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The Beaker Phenomenon And The Genomic Transformation Of Northwest Europe

本帖最后由 cpan0256 于 2017-5-11 11:43 编辑

Inigo Olalde et al.  Posted May 9, 2017  bioRxiv

http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2017/05/09/135962

Abstract
Bell Beaker pottery spread across western and central Europe beginning around 2750 BCE before disappearing between 2200-1800 BCE. The mechanism of its expansion is a topic of long-standing debate, with support for both cultural diffusion and human migration. We present new genome-wide ancient DNA data from 170 Neolithic, Copper Age and Bronze Age Europeans, including 100 Beaker-associated individuals. In contrast to the Corded Ware Complex, which has previously been identified as arriving in central Europe following migration from the east, we observe limited genetic affinity between Iberian and central European Beaker Complex-associated individuals, and thus exclude migration as a significant mechanism of spread between these two regions. However, human migration did have an important role in the further dissemination of the Beaker Complex, which we document most clearly in Britain using data from 80 newly reported individuals dating to 3900-1200 BCE. British Neolithic farmers were genetically similar to contemporary populations in continental Europe and in particular to Neolithic Iberians, suggesting that a portion of the farmer ancestry in Britain came from the Mediterranean rather than the Danubian route of farming expansion. Beginning with the Beaker period, and continuing through the Bronze Age, all British individuals harboured high proportions of Steppe ancestry and were genetically closely related to Beaker-associated individuals from the Lower Rhine area. We use these observations to show that the spread of the Beaker Complex to Britain was mediated by migration from the continent that replaced >90% of Britain's Neolithic gene pool within a few hundred years, continuing the process that brought Steppe ancestry into central and northern Europe 400 years earlier.
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作者团队:Morten  E.  Allentoft, Ian Armit, Kristian Kristiansen, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Thomas Booth, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Alissa Mittnik, Eveline Altena, Mark Lipson, Iosif Lazaridis, Nick J. Patterson, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Yoan Diekmann, Zuzana Faltyskova, Daniel M. Fernandes, Matthew Ferry, Eadaoin Harney, Peter de Knijff, Megan Michel, Jonas Oppenheimer, Kristin Stewardson, Alistair Barclay, Kurt W. Alt, Azucena Avilés Fernández, Eszter Bánffy, Maria Bernabò-Brea, David Billoin, Concepción Blasco, Clive Bonsall, Laura Bonsall, Tim Allen, Lindsey Büster, Sophie Carver, Laura Castells Navarro, Oliver Edward Craig, Gordon T. Cook, Barry Cunliffe, Anthony Denaire, Kirsten Egging Dinwiddy, Natasha Dodwell, Michal Ernée, Christopher Evans, Milan Kuchařík, Joan Francès Farré, Harry Fokkens, Chris Fowler, Michiel Gazenbeek, Rafael Garrido Pena, María Haber-Uriarte, Elżbieta Haduch, Gill Hey, Nick Jowett, Timothy Knowles, Ken Massy, Saskia Pfrengle, Philippe Lefranc, Olivier Lemercier, Arnaud Lefebvre, Joaquín Lomba Maurandi, Tona Majó, Jacqueline I. McKinley, Kathleen McSweeney, Mende Balázs Gusztáv, Alessandra Modi, Gabriella Kulcsár, Viktória Kiss, András Czene, Róbert Patay, Anna Endródi, Kitti Köhler, Tamás Hajdu, João Luís Cardoso, Corina Liesau, Michael Parker Pearson, Piotr Włodarczak, T. Douglas Price, Pilar Prieto, Pierre-Jérôme Rey, Patricia Ríos, Roberto Risch, Manuel A. Rojo Guerra, Aurore Schmitt, Joël Serralongue, Ana Maria Silva, Václav Smrčka, Luc Vergnaud, João Zilhão, David Caramelli, Thomas Higham, Volker Heyd, Alison Sheridan, Karl-Göran Sjögren, Mark G. Thomas, Philipp W. Stockhammer, Ron Pinhasi, Johannes Krause, Wolfgang Haak, Ian Barnes, Carles Lalueza-Fox, David Reich

   团队绝对是超豪华级的,可谓是欧美业界精英倾巢出动吖,呵呵
物格而后知至,知至而后意诚,意诚而后心正,心正而后身修,身修而后家齐,家齐而后国治,国治而后天下平...
At Szigetszentmiklós in  Hungary,  we  find Beaker  Complex associated individuals with very different proportions (from 0% to 74%) of Steppe ancestry but overlapping dates. This genetic heterogeneity is consistent with early stages of mixture between previously established European farmers and migrants with Steppe ancestry. An implication is that, even at a local scale, the Beaker Complex was associated with people of diverse ancestries.
-----------------------------------------

很明显,即便是BB人群内部也是存在明显差异的,也生动反映出外来的草原人群与当地农夫融合的复杂过程~
物格而后知至,知至而后意诚,意诚而后心正,心正而后身修,身修而后家齐,家齐而后国治,国治而后天下平...
下面这幅图倒是可以反映出不少情况
BB-颜那亚-英国青铜.png
2017-7-3 16:34


1、东欧颜那亚与萨马拉人群相比早期的欧洲农民,明显多了伊朗农夫成分(约为35%左右,萨马拉还多了一些很有限的粉红色,难道是乌拉尔人群的成分?),这个与之前的分析一致;
2、中欧Corded_Ware文化人群与颜那亚人群比较接近,但是Corded_Ware文化人群明显多了新石器欧洲农夫常见的蓝色,即小亚农夫成分,约为20%左右;
3、beaker人群南部差异较明显。南欧的beaker与之前的新石器欧洲农夫基本无差别,但是中欧、荷兰与英伦的beaker人群则在保持新石器欧洲农夫成分的同时,还多了一些为颜那亚共享的伊朗农夫成分;
4、不列颠的BB人群相对比较接近CWC人群,新石器农夫成分也比较均衡,约为25%;
5、欧洲土著成分WHG,从旧石器到新石器一直到现今,为欧洲所有人群共有,而且比例一直不低,提示欧洲血统的前后延续性(这个可以给那些整天梦想什么‘血统替换论者’作参考,呵呵)
物格而后知至,知至而后意诚,意诚而后心正,心正而后身修,身修而后家齐,家齐而后国治,国治而后天下平...
常染说明不了什么,估计是父系被徹底替换,母系被保留了一些
5# Manaus

大比例的替换是可以成立的,不过不是青铜无敌人群干的,而是铜石晚期已经在欧洲许多地方扩张成功的BB人干的。
另外,为什么在不列颠出现这种种系替换,在南欧包括法国南部却没有发生,这个我很早以前就说了,是因为西欧中高纬度地区本来就人口稀少,那一个快速人口扩张的人群来填空是非常正常的~
物格而后知至,知至而后意诚,意诚而后心正,心正而后身修,身修而后家齐,家齐而后国治,国治而后天下平...
有一点非常有意思,新石器英伦地区的y几乎是清一色的I2a各支系,到了BB时期与青铜早期,又完全不见踪影,可是现在英伦地区除了爱尔兰,现在不列颠人的I2a并不少,其中I2a2a1在苏格兰与爱尔兰北部还颇为高频,而I2a2a4目前在英伦三岛包括爱尔兰的盎格鲁撒克逊姓氏人群以及他们的德国老家频度不低。
另外,I2a2b竟然出现在终结德国BB文化的Unetice culture文化之中,更是以77%的高频出现在Unetice culture的继承者瓮坛子文化的某个遗址之中,其中意味耐人寻味,呵呵

England_NeolithicI2a2a1
England_NeolithicI2a2
England_NeolithicI2a1b
England_NeolithicI
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b1
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b
Scotland_NeolithicI2a2a1a1a2
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b1
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b1
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b1
Scotland_NeolithicI2a2a1a1a
Scotland_NeolithicI2a2a
Scotland_NeolithicI
Scotland_NeolithicI2a2a1b
Scotland_NeolithicI2a2
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b1
Scotland_NeolithicI2
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b
Scotland_NeolithicI2a2a1a1a
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b
Scotland_NeolithicI2a2a1
Scotland_NeolithicI2a2a
物格而后知至,知至而后意诚,意诚而后心正,心正而后身修,身修而后家齐,家齐而后国治,国治而后天下平...
有一点非常有意思,新石器英伦地区的y几乎是清一色的I2a各支系,到了BB时期与青铜早期,又完全不见踪影,可是现在英伦地区除了爱尔兰,现在不列颠人的I2a并不少,其中I2a2a1在苏格兰与爱尔兰北部还颇为高频,而I2a2a ...
imvivi001 发表于 2017-7-3 18:23
刚才核实了一下,出现在Unetice culture文化之中的I最新测定是I2c,而高频出现在瓮坛文化的某个遗址的古人的y-I,当年只有str数据,原作者没有判定属于哪一个haplo,但是专家根据str数值判断为I,还有一些冒进的爱好者判断为I2a2b或I2a2a,好在这批遗骨目前依然保持良好,相信最终会真相大白
物格而后知至,知至而后意诚,意诚而后心正,心正而后身修,身修而后家齐,家齐而后国治,国治而后天下平...
下面这幅图倒是可以反映出不少情况
51891
...
5、欧洲土著成分WHG,从旧石器到新石器一直到现今,为欧洲所有人群共有,而且比例一直不低,提示欧洲血统的前后延续性(这个可以给那些整天梦想什么‘血统替换论者’作参考,呵呵)
imvivi001 发表于 2017-7-3 16:34
<
IDColloquial
ID
Genetic
Sex
mtDNA
Y
haplogroup-ISOGG-2016
I0585LaBrana1MU5b2cC1a2
I1500HUNG372,
NE5
MJ1c1C1a2
I1102M11-354MK1a3aC1a2
I1496HUNG352,
NE6
MK1a3a3C1a2
Tep006TPÕ10
SK
21
MN1a1a1C1a2
GoyetQ116-1_publishedGoyetQ116-1MMC1a2
Vestonice16Vestonice16MU5C1a2
Kostenki14Kostenki14M..C1b

其实y-C1与y-I2一样,堪称旧石器欧洲两大成功猎采者人群,可是为啥二者的最终结局如此的不同,前者以凄惨收场,后者不断地发扬光大,旧石器--新石器--铜石时期--青铜时期,一直到现在。个中缘由,值得深思...
物格而后知至,知至而后意诚,意诚而后心正,心正而后身修,身修而后家齐,家齐而后国治,国治而后天下平...
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