆火


来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年4月03日 10:08






吉木乃县通天洞遗址火塘遗迹可能是新疆迄今发现的人类点燃的第一堆火



出土石制品组合


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据中国文化报(李佳霖):出土的火塘遗迹很可能是新疆迄今发现的人类点燃的第一堆火;大量旧石器时代石制品的发现,把新疆地区的考古学年代推到4万年以前;大量动物骨骼化石的出土,为探讨这一时期人类对动物资源的利用方式和遗址环境变迁提供了宝贵资料……自2016年发掘以来,新疆维吾尔自治区阿勒泰地区吉木乃县阔依塔斯村通天洞遗址有诸多惊人发现,成功入选中国社会科学院评出的2017年中国考古新发现。


新疆境内发现的第一个旧石器时代洞穴遗址


据了解,通天洞遗址的发现纯属偶然。2014年,全国第一次可移动文物普查工作在新疆如期进行。当普查人员途经阔依塔斯村时,在遗址处地表上发现了一些陶片,普查人员初步判断该遗址属于青铜时代古人类的生活居住遗址。2016年,在得到国家文物局发掘申请的批准后,新疆文物考古研究所研究员于建军带领一支考古队对通天洞遗址进行了发掘。


该遗址有3处大小不一的洞穴,正面看呈“品”字形,左下面的洞穴最大,长22.5米、进深16.6米、高5.8米。进入该洞穴约2米时,洞穴与山顶上下相通,通天洞由此得名。为认识遗址的考古学文化序列和相关遗存,考古队员在洞穴内外各布置了一个25平方米的探方。洞穴外的探方发掘出比较多的陶片和石磨盘以及反复用火的遗迹。而在洞穴内,清理完堆积较厚的牛羊粪,露出堆积比较薄的早期铁器时代——青铜时代文化层;再往下清理,出土了少量细石器;再往下,清理出旧石器时代文化层,出土了大量石制品和动物骨骼等遗迹。北京大学考古文博学院随后加入考古发掘中,对其中4平方米的范围进行了进一步发掘,而对其中出土的石制品时代的确认,让考古队员大吃一惊。经碳十四测年,旧石器时代地层的年代为距今4.5万年左右。据介绍,在此之前,新疆几乎所有的考古发现中,最早为距今约4000年前的遗存。


2017年6月至9月,新疆文物考古研究所和北京大学再次合作对通天洞遗址进行了第二次发掘,其间在洞穴外探方内发现了围绕洞口的石围墙以及围墙外直径约1.2米的灰坑等遗迹,还出土了炭化小麦,对其进行碳十四测年的结果为距今5000年至3500年。洞穴内旧石器文化层中还发现了原位埋藏的边界清晰的3个圆形灰堆。“炭化小麦的出土,表明通天洞遗址有可能是新疆目前最早的铜石并用时代的遗址,并且从青铜到早期铁器时代延续使用。”于建军说。


于建军表示,经过初步调查勘探,在通天洞附近还有22个洞穴出现,其中有两个洞穴也有史前人类活动的遗迹,而在洞穴对面的崖壁上,还有类似的洞穴等待他们进一步探索。“通天洞洞穴口朝西,顶部敞开,夏天能通风,应该比较凉快,可能是古人类夏天居住的地方,对面崖壁的洞穴洞口朝东,比较封闭,可能是古人类冬天居住的地方。”于建军如是推测。


中国旧石器时代考古重大发现


“该遗址地层堆积明显、文化序列明确,提供了本地区旧石器——细石器——青铜——早期铁器时代的连续地层剖面,埋藏学和年代学研究价值明显。这对新疆考古来说是划时代的。”中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所研究员高星这样评价通天洞遗址的考古发掘。他认为,遗址不仅填补了新疆史前洞穴考古的空白,也是中国旧石器时代考古的重大发现,对了解新疆地区4万多年以来古人类演化发展过程、确立区域文化发展的编年框架具有非常重要的意义。


高星还对该遗址旧石器文化层中出土的数以千计的石制品十分关注。他认为,这些石制品的出土,填补了我国旧石器时代中期莫斯特文化类型的空白。莫斯特文化即欧洲、西亚、中亚和东北非的旧石器时代中期文化,因最早发现于法国多尔多涅省莱塞济附近的勒穆斯捷岩棚而得名,其典型特征是使用勒瓦娄哇技术和盘状石核技术,典型器物是用石片精心制作的边刮器和三角形尖状器。过去曾有人怀疑莫斯特文化在东亚是否存在过,而通天洞遗址出土的种类丰富的石制品,就包括勒瓦娄哇石核、盘状石核、勒瓦娄哇尖状器、各类刮削器和莫斯特尖状器等典型的勒瓦娄哇—莫斯特文化的石制品。“这就提醒我们必须重视通天洞遗址所在位置,其所在的新疆阿勒泰地区位于亚洲腹地,四周分别与黄河流域为中心的中原地区、欧亚大陆北方大草原、中亚东欧等地区为邻,这对我们理解和研究欧亚草原上古人类交往交流等问题提供了重要证据。”于建军说。


除了大量石器,遗址出土的大量动物骨骼也引起专家的种种揣测。这些动物骨骼可鉴定的种类有食肉类、兔类、羊、驴、犀牛、棕熊以及鸟类等,有明显的切割、灼烧、敲击等痕迹,且骨骼破碎程度很高。“这为探讨这一时期人类对动物资源的利用方式和遗址环境变迁提供了宝贵资料,比如这说明生活在这里的人类以狩猎为主,可能他们的食物来源不多,所以一旦猎取到食物,对其的利用率就非常高。”于建军解释。


更多问题有待进一步发掘证实


对于如此重要的遗址,作为发掘领队的于建军直言发掘的每一步自己都很兴奋,而更让他兴奋的是通过遗址发掘发现的一些线索,可能预示着更大的学术和研究价值,还有待他们开展工作去进一步印证。比如小麦起源于西亚,被人类驯化比较早,在考古界,一直有在欧亚草原的南麓存在着一条小麦传播通道的推测,此次在遗址的全新世地层中浮选得到炭化的小麦,如果在进一步发掘中小麦种属等问题得到解决,很可能会让这一推测变成现实。再比如,考古队在通天洞穴外发掘出一座小型石板墓,但是在其中没有发现任何文化遗物。如果在之后的发掘中能够发现人的骨骼,与其他地方人骨化石的DNA进行比对,就可以为探讨亚欧大陆史前时期人群的迁徙、交流、扩散等提供重要线索。再比如,在洞穴内的探方内发掘出土了少量细石器,年代在1万年左右,其中反映的问题只能在进一步发掘中解决。


同时,让于建军备感欣慰的是在发掘的同时,遗址的保护工作已经同步推进。“我们在遗址发掘之初就主动做宣讲工作,得到当地政府和民众的支持。目前,吉木乃县委、县政府将通天洞遗址公布为县级文保单位,划定了遗址保护范围,完成了遗址土地置换,还聘请多名文物看护员负责遗址的安全,并且设置了安防设备。今年我们准备开展多场讲座,让民众了解当地悠久的历史和深厚的文化底蕴,坚定文化自信。”于建军表示。

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-4-10 17:05 编辑

两个新闻,出非洲理论和入非洲理论仍在PK,非洲也有类似欧洲、亚洲尼安德特人、丹尼索瓦人的存在,凭啥说现代人类就是起源于非洲?!!起源于亚洲而回返,似乎更有道理!
现在发现有三四种远古基因是其他早期智人(甚至直立人)的,为嘛其他看似不古老而为现代人共有的基因库不是更多几种不同地区的智人混交而来?总之,单一起源说似乎不敌吴前辈多地区起源说!万里古德!!!
混匀现代人基因主流的地方,也不一定就是非洲。毕竟人类迁徙和演化的线索,现在仍然迷雾重重。
另,“约鲁巴”与“欧罗巴”似乎是同源词,源于早期现代人类“夸父追日”般西去(入非洲理论),跟非洲猿人“约吗”?然后……



西非约鲁巴人8%的DNA来自一个未知的人类“幽灵”祖先



来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年4月08日 10:11






西非约鲁巴人8%的DNA来自一个未知的人类“幽灵”祖先


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据新华社微特稿(欧飒):美国一项研究发现,一些西非人可能继承了未知祖先的基因。


英国《每日邮报》报道,加利福尼亚大学洛杉矶分校研究人员分析50名西非约鲁巴人的脱氧核糖核酸(DNA),发现其中大约8%的DNA来自一个未知“幽灵”祖先。


虽然智人可能是唯一留存到今天的古人类人种,几万年前,地球上生活着若干种古人类。他们交叉繁衍,使得已经灭绝的古人类的一些DNA留在现代人身上,例如科学家在非洲后裔以外的人身上发现尼安德特人DNA,在亚洲后裔身上发现丹尼索瓦人DNA。


研究人员说,DNA分析显示,约鲁巴人的“幽灵”祖先不可能是尼安德特人或丹尼索瓦人。他们推测,“幽灵”祖先可能是大约20万年前生活在非洲的海德堡人,或迄今为止仍不为人知的一种古人类。


英国伦敦大学学院教授马克·托马斯告诉《新科学家》杂志,无论“幽灵”祖先的答案是什么,这项研究再次,人类不是进化自一个单一人群。






The 88,000-year-old finger bone that rewrites mankind's history: Human fossil found in Saudi Arabia suggests our ancestors spread out of Africa 20,000 years earlier than first thought

  • The three centimetre (1.25 inch) long middle finger was found in the desert
  • It is the oldest directly dated Homo sapien fossil discovered outside of Africa
  • The bone was scanned in three dimensions and confirmed to be modern human
  • The first homo sapiens may have entered Arabia by crossing the Red Sea
By Tim Collins For Mailonline and Colin Fernandez Science Correspondent For The Daily Mail
Published: 16:25 BST, 9 April 2018 | Updated: 16:51 BST, 9 April 2018

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The story of mankind's early history may have to be rewritten, thanks to a fossilised finger bone from an early modern human dating back around 88,000 years.
Experts found the remains in the deserts of Saudi Arabia, suggesting that early migration out of Africa into Eurasia was more expansive than previously thought.
It is the oldest directly dated Homo sapien fossil outside of the continent or the Levant, the area around what is now Israel, Palestine and the Lebanon.
The three centimetre (1.25 inch) long middle finger is around 20,000 years older than the date from which modern humans were thought to have left Africa.
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The fossil is a finger bone and was unearthed at Al Wusta, in what is now Saudi Arabia. The authors conducted radiometric dating on the bone and determined that the finger is at least 85,000 years old


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Using a technique called uranium series dating, a laser was used to make microscopic holes in the fossil and measure the ratio between tiny traces of radioactive elements. This discovery shows that early members of our species were not just restricted to the Levant

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History made the discovery at Al Wusta, an ancient fresh-water lake located in what is now the hyper-arid Nefud Desert.
Numerous animal fossils, including those of hippopotamus and tiny fresh water snails were found at the site, as well as abundant stone tools made by humans.
Among these finds was the well preserved and small fossil, which was immediately recognized as a human finger bone.




The bone was scanned in three dimensions and its shape compared to various other finger bones, both of recent Homo sapiens individuals, from other species of primates and other forms of early humans, such as Neanderthals.
The results conclusively showed that the finger bone, the first ancient human fossil found in Arabia, belonged to our own species.
Lead author Dr. Huw Groucutt, of the University of Oxford said: ‘This discovery for the first time conclusively shows that early members of our species colonised an expansive region of southwest Asia and were not just restricted to the Levant.

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At the time the finger was buried, the climate of the region around Al Wusta was humid and monsoonal. Today it is vastly different and is covered in sand.

‘The ability of these early people to widely colonize this region casts doubt on long held views that early dispersals out of Africa were localised and unsuccessful.
'This finger bone from Al Wusta suggests homo sapiens is moving out of Africa far earlier than 65,000 years ago, it’s 20,000 years earlier than expected.’
While homo sapiens bones dated to 177,000 years ago have been found in a cave in Israel, evidence is scant for any further expansion anywhere beyond the coasts.
The research suggests that the first homo sapiens may have entered Arabia by crossing the Red Sea at a time when it was ‘little more than a river’.
Experts used a technique called uranium series dating to make the discovery.
A laser was used to make microscopic holes in the fossil and measure the ratio between tiny traces of radioactive elements. These ratios revealed that the fossil was 88,000 years old.
Other dates obtained from associated animals fossils and sediments converged to a date of approximately 90,000 years ago.
WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT HUMANKIND'S JOURNEY OUT OF AFRICA?The traditional view
The traditional 'Out of Africa' model suggests that modern humans evolved in Africa and then left in a single wave around 60,000 years ago.
The model often holds once modern humans left the continent, a brief period of interbreeding with Neanderthals occurred.
This explains why individuals of European and Asian heritage today still have ancient human DNA.
There are many theories as to what drove the downfall of the Neanderthals.
Experts have suggested that early humans may have carried tropical diseases with them from Africa that wiped out their ape-like cousins.
Others claim that plummeting temperatures due to climate change wiped out the Neanderthals.
The predominant theory is that early humans killed off the Neanderthal through competition for food and habitat.
How the story is changing in light of new research
Recent findings suggest that the 'Out of Africa' theory does not tell the full story of our ancestors.
Instead, multiple, smaller movements of humans out of Africa beginning 120,000 years ago were then followed by a major migration 60,000 years ago.
Most of our DNA is made up of this latter group, but the earlier migrations, also known as 'dispersals', are still evident.
This explains recent studies of early human remains which have been found in the far reaches of Asia dating back further than 60,000 years.
For example, H. sapiens remains have been found at multiple sites in southern and central China that have been dated to between 70,000 and 120,000 years ago.
Other recent finds show that modern humans reached Southeast Asia and Australia prior to 60,000 years ago.
Based on these studies, humans could not have come in a single wave from Africa around this time, studies have found.
Instead, the origin of man suggests that modern humans developed in multiple regions around the world.
The theory claims that groups of a pre-human ancestors made their way out of Africa and spread across parts of Europe and the Middle East.
From here the species developed into modern humans in several places at once.
The argument is by a new analysis of a 260,000-year-old skull found in Dali County in China's Shaanxi Province.
The skull suggests that early humans migrated to Asia, where they evolved modern human traits and then moved back to Africa.

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Further environmental analyses also revealed the site to have been a freshwater lake in an ancient grassland environment far removed from today's deserts.
Prior to this discovery, it was thought that early dispersals into Eurasia were unsuccessful and remained restricted to the Mediterranean forests of the Levant, on the doorstep of Africa
The fossilised finger demonstrates that rather than just clinging to the coastline as they left Africa, they ventured into the interior of what is now Arabia.
At this time, Arabia was humid and monsoonal crossed with rivers and dotted with hundreds of lakes.
These old watering holes – long since having dried up – are expected to reveal many more insights as the region has not been extensively explored by archaeologists.

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For the Al Wusta (pictured) finger bone, the authors were also able to corroborate the dates from surrounding animal remains and sediments using electron spin resonance and optically stimulated luminescence techniques

Professor Michael Petraglia of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History added: ‘The Arabian Peninsula has long been considered to be far from the main stage of human evolution.
‘This discovery firmly puts Arabia on the map as a key region for understanding our origins and expansion to the rest of the world. As fieldwork carries on, we continue to make remarkable discoveries in Saudi Arabia’.
Donald Henry, professor of Anthropology at Tulsa University said in a commentary that the findings lend support that homo sapiens did not just fan out across the Levant – but also across the Red Sea.
WHAT IS URANIUM-THORIUM DATING?Uranium-Thorium dating is a way of determining the age of a rock by the amount of radioactive Thorium it contains.
This method can be used to determine the age of calcium carbonate materials, such as coral.
Scientists can measure the amount of Thorium-230 in a sample of rock, if the rock contained Uranium originally.
Uranium is often found in trace amounts in certain types of rock and is radioactive.
It has a half-life (the amount of time it takes for the elements radioactivity to decrease by half) of about 245,000 years.
At this point it undergoes alpha decay (it releases an alpha particle, which is also the same as the nucleus of a Helium atom) and forms Thorium-230.
Thorium has a much shorter half-life of 75,000 years.
Unlike other types of radioactive dating, Uranium-Thorium (U-Th) dating doesn't reach a stable end point.
Instead, the decay of Thorium and the production of Thorium reach a form of balance - called secular equilibrium.

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Uranium-Thorium dating is a method can be used to determine the age of calcium carbonate materials, such as coral


[url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url]

He said: ‘The most likely access to Arabia from Africa is near the southern end of the Red Sea over the narrow Bab el Mandeb strait.
‘Interestingly, during many intervals of the Late Pleistocene, lower sea levels would not only have narrowed the crossing to little more than a large river, they also would have exposed extensive areas of a shallow shelf, creating a fertile, lowland zone attractive to colonization by plants, animals and humans.’
The full findings of the study were published in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution.



Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5595145/The-85-000-year-old-human-finger-Saudi-Arabia-rewrites-history-mankind.html#ixzz5CG1NYM00
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http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
眉毛胡子一把抓,胡子还可以从一些动物中看到端倪,但是眉毛却很独特,似乎是人类独有(有些鸟类也有类似眉毛的存在,然而隔纲如赶山,跟哺乳动物不能相提并论)下面这篇文章把眉毛的进化归结于表达感情。我觉得颇有四体不勤五谷不分的意思。虽然“须眉”、“蛾眉”、“美眉”确实可以说眉毛有表达情感的作用(不过从趋同进化角度来说,也有道理,鸟类的眉毛也是美貌的装饰羽),但是如果真的只是为了什么情感表达,我觉得跟其他灵长类那样,进化出山魈等猴类的脸谱也未可知,至少人类历史上纹面的习俗也曾广泛传播(现代还有京剧脸谱孑遗)。善于演戏的一些色眉人多有浓重眉毛(如周色目等老戏骨),确实可以说在人类进化过程中眉毛在情感中的作用确实得到了强化而愈益显得有用。
可是在哺乳动物中,独此一种,仍然是有些奇怪。真不知道眉毛到底是什么时候进化出来的,是在人类情感进步到一定时期,专门用于情感交流的?愚以为最初应该不是如此,作为一种功能性毛发,我觉得眉毛进化出来可能有更实用的体质人类学需要。
这个体质人类学需要需要你跑上一大圈,最好是后面被狼撵着或全家饿着肚子撵猎物。人是一种奇特的出汗的动物,汉水尤其在头顶发源的多(主要是大脑耗能高)。为了散热,有些游猎民族发展出“秃发”习俗。但是秃发也仍然止不住太阳晒或跑得快流汗呀!汉水是淡水河,然而汗水可是咸的,流到眼睛里什么滋味,还能好好地跑步么,被狼吃了或逮不着猎物,不就是死么?愚以为,眉毛最初进化而来,是遮挡汗水的需要。另外胡须也有个功能,拦蓄汗水,蒸发出的盐结晶,……恶心的话就不多说了。还有身上的腋毛、阴毛什么的,也都是类似作用,它们拦蓄汗水,盐晶杀菌。使人的腋窝、腹股沟有天然杀菌剂。阴毛尤其防止汗水结晶到阴部,造成不必要的刺激。盐晶结晶在嘴唇附近都可能造成皮肤开裂,到了下部就更不行了。
有此高见,不得发表,与彼科学家争鸣,证明我华夏有人有思想,实乃人生一大憾事!


How evolving expressive EYEBROWS helped our ancestors survive by allowing them to better communicate their emotions

  • Eyebrows evolved to transmit subtle signals of emotional states and empathy
  • This is said to have helped prehistoric humans establish large social networks
  • A pronounced brow ridge was a sign of dominance in early ancestors
  • Modern humans traded in these prominent brows for a smooth foreheads
By Phoebe Weston For Mailonline

Published: 16:03 BST, 9 April 2018 | Updated: 17:24 BST, 9 April 2018


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Sir Roger Moore's famously mobile eyebrows were the result of thousands of years of evolution that may have contributed to early human survival, scientists believe.
Now scientists have come up with a new explanation for the kind of eyebrow activity at which the former Bond actor excelled.
The theory is that it evolved to transmit subtle signals of emotional states and empathy.
This in turn is said to have helped prehistoric humans establish the large social networks needed for survival during the harsh last Ice Age.
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Like antlers on a stag, a pronounced brow ridge was a sign of dominance and aggression in early ancestors (pictured in the foreground). Modern humans traded in these prominent brows for a smooth forehead and more visible, hairy eyebrows capable of a greater range of movement (pictured in the skull behind)

Like antlers on a stag, a pronounced brow ridge was a sign of dominance and aggression in early ancestors.
Modern humans traded in these prominent brows for a smooth forehead and more visible, hairy eyebrows capable of a greater range of movement.
Mobile eyebrows meant we could communicate with a large social network and established more nuanced emotions, according to researchers from the University of York.
'The broader idea is that it is more important to express affiliative (friendly) emotions as we go through time in human evolution, and increasingly important to get on better with people, through responding to vulnerability and being vulnerable', Dr Penny Spikins, one of the researchers from the University of York told MailOnline.
'Unlike other primates we blush with embarrassment and cry when we are upset and are also able to show our sympathy and our vulnerability in our faces through our mobile eyebrows', she said.
Mobile eyebrows meant we could express recognition and sympathy, meaning we were able to better cooperate and understand other people.



Dr Spikins said: 'While our sister species the Neanderthals were dying out, we were rapidly colonising the globe and surviving in extreme environments.
'This had a lot to do with our ability to create large social networks - we know, for example, that prehistoric modern humans avoided inbreeding and went to stay with friends in distant locations during hard times.
'Eyebrows are the missing part of the puzzle of how modern humans managed to get on so much better with each other than other now-extinct hominins.'
After conducting a new study of the skull of Homo heidelbergensis, an ancient African hominin dating back 124,000 - 300,000 years, the researchers discounted previous theories about the origin of brow ridges.







Mobile eyebrows meant we could communicate with a large social network and established more nuanced emotions. Pictured left is actress and model Cara Delevigne who is known for her prominent eyebrows and Sir Roger Moore's famously mobile eyebrows are shown right

Earlier research had suggested the heavy brows may have been needed to protect the skull when chewing, or were a structural feature arising from the conjunction of a flat brain case and large eye sockets.
Instead it was much more likely that the purpose of brow ridges was social, said the scientists.
They created a 3D computer simulation of a skull from Zambia known as Kabwe 1 housed at London's Natural History Museum.
Huge, jutting brow ridges may have signalled dominance and aggression, according to the findings reported in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution.
In a similar way, dominant male mandrills, the world's largest monkey, sport brightly coloured muzzle swellings to display their status.

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Researchers created a 3D computer simulation of a skull from Zambia known as Kabwe 1 housed at London's Natural History Museum








As human faces became smaller and smoother over the course of 100,000 years, jutting brow ridges gave way to eye brows capable of more subtle emotional displays (pictured), researchers found


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Pictured is a chimpanzee face with a pronounced brow ridge. Earlier research had suggested the heavy brows may have been needed to protect the skull when chewing, or were a structural feature arising from the conjunction of a flat brain case and large eye sockets

The bones underlying mandrill swellings are pitted in the same way as the brow ridges of ancient hominins, the researchers point out.
As human faces became smaller and smoother over the course of 100,000 years, jutting brow ridges gave way to eye brows capable of more subtle emotional displays, it is claimed.
Dr Spikins added: 'Eyebrow movements allow us to express complex emotions as well as perceive the emotions of others.
A rapid 'eyebrow flash' is a cross-cultural sign of recognition and openness to social interaction, and pulling our eyebrows up at the middle is an expression of sympathy, researchers found.
Tiny movements of the eyebrows are also a key component to identifying trustworthiness and deception.
'On the flip side it has been shown that people who have had botox which limits eyebrow movement are less able to empathise and identify with the emotions of others', researchers found.



Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5586851/Expressive-eyebrows-helped-early-humans-survive-helped-express-emotion-scientists-say.html#ixzz5CGHVCVQW
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http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
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本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-4-18 18:00 编辑

苏拉威西岛很有意思的考古发现!
感觉板块交界地带既是生物热点地区,也是跟人类进化密切相关地区。我认为现代人类化跟这几大板块界面有关。
(一)环地中海区域。欧亚板块、非洲板块与印度-澳大利亚板块三者交界。这里可能是最初的古猿进化成人的地方(详参本人假说: 金发蓝眼的猩猩),直立人、尼安德特人、丹尼索瓦人、现代人类以及其他数个旁系人种可能都是在这里不同时空格局里分别进化出来的。
(二)东非大裂谷。正在形成中的板块分裂区。出非洲理论中的伊甸园,历届古人类以及现代人类的摇篮。
(三)华莱士区。亚欧板块、印度-澳大利亚板块、太平洋板块三者交界的地区。大门类生物类群最多。这里极可能是现代人类Y-K的温床(不过Y-K可能诞生在其他地方),也就是如今世界最大多数人群的祖庭,也是至少两三种古老人类基因孑遗的地区。
(四)东西伯利亚。亚欧板块、美洲板块、太平洋板块三者交界的地区。可能是亚美人种形成的地方。也是Y-P西去形成Y-R的地方。





A 'distinct human species' may have been living in Indonesian caves on the gateway to Australia 50,000 years ago, scientists reveal


  • Researchers have found an ancient population of 'Ice Age' hunter-gatherers
  • They got to the Indonesian island 50,000 years ago, according to evidence
  • The culture of these early peoples is distinct from those living in nearby
  • They could also be a distinct human species or human relatives that had long inhabited Sulawesi
ByPhoebe Weston For Mailonline
Published: 10:20 BST, 17 April 2018 | Updated: 17:43 BST, 17 April 2018
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A 'distinct human species' could have lived on the island of Sulawesi- the gateway to the vast zone of islands between continental Asia and Australia - 50,000 years ago.
A mystical ancient population of Ice Age hunter-gatherers got to the Indonesian island much earlier than previously thought, according to new evidence found in a rock shelter.
Previously experts thought modern humans reached the area between 25,000 and 34,000 years ago.
However, these strange early inhabitants could be a new species of now-extinct 'archaic human', with a totally different culture from modern humans.
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In 1975 artefacts (pictured) recovered at Leang Burung cave were believed to be evidence that modern humans reached Indonesia between 25,000 and 34,000 years ago. Researchers returned to the site to reassess their dates and found they could have been used by people living there 50,000 years ago

The island of Sulawesi is generally believed to be a stepping-stone along early human dispersal routes.
The limestone rock shelter at Leang Burung 2 in the Maros karsts of Sulawesi has long been significant in our understanding of early human dispersal into 'Wallacea' - the vast zone of oceanic islands between continental Asia and Australia.
Artefacts recovered at Leang Burung cave in 1975 were believed to be evidence that modern humans reached the area between 25,000 and 34,000 years ago.
In new research at the rock shelter, Australian researchers dug nearly three metres deeper for more ancient materials, according to the paper, published in PLOS ONE.



In the newly-excavated lower levels of the deposit, they discovered and dated archaic cobble-based cores and flakes.
Analysis of the finds revealed evidence of ancient tools and animals remains left in the cave at least 50,000 years ago, according to the researchers.

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The rock shelter at Leang Burung 2 (pictured) in the Maros karsts of Sulawesi has long been significant in our understanding of early human dispersal into 'Wallacea' - the vast zone of oceanic islands between continental Asia and Australia

'We have uncovered archaeological evidence for an ancient population of "Ice Age" hunter-gatherers that inhabited Leang Burung 2 rock-shelter around 50,000 years ago', Dr Adam Brumm from Griffith University's Australian Research Centre for Human Evolution said.
Dr Brumm said this early 'culture' is distinct from the early modern human foragers who were creating sophisticated cave art in nearby sites by 40,000 years ago.
This could suggest 'the first inhabitants of this site may not only have been members of a different culture but also a distinct human species', he added.
'Our findings support recent suggestions - based on work conducted elsewhere in Indonesia - that classic Ice Age sites in the region may harbour deeper and older evidence for occupation', he told MailOnline.

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A mystical ancient population of 'Ice Age' hunter-gatherers got to the Indonesian island much earlier than previously thought, according to evidence found in a rock shelter. Pictured is excavation at the site

The researchers believe Sulawesi could have first been inhabited by an archaic species of human that long preceded the arrival of the Ice Age cave art culture.
However, the identity of the earliest human inhabitants of this cave still remains a mystery.
'The island of Sulawesi is located near the edge of the Asian continent, with its ancient population of Homo erectus, and north of Flores, home to the famous ‘Hobbit’ (Homo floresiensis)', Dr Brumm told MailOnline.
'It is also thought that the so-named "Denisovan" hominins, close relatives of the Neanderthals, were present somewhere in Wallacea and that they interbred with early ancestors of present-day Aboriginal Australian and Melanesian peoples.
'Based on findings in the wider region, therefore, it is possible that the first inhabitants of Leang Burung 2 were a now-extinct group that was later replaced by our species', he said.


These new artefacts provide key insights into the history of human occupation across the Indonesian region. These recent excavations do not yet reach the lowest layers of the deposit. Pictured is the area near the site


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They believe Sulawesi could have first been inhabited by an archaic species of human that long preceded the arrival of the Ice Age cave art culture. However, the identity of the earliest human inhabitants of this cave still remains a mystery

These new artefacts provide key insights into the history of human occupation across the Indonesian region.
These recent excavations do not yet reach the lowest layers of the deposit.
Further exploration at nearby sites may recover even older remains of human occupation, researchers say.

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In the newly-excavated lower levels of the deposit, researchers discovered and dated archaic cobble-based cores and flakes. Pictured is Sulawesi (stock image)


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Although it could be another species of human, researchers do not know for sure. Another theory is that the remains belong to modern humans who could have gone via Sulawesi on their was to Australia

Although it could be another species of human, researchers do not know for sure.
'It is now known that Homo Sapiens evolved in Africa at least 300,000 years ago and that an early population of our species had spread out of Africa (into Israel) by 200,000 years ago, and possibly even made it much further east', said Dr Brumm.
They even could have been the same early modern humans that produced 40,000-year-old cave art found in neighbouring caves.
These caves, called Leang Bulu Bettue, were also on the Wallacean island of Sulawesi.

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Researchers discovered stunning pieces of jewellery and art that date back 30,000 years to the last ice age. Artefacts include beads made from babirusa ('pig deer') tooth, and a pendant made from the bone of a bear that is only found in that area (pictured)

Artefacts included beads made from babirusa ('pig deer') tooth, and a pendant made from the bone of a bear that is only found in that area.
The findings suggest that the people who lived there at that time adapted their spiritual beliefs based on the animals they met on the journey from Asia to Australia.
Dr Brumm said at the time: 'Scientists have long been curious about the cultural lives of the first Homo sapiens to inhabit the lands to the immediate north of Australia sometime prior to 50,000 years ago - part of the great movement of our species out of Africa.

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Last year researchers found early examples of art and jewellery on Sulawesi. They said they imply that the spiritual beliefs of modern humans may have transformed as they encountered new animals on the journey from Asia to Australia Read


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The discovery of ornaments manufactured from the bones and teeth of two of Sulawesi's flagship endemics - babirusas and bear cuscuses (pictured) - shows that humans were drawn to these dramatically new faunal species, according to the researchers

'Some have argued that Pleistocene human culture declined in sophistication as Homo sapiens ventured beyond India into the Southeast Asian tropics and the island chains east of continental Eurasia, known as Wallacea.
'However, the onset of new research programs in Wallacea is steadily dismantling this view.'
The art is some of the world's oldest, and is a unique assemblage of previously unknown symbolic objects.
The researchers also discovered 'portable' art objects, including stones incised with geometric patterns, although the meaning remains unknown.
Extensive evidence of rock art production was also found at the site, including discarded ochre pieces, ochre stains on tools, and a bone tube that may have been a 'blow-pipe' for creating hand stencil motifs.



Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5595935/A-distinct-human-species-lived-caves-gateway-Australia-50-000-years-ago.html#ixzz5D0xip4Th
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本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-4-26 16:06 编辑
苏拉威西岛很有意思的考古发现!
感觉板块交界地带既是生物热点地区,也是跟人类进化密切相关地区。我认为现代人类化跟这几大板块界面有关。
(一)环地中海区域。欧亚板块、非洲板块与印度-澳大利亚板块三者交界。 ...
癯鹤 发表于 2018-4-18 17:30
天人感应每如此,我不科研有人做。每当咱有啥新思,旋见他人报成果!
前三楼那新闻“The 88,000-year-old finger bone that rewrites mankind's history: Human fossil found in Saudi Arabia suggests our ancestors spread out of Africa 20,000 years earlier than first thought”提到沙特阿尔乌斯塔发现的近十万年前现代智人遗骨(?)可能是从非洲经红海(?)过去的,这就涉及航海问题。
不止现代智人能渡海,似乎其他古人种也能,地中海区、华莱士区都有明显证据。大海之下,不知道还有多秘密。希腊这里找到的可能是尼安德特人或其他古人种渡海的证据(其实这里更可能是现代智人的重要起源地)!

Neanderthals may have crossed the seas THOUSANDS of years before modern humans, researchers say


  • Discoveries of tools dating back 130,000 years are evidence of early sea travel
  • Tools were found in Crete, which separated from mainland 5 million years ago
  • In recent years, ancient tools have been found in several other islands as well
  • Suggests human ancestors had cognitive and technological means for sea travel
By Cheyenne Macdonald For Dailymail.com
Published: 22:15 BST, 25 April 2018 | Updated: 22:51 BST, 25 April 2018
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Modern humans may not have been the first travelers to cross the seas.
Mounting evidence discovered in recent years suggests Stone Age mariners may have hopped from island to island throughout the Mediterranean more than 130,000 years ago – and, this may even have included Neanderthals.
While it’s long been thought that Bronze Age people were the first to become seafarers, stone tools and bones found throughout Eurasia suggest others had them beat by thousands of years, according to Science magazine.

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Mounting evidence discovered in recent years suggests Stone Age mariners may have hopped from island to island throughout the Mediterranean as far back as 130,000 years ago – and, this may even have included Neanderthals (artist's impression)

The discovery of tools on islands such as Crete has upended the long-held notion that modern humans were the first to venture off land.
Prior to recent archaeological findings, the oldest evidence of purposeful sea travel in the region stood at around 10,000 years old.
While human ancestors are known to have traveled across deep water over a million years ago in Indonesia, and modern humans crossed waters to reach Australia about 65,000 years ago, it’s thought that this may not have been intentional, according to Science.
In 2011, however, archaeologists in Greece announced the discovery of axes and other tools on the south coast of Crete thought to be between 130,000 and 700,000 years old.
But, Crete has been separate from the mainland of Greece for roughly 5 million years.
Researchers at the time said the crude tools could be linked to extinct human ancestors including Homo erectus.


More recently, researchers discovered a vast trove of stone tools near the village of Plakias.

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The discovery of tools on islands such as Crete has upended the long-held notion that modern humans were the first to venture off land. Artifacts thought to have belonged to Neanderthals and Paleolithic human ancestors have also been found on Naxos, Kefalonia, and Zakynthos

These tools appear much like Acheulean tools used up until about 130,000 years ago by Homo erectus and Neanderthals, Thomas Strasser of Providence College told Science.
Artifacts thought to have belonged to Neanderthals and Paleolithic human ancestors have also been discovered on the island Naxos, Kefalonia, and Zakynthos.
At a recent meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, archaeologist Alan Simmons explained that ancient human ancestors may have possessed both the cognitive and technological means to venture off land.
But, many are still skeptical of the idea.

In 2011, however, archaeologists in Greece announced the discovery of axes and other tools (right) on Crete thought to be between 130,000 and 700,000 years old. Researchers said the crude tools could be linked to extinct human ancestors including Homo erectus

‘The orthodoxy until pretty recently was that you don’t have seafarers until the early Bronze age,’ said archaeologist John Cherry of Brown University, according to Science.
‘Now we are talking about seafaring Neanderthals. It’s a pretty stunning change.’
Given how much the position of the land has changed over the course of Earth’s history, experts say it’s difficult to pinpoint exactly where current islands sat thousands of years ago.
But, the growing evidence suggests Neanderthals may been more enticed by the sea than they’ve previously been given credit for.



Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5657623/Neanderthals-crossed-seas-THOUSANDS-years-modern-humans-researchers-say.html#ixzz5DlAk1QtZ
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本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-5-4 00:00 编辑

岛屿东南亚果然是人类进化热点,尤其是Y-P祖型在这里存在,更激发欧人寻祖热情:

Butchered rhino carcass and Stone Age tools reveal early humans settled in the Philippines 600,000 years earlier than thought


  • A near-complete rhino skeleton was found alongside 60 ancient stone tools
  • The bones date back to 709,000 years ago and show signs of butchering
  • Remains have evidence of cut marks and bashing to remove the marrow
  • Early humans likely arrived on the islands accidentally on crude watercraft
By Harry Pettit For Mailonline
Published: 18:09 BST, 2 May 2018 | Updated: 10:22 BST, 3 May 2018

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Ancient rhino bones that shows signs of butchering suggest early humans colonised the Philippines as early as 709,000 years ago.
The near-complete rhinoceros skeleton was found alongside nearly 60 ancient stone tools by scientists excavating a site on the island of Luzon.
The discovery could push back our estimates for when hominins first arrived in the Philippines by almost 650,000 years.
The discovery has left scientists baffled as tho who these ancient humans were and how they crossed the deep seas to reach Southeast Asia.
Experts suggest the ancient hominids likely arrived on the islands accidentally after sailing from Africa aboard crude watercraft, but they have no proof of this.
Scroll down for video

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Ancient rhino bones (pictured) that shows signs of butchering suggest early humans colonised the Philippines as early as 709,000 years ago

The scientists, from France's National Museum of Natural History in Paris, found more than 400 ancient animal bones in Luzon's Cagayan Valley.
The majority of these bones made up a nearly three-quarters complete rhinoceros skeleton that showed signs of butchering.
Marks on the remains were linked to a set of 57 knapped stone tools found at a nearby site.
Thirteen of the rhino's bones have cut marks and two show evidence they were smacked against rocks to release their nutritious marrow.
Researchers also uncovered the remains of brown deer, monitor lizards, freshwater turtles and stegodons - an extinct mammal similar to elephants and mammoths.
The authors date the remains to around 709,000 years ago, providing the earliest direct evidence yet of early human activity in the Philippines.

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The authors date the remains to around 709,000 years ago, making them the oldest direct evidence of early human activity in the Philippines. Previously researchers had found a single human foot bone in the Sierra Madre Mountains that was found to be 67,000 years old


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The near-complete rhinoceros skeleton was found alongside nearly 60 ancient stone tools by scientists excavating a site on the island of Luzon. Pictured is part of a lithic tool uncovered by the research team

Stone tools and the remains of mysterious large animals were discovered in separate research at Cagayan Valley in the 1950s.
The finds hinted that the Philippine island may have been colonised by early humans any time between 781,000 and 126,000 years ago.
But for the past 60 years scientists have struggled to find reliably dated evidence of this early settlement.
Until now, the oldest definitive evidence of hominins in the Philippines came from a single foot bone, found in the Sierra Madre mountains, dated to 67,000 years ago.
The exact species of the stone tools’ owners remains a mystery.

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The scientists, from France's National Museum of Natural History in Paris, found more than 400 ancient animal bones in Luzon's Cagayan Valley. The majority of these bones made up a nearly three-quarters complete rhinoceros skeleton (pictured)

The hominins who made them could have been early humans or a group of human-like ancestors such as Neanderthals or Denisovans.
But according to the researchers, the most likely culprits were early humans, meaning groups had reached the Philippines by the early Middle Pleistocene - long before modern humans.
This adds another sea-crossing to the question of whether early hominin toolmakers were unexpectedly capable of building simple watercraft.
Study lead author Dr Thomas Ingicco suggested ancient humans and their Hominin cousins were capable of travelling long distances accidentially on crude boats.
WHO ARE THE AUSTRONESIANS?The Austronesians are a range of aborigine and ethnic groups who speak the Austronesian family of languages.
These include the Taiwanese aborigines and indigenous populations in Malaysia, East Timor, Philippines, Indonesia, Burnei, Polynesia, New Zealand and Hawaii.
They are thought to have originally been a farming culture that spread from somewhere in southern China or Taiwan.
They are thought to have begun spreading through the islands of Southeast Asia up to 10,000 years ago, using traditional canoe vessels.
There are several theories for their migration through the islands but Austronesian people are thought to have reached Polynesia by around 1,000BC.
They also settled on Easter Island by around 300AD and Hawaii by 400AD.
Until recently it was thought that the Austronesians were the first humans to set foot on regions including the Philippine islands.
In 2010 a single human foot bone was uncovered on Luzon that was dated to 67,000 years ago, suggesting early humans reaches the islands on watercraft far earlier than the Austronesians.

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He compared early man's travel to the Philippines to journeys known to have been taken between continents by ancient species of animal on driftwood.
Dr Ingicco told MailOnline: 'Our findings pushes back the colonisation of the Philippine Islands by more than 600,000 years.
'It provides further evidence that overseas dispersal, either accidental or deliberate (but most likely accidental) happened several times not only for faunas but also for Hominins.'
The Philippine islands were populated by modern humans when the Austronesians crossed over from farming villages in southern China or Taiwan.

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Thirteen of the rhino's bones (pictured) have cut marks and two show evidence they were smacked against rocks to release their nutritious marrow

The Austronesians are a range of aborigine and ethnic groups who speak the Austronesian family of languages.
These include the Taiwanese aborigines and indigenous populations in Malaysia, East Timor, Philippines, Indonesia, Burnei, Polynesia, New Zealand and Hawaii.

They are thought to have begun spreading through the islands of Southeast Asia up to 10,000 years ago, using traditional canoe vessels.
There are several theories for their migration through the islands but Austronesian people are thought to have reached Polynesia by around 1,000BC.



Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5679337/Ancient-rhino-bones-suggest-early-humans-lived-Philippines-early-709-000-years-ago.html#ixzz5ESFClBDF
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http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
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今天看到这么则新闻,发现我还是忽略了与本帖可算很有关系的中东和欧洲的很多考古新发现(当然这根本不是我的专业,作为外行,连爱好都谈不上)

科学家称发现了40万年前人类的学校
2018年01月18日 16:32:27  ...
…二十进制很重要,上帝选择这个数(大洪水四十昼夜),是有考量的!劫数、天数、定数、……,冥冥中,南无number量子纠缠无量天尊摩诃般若波罗蜜!我这人数学不好,只认识几个简单数字,不敢感慨太多!
顺带搜集出一串我以前没注意现在发现于本帖很有关系的旧闻:
以专家称发现40万年前智人骸骨 人类或起源中东

癯鹤 发表于 2018-2-2 18:22
又有新闻来喽!四十万,果然是个定数!(四十万年是循环一周,则二十万年自然也是一个极端,人类进化几乎都以二十万年为进阶呈现出一种突跃)
天人感应每如此,我不科研有人做。每当咱有啥新思,旋见他人报成果!


首证!地球轨道存在40.5万年周期变化

2018年05月09日 01:13新浪科技综合
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  来源:科技日报

地球轨道周期变化 图片来自网络
  科技日报华盛顿5月7日电 (记者刘海英)美国研究人员7日在美国《国家科学院院刊》上发表报告称,通过对古老岩石的分析,他们找到了地球公转轨道40.5万年周期循环假设的首个物理证据,研究表明,这一周期循环在地球气候变化过程中扮演着重要角色。
  科学家们认为,受金星、木星重力以及太阳系中其他物体相互作用的影响,地球公转轨道会以40.5万年为周期,在近乎完美的正圆形到偏心率大约0.05的椭圆形间循环往复。这一假设是基于天体力学原理计算得出来的,此前科学家们并没有找到相关的物理证据。
  此次,美国罗格斯大学的古地磁学教授丹尼斯·肯特率领研究团队,对采自新泽西州纽瓦克盆地的沉积岩样本和亚利桑那州石化林国家公园的地下深层岩芯样本进行了对比分析。岩石样本所包含的地球磁场极性反转记录和同位素测定分析表明,地球公转轨道存在着40.5万年的周期性循环,从恐龙兴起之前的数亿年至今,这个周期一直保持着稳定。
  研究人员指出,岩石分析表明,40.5万年的轨道周期循环,不会直接改变地球气候,但会强化或抑制短期轨道周期,也就是“米兰科维奇循环”的影响。当地球轨道偏心率达到峰值时,短周期轨道变化引起的季节性气候差异将变得更强烈——夏天更热,冬天更冷。“米兰科维奇循环”是以塞尔维亚数学家米兰科维奇的名字命名的激发气候波动的地球轨道周期,包含10万年、4.1万年和2.1万年三个周期。地球轨道的这些短周期性变化会影响地球受到的太阳辐射,驱动地球不断变暖和变冷。
  美国乔治梅森大学的琳达·辛诺特教授指出,新研究支持了前人的研究成果,证实了地球公转轨道40.5万年周期循环假设,对地质学和天文学研究具有重要意义。



关键词 : 万年轨道地球
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
…感觉板块交界地带既是生物热点地区,也是跟人类进化密切相关地区。我认为现代人类化跟这几大板块界面有关。
(一)环地中海区域。欧亚板块、非洲板块与印度-澳大利亚板块三者交界。这里可能是最初的古猿进化成人的地方(详参本人假说: 金发蓝眼的猩猩),直立人、尼安德特人、丹尼索瓦人、现代人类以及其他数个旁系人种可能都是在这里不同时空格局里分别进化出来的。
(二)东非大裂谷。正在形成中的板块分裂区。出非洲理论中的伊甸园,历届古人类以及现代人类的摇篮。
(三)华莱士区。亚欧板块、印度-澳大利亚板块、太平洋板块三者交界的地区。大门类生物类群最多。这里极可能是现代人类Y-K的温床(不过Y-K可能诞生在其他地方),也就是如今世界最大多数人群的祖庭,也是至少两三种古老人类基因孑遗的地区。
(四)东西伯利亚。亚欧板块、美洲板块、太平洋板块三者交界的地区。可能是亚美人种形成的地方。也是Y-P西去形成Y-R的地方。…
...
癯鹤 发表于 2018-4-18 17:30
天人感应每如此,我不科研有人做。每当咱有啥新思,旋见他人报成果!
(二)东非大裂谷。正在形成中的板块分裂区。出非洲理论中的伊甸园,历届古人类以及现代人类的摇篮。
东非大裂谷附近也有新发现了,比丹尼索瓦洞穴还早的鸵鸟蛋壳珠,还有细小的石器(虽然还不是细石器,我也觉得气温干湿变化会形成大量细石片,在高山上常见到大量崩解的细小石片。另外原始人很容易发现火烧水激也会有同样效果,这个可能体现不出技术先进性)、刻纹骨器、穿孔海贝、颜料棒。年代真早,假如他们迁徙,真可能是现代人群体里最早的岛夷了,出非洲人也就是他们?莫非真如越之灵格所说:
据考古学者称,亚洲北部5万年前的人工石器,都是厚重大块的砍砸用盘核; 阿尔泰山,外贝加尔,泥河湾,都有挖出鸵鸟蛋壳做的串环。

而据气象学者称,5万年前是冰河期,格陵兰冰盖比现在还冻20摄氏度。

...
Vietschlinger 发表于 2018-4-30 06:56
再有,细石器在全球干旱地带都有出现,包括 非洲撒哈拉、印度内陆、澳洲内陆。细石器显然跟远古人类加工能力无关,根本原因是干燥+昼夜大温差促使大石块碎裂。
Vietschlinger 发表于 2018-4-30 07:11 [url=http://www.ranhaer.org/viewthread.php?tid=35850&page=1#pid542332][/url]
Treasure trove of early human artefacts, including bone tools, ocher crayons and sea shell beads, reveal how African hunter gatherers lived 78,000 years ago

  • The Panga ya Saidi cave system was home to humans for thousands of years
  • The region was very stable and protected the residents from harsh weather
  • Scientists found a wealth of proof of early human culture and tools in the region
  • They found a period of technological innovation began around 67,000 years ago
  • This led to smaller, better and more efficient tools and items being developed
By Joe Pinkstone For Mailonline

Published: 18:04 BST, 9 May 2018 | Updated: 18:05 BST, 9 May 2018


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A treasure trove of ancient homo sapien artefacts has revealed how African hunter gatherers lived 78,000 years ago.
Researchers excavating a cave in Kenya say the haven housed early humans for thousands of years throughout the Stone Age and into the Iron Age.
They left behind a wealth of items, including bone tools, ocher crayons and sea shell beads, which scientists have now studied.
This revealed that, around 67,000 years ago, our ancestors began a period of technological innovation, developing smaller, better and more efficient items.
Experts found carefully prepared stone tools dating back to the Middle Stone Age, with a distinct change in technology as the Stone Age progressed.

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At the Kenyan site the scientists found several different symbols of tools and culture of primitive humans. These are, from left to right: Worked red ochre; bead made of a sea shell; ostrich eggshell beads; bone tool; close-up of the bone tool showing traces of scraping



The site turned out a variety of findings, including stone tools (a-c), notched bone (d and e), ocher crayon (f), ostrich eggshell (g) and sea shells (h and i). These were all used by early humans and are signs of primitive culture and technology

Early humans were attracted to the stability of the region, according to researchers from the Max Planck Institute who led the study.
The cave system, named Panga ya Saidi and located in coastal East Africa, remained a safe place to live over time while other areas of Africa were inhospitable.
It provided an area of respite from extreme weather where people could survive, feeding on nearby plants and animals, experts say.
As a result, it was integral to early human development.



Dr Nicole Boivin, project principal investigator from the instituted, said: 'The East African coastal hinterland and its forests have been long considered to be marginal to human evolution, so the discovery of Panga ya Saidi cave will certainly change archaeologists' views and perceptions.'
The international team of researchers who studied caves say it is the first time scientists have found direct evidence of humans in East Africa.
The region has not been widely studied, with most previous work focusing on the Rift Valley and South Africa.

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The first substantial cave record from coastal Kenya shows gradual changes in cultural, technological and symbolic innovation. The Panga ya Saidi cave (pictured) provided an area of respite from extreme weather where people could survive

Other parts of Africa, where hominids existed at the time, were changing regularly and experienced harsh and extreme weather.
They inhabited the region over the long-term, setting up homes in the area and using what the land provided.
Dr Patrick Roberts, who was involved in the study, addded: 'Occupation in a tropical forest-grassland environment adds to our knowledge that our species lived in a variety of habitats in Africa.'
Tools and decorative items found in the area indicate that the people living at the time existed in a primitive form of society with significant shifts in human technological, cultural, and cognitive evolution as time progressed.

+4


The area around the Panga ya Saidi cave (pictured) was rife with plants and animals for the early Homo sapiens to eat and survive on. The cave site is 15 km from the modern coast

The miniaturisation of stone tools is thought to reflect changes in hunting practices and behaviours.
What the researchers discovered is that there was not a series of 'revelations' or breakthroughs, but steady and sustained innovation.
Whilst the Pang ya Saidi housed humans for thousands of years, there was no sign of any break in inhabitation around the time of the Toba super-eruption 74,000 years ago.
This enormous volcanic eruption triggered a 'volcanic winter' and many experts believed it caused a near-extinction of our human ancestors.
HOW WERE THE DIFFERENT WEAPONS USED BY HUNTER-GATHERERS MADE?Researchers at the University of Washington examined three different types of points - a bone tip, a stone tip and a microblade tip - used to hunt animals 14,000 years ago.
They recreated these weapons to learn more about the technological choices made by humans during this time.

+4


Pictured are the three types of points that the University of Washington research team recreated in order to study the habits of ancient humans

Bone tips: The researchers modeled these weapons on a point found on an Alaskan archaeological site that is 12,000 years old. One of the researchers ground cow bone with a multipurpose tool to make the weapon.
Stone tips: Scientists struck obsidian into flakes using a hammerstone to make this point. They then shaped the flakes into points, found at a different Alaskan site, that are 13,000 years old.
Composite microblade tips: One researcher used a saw and sandpaper to grind an antler from a caribou into a sharp point. Next she used a multipurpose tool to create a groove on the edge of the point, which was then filled with obsidian microblades.

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This, as well as the knack early humans had to survive in any new environment, suggests the adaptability and flexibility of Homo sapiens.
Colonising new areas became a hallmark of humans and led to a range of survival strategies allowing people to live in diverse habitats, including tropical forests, arid zones, coasts and the cold environments found at higher latitudes.
Background in weathering extremely varied weather conditions in Africa prepared the species to migrate out of the continent at a later date.
Panga ya Saidi hints at increased occupation around 60,000 years ago, suggesting that populations were increasing in size.
Whilst technology was developing to improve the quality of life for people living in the cave system, culture was developing in parallel.
Among the recovered items are worked and incised bones, ostrich eggshell beads, marine shell beads, and worked ochre.

+4


Panga ya Saidi is a cave on the Eastern coast of Kenya and produced the oldest bead in Kenya, dating to around 65,000 years ago.

These symbols contributed to the long-term complexity of the culture at the time.
Panga ya Saidi also produced the oldest bead in Kenya, dating to around 65,000 years ago.
At about 33,000 years ago, beads were most commonly made of shells acquired from the coast.
This demonstrates contact with the coast, but there is no evidence for the regular exploitation of marine resources for food purposes.
In the layers dating to between 48,000 to 25,000 years ago, carved bone, carved tusk, a decorated bone tube, a small bone point, and modified pieces of ochre were found.
The researchers claim that the intermittent appearance in the cave sequence argues against a behavioural or cognitive revolution at any specific point in time.
Study co-author, Professor Michael Petraglia concluded: 'The finds at Panga ya Saidi undermine hypotheses about the use of coasts as a kind of 'superhighway' that channelled migrating humans out of Africa, and around the Indian Ocean rim.'



Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5708353/Ancient-Homo-sapien-society-discovered-Kenyan-cave-sheds-new-light-culture-tools.html#ixzz5F6Teu16e
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http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
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PK非洲的还得是亚洲,南西伯利亚,帝之下都,小宇宙爆发,又有了新发现,按理,古DNA应该保存得还好,希望能测出来什么!化石呀,化石,石破天惊未可知!

50,000 year old Siberian bones may be the ‘oldest Homo sapiens' outside Africa and Middle East
By The Siberian Times reporter
21 May 2018
Finds of 'lion-hunting ancient man' excavated from site of new road new Lake Baikal now undergoing tests at Germany’s Max Planck Institute.

The older set of bones found on Tuyana site dated to 50,000 years ago. Picture: Vesti.Irkutsk

If the discovery in Buryatia is verified as being Homo sapiens, it will alter scientific thinking about the arrival of man in Siberia.
The discovery was made in the Tunkinskaya Valley by Irkutsk scientists in 2016.
Older bones date to 50,000 years ago, younger ones at the same site to around 30,000 years ago, and they were found alongside tools and animal bones indicating these ancients were proficient hunters of cave lions, bison, horses and deer.

Two fragment of bones found on Area 2 of Tuyana site. Picture: Evgeniy Rogovskoi

Dr Evgeniy Rogovskoi, senior researcher Institute of Archeology and Ethnography, Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, said: ‘The bones were found in 2016 during rescue archeological works near the Buryatian village of Tunka.
‘Work on constructing a new road was about to start, so archeologists rushed here to see if they could take any material from the site.
‘The bones were found within half a metre of the surface.

Set of bones found on Area 1 and dated to 30,000 years old. Picture: Evgeniy Rogovskoi

‘We have introduced them to the scientific community only now, two years after the find, because we have been waiting for test results on them.
‘There were two set of bones, one was dated as 27,000 to 30,000 years old, the other as 50,000 years old.’
The younger bones are ‘modern-type’ humans.



‘Work on constructing a new road was about to start, so archeologists rushed here to see if they could take any material from the site. Pictures: Evgeniy Rogovskoi

But the older ones are now undergoing tests to establish whether they are Homo sapiens, or Neanderthal or another pre-human group.
Researchers say that if they are prehistoric Home sapiens remains, these will be the oldest found in northern Eurasia.
‘More ancient bones were found (here), but these were not Homo sapiens,’ said Dr Rogovskoi.
A large arsenal of bone knives was found at the site, indicating the owners must have been good hunters.



Excavations at Tuyana archaeological site. Pictures: Vesti.Irkutsk, Evgeniy Rogovskoi

Sharp tools found at the site used semi-precious topaz and rock crystal.
An amulet was made of a cave lion tooth.
Dr Mikhail Shunkov, the institute’s director, said: 'It is hard to overestimate the importance of the find.
‘During the last several decades, the way experts see development of human evolution in southern Siberia has been changing quite drastically.

An amulet made of a cave lion tooth. Picture: Vesti.Irkutsk

‘The most important question now is when Homo Sapiens appeared in Siberia, and the Tunka valley finds will allow scientists to shed light on it.’
Older Home Sapiens remains have been found in Morocco, dating back 300,000 years, it was announced last year.
And in a cave in Israel, a jawbone is believed to be of Homo sapiens origin. It has been dated to almost 200,000 years old, twice the age of any previous discovery outside Africa where are species are believed to have originated.
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
眉毛胡子一把抓,胡子还可以从一些动物中看到端倪,但是眉毛却很独特,似乎是人类独有(有些鸟类也有类似眉毛的存在,然而隔纲如赶山,跟哺乳动物不能相提并论)下面这篇文章把眉毛的进化归结于表达感情。我觉得颇有……善于演戏的一些色眉人多有浓重眉毛(如周色目等老戏骨),确实可以说在人类进化过程中眉毛在情感中的作用确实得到了强化而愈益显得有用。
...
癯鹤 发表于 2018-4-10 18:12
天人感应每如此,赞不绝口如我知!又一则跟眉毛有关的科学新知。似乎跟咱的一些观察和思考颇相吻合。确实是自恋而善于演戏者,很多眉毛都浓厚(我不喜欢看电视剧,但是家里人爱看,我也偶尔看两眼,那些演技很好的演员往往都是大粗眉)。商人营私利,某些善于经商、金融的民族,其人的粗重眉毛比例也远高于其他民族,所以俺也很奇怪,那些鼓吹拱铲大肆围攻其他民族的主权的人,是大道为公还是大私为公?肯定不是大公无私!


Want to spot a narcissist? Self-centred people have distinct 'thicker and denser' eyebrows, claim scientists
  • Egotistical and self-centred people are more likely to have 'distinct' eyebrows
  • This is because narcissists tend to prune their faces for attention
  • We have learned to subconsciously identify those with bushier eyebrows
  • We learn to spot chunky 'brows in order to avoid people who are selfish
By David Wilkes for Daily Mail
Published: 17:53 BST, 1 June 2018 | Updated: 00:23 BST, 2 June 2018


103 shares

568
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comments


+2


Simon Cowell has them, so does Madonna. But what do having thick and distinctive eyebrows reveal about our personality?

Simon Cowell has them, so does Madonna. Audrey Hepburn’s and Marilyn Monroe’s have been emulated by millions of women.
But what do having thick and distinctive eyebrows reveal about our personality?
Psychologists have been combing through the evidence – and conclude that eye-catching eyebrows mean... you’re probably a narcissist.
Researchers discovered that those with ‘thicker and denser’ brows are more likely to be self-centred than others.
A group of men and women who took part in a study were asked how much they agreed with statements such as ‘If I ruled the world it would be a better place’.
Photos were then taken of them posing with neutral expressions. When the images were shown to another group, it was found that they could correctly identify the self-centred individuals from their more humble counterparts.
When the researchers removed the eyebrows from the pictures, however, the participants could no longer differentiate between them.
In a follow-up study in which only pictures of the eyebrows were shown to the group, they were again able to correctly identify the narcissists.




Lead author Dr Miranda Giacomin, from the University of Toronto, said: ‘Narcissists seem to have more distinct eyebrows – thicker and denser.’
It may be that they naturally have more distinctive brows, or they might groom them in such a way so that they are more easily recognised by other people, she explained in a paper published in the Journal of Personality.

+2




Previous research has found how brows can be a bigger aid to facial recognition than eyes.
Studies have found, for example, that people struggle to recognise celebrities without their eyebrows.
Dr Giacomin said: ‘Narcissists love attention and admiration and may maintain distinct eyebrows so that they are noticed, recognized, and remembered. This increases their likeability and maintains their overly positive self-views.’
She added that thicker brows may boost masculinity or femininity, which in the past may have helped us attract more partners.
It may explain why both men and women still groom their eyebrows, with tweezing, colouring, Botox and even permanent tattoos to accentuate brow arch and fullness.
‘Narcissists behave aggressively when pursing potential mates and enjoy successfully securing short-term partners,’ said Dr Giacomin.



Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5795771/Want-spot-narcissist-Self-centred-people-distinct-thicker-denser-eyebrows.html#ixzz5HFdwGmv8
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本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-6-4 20:30 编辑

田园洞人和山顶洞人的年代看来比较接近,联系欧洲、西伯利亚的发现,在三四万年前,欧亚大陆北部现代智人一定曾经蓬勃发展。按照西来说,田园洞人-山顶洞人是从北线来的,还是南线来的?体质特征和文物似乎支持北线(欧亚北部的旧石器文化似乎有些相同之处,可见史前全球化在旧石器时期就存在)。不过也不能排除南线,田园洞人Y单倍群很重要,是Y-C、Y-D、Y-F、Y-K2a,还是Y-G、Y-K2b,太关键了(似乎根据王传超最近论文那虚飘数据,属于Y-K2a?这倒可以证明Y-NO祖先Y-K2a的北线说)!按北线说,很容易解释东亚人为何比欧洲人还多尼安德特基因!希望能再次郑重其事检测田园洞人一次,假如真是Y-NO的祖先,东亚人应该毕恭毕敬把他当盘古亚当供奉在庙宇里!即使不如澳洲土著、美洲土著那么保守,有个对待真相对待先民的虔诚,还是应该的!敬天法祖,应有之义!

《人类进化杂志》:周口店山顶洞遗址年代研究取得新进展

来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年6月04日 16:03


山顶洞遗址人类化石、文化遗物及测年样品平面分布图


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所(李锋 供图、供稿):李锋、陈福友、高星联合英、美学者对北京周口店山顶洞遗址的年代进行了新的测定,新的碳十四年代研究显示,山顶洞主要文化层位的年代不晚于距今3.3万年,出土大量人类化石和装饰品层位的年代距今3.5-3.8万年。《人类进化杂志》(Journal of Human Evolution)2018年5月31号在线发表了该项研究成果。


东亚尤其是中国在20世纪初的很长时间内曾是人类起源研究的核心地区,而20世纪80年代现代人“走出非洲”假说的提出,使得我们寻找当今人类共同祖先起源地的目光逐渐转移到了非洲。近年来,东亚化石和考古记录在这一问题研究上的重要性有所回温。随着中国一些过渡类型人类化石和南方距今7-13万年的早期现代人化石的发现,学者对现代人起源和扩散的不同假说不断进行思考和修正。长期以来,由于欧亚大陆南部,如西亚、阿拉伯半岛、印度、东南亚等地早期现代人化石或考古遗存出现的年代明显早于欧亚大陆北部,现代人扩散的“南方路线”是学者关注的焦点,立足于“南线”扩散的研究学者发表了大量学术成果。然而,相比于此,欧亚大陆的北方却略显冷清,少有学者关注现代人扩散的“北方路线”。


具体到中国,化石证据显示中国南方出现早期现代人的年代集中在氧同位5阶段(7-13万年),而中国北方现代人化石最早见于北京周口店田园洞遗址,距今约4万年。于是,顺理成章地,早期现代人在中国自南向北的扩散为学者所接受,这一模式也为分子生物学者所支持。同位于周口店地区的山顶洞遗址是中国发现最早的早期现代人化石地点,自1932年发现之后,其对东亚人类演化的讨论发挥着关键作用。然而由于发现时间较早,当时的发掘方法和测年技术皆有局限,年代存在较大争议。以往的年代研究结果落入了一个很大的范围(3.4-1万),不同年代结果的应用影响着对山顶洞遗址文化遗物和人类化石的解释。


山顶洞遗址于1933-1934年进行了发掘,当时发现了大量的考古遗存,包括人类化石、装饰品、红色赭石颜料、可能的墓葬等,名噪一时。然而,不幸的是,当时出土的重要遗物如人类化石、大部分装饰品和石制品都在第二次世界大战期间遗失,至今下落不明。幸运的是,大量哺乳动物化石标本保存了下来,与之一起保留下来的还有标本上的编号和丰富的文字记录,这些信息为此项研究提供了可能性。山顶洞的多数化石标本上标注了标本号码,这些号码提供了我们复原标本出土位置的信息,如33:J6:101代表着此标本1933年野外季第101天J6探方出土,不同的天数预示着发掘进度的不同,进而可以粗略地指示发掘的深度。凭借这些“密码”,我们选取了11件哺乳动物化石进行新的年代测定,测年样品来自3个主要文化层位。新的年代测定在牛津大学的碳十四实验室进行,年代样品采用了“超滤”的实验室前处理方法,此种方法可以更为全面地去除“新碳”的干扰,得出的年代更能代表标本的真实年代。


新的测年结果显示,虽然存在着少量年代样品和地层关系不吻合的现象,但取自文化层最上层的样品年代可以基本确定洞穴沉积的最晚年龄。山顶洞主要文化层位的年代不晚于距今约3.3万年,出土大量人类化石和装饰品的层位年代在距今3.5-3.8万年。虽然山顶洞遗址石制品的数量较少,但它是中国北方乃至整个中国唯一发现早期现代人化石和众多文化遗物共存的遗址,尤其是大量装饰品的存在为我们讨论现代人扩散的“北方路线”提供了启示。装饰品多被认为是人群识别和信息交换的媒介,山顶洞是中国出土装饰品最早的遗址,与欧亚大陆西部尤其是西伯利亚阿尔泰地区距今4.5-4万年的装饰品在种类和形态上具有较多相似之处,如多以鹿类和小型食肉类的犬齿穿孔作为装饰品、存在骨管和串珠装饰品等。据此,我们推测山顶洞人与欧亚大陆西部的现代人人群有着更加紧密的文化联系。同时,有学者指出山顶洞的人类化石部分形态特征与欧洲早期现代人的特征类似。结合这两个方面的证据,山顶洞人有可能是现代人自“北方路线”扩散的一个支系。


该研究获得国家自然科学基金、中国科学院战略性先导科技专项、中国科学院青年促进会等的资助。

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56# 癯鹤
有三万多年啊,比原来预计的早一倍了。
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-6-4 21:45 编辑

57# lindberg
东亚人:目光所向,永是西方。
欧洲人:目光所向,永是东方。
中国科技太差,这次精确测定,又是利用外国仪器外国团队的成绩。
说到寻根,也跟狐死首丘差不多。东亚西来,Y-R是脱亚入欧!所以目光相对,这是一——三万年的守望呀!
田园洞人的Y单倍群还没见肯定报道,而山顶洞人遗骸已经失踪。现在很期待南西伯利亚贝加尔湖附近最近出土那些3、5万年前古人类遗骸的基因结果呀!还有,据说建国后出土过北京人化石,不知道能不能测基因(欧洲已经有先例),测出东亚直立人的一些基因,可是很有意义的,跟尼安德特人、丹尼索瓦人、非洲土著对比一下,说不定又得有石破天惊大发现!呜呼,德赛太远,民主科学难亲见亲为,民间科学废士发现这么多有意义课题,囿于贫困和手拙,没法做,呜呼!真是人生遗憾!
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
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本帖最后由 lindberg 于 2018-6-4 21:53 编辑

58# 癯鹤
东亚人:目光所向,永是西方。
欧洲人:目光所向,永是东方。
东亚和欧洲都处于世界岛的边缘

我倒是觉得,这里的东亚人和欧洲人的源流说不定都来自中间呢,混合了世界岛边缘的先来人群,变成了现在的样子。
山顶洞人几个头骨,看上去差异不小,不像一个群体。
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