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12# 癯鹤
气死我了,刚才编辑了那么多,看着网页一点没事,点击编辑好几次也看着没事,刷新才发现就没成功!
由“刑天”可知,“天”的原始意义一个是天空,一个是头顶或头颅。
那么“天上白玉京,十二楼五城”就好理解了。“天”是奠基的人头,天上白玉京,就是……
石峁古城有奠基头骨坑,有玉砌筑进城墙,真真正正的“天上白玉京”,真真正正的“天上人间”!
……

...
癯鹤 发表于 2017-5-25 22:00
本人考证过“滇”通“颠(头顶)”通“天”;魋结的发髻很像螺蛳壳的形状,彝族有称其为“天菩萨”。这螺蛳壳如果比拟为人的发髻(一如曹公割发代首),也不愧为天上白玉京呀!十二城五楼,“靡莫之属以什数,滇最大 ...
癯鹤 发表于 2017-6-18 22:36
颠、滇、螺蛳壳——天菩萨,destiny——顶蛳山?滇越——雒越也很有关系嘛!
肢解:古人的奇特丧葬仪式
小明.orinoco
发表于  2015-10-10 12:35

2007年,研究者在巴西中东部发现了一具距今有9000年历史 ...
癯鹤 发表于 2018-2-4 16:20
中国史前规模最大城址集中出土百余片卜骨
中国史前规模最大城址集中出土百余片卜骨
2018年02月04日 10:09新浪看点作者 中国新闻网
缩小字体放大字体收藏微博微信分享0腾讯QQQQ空间





[size=+0]图为皇城台发掘全景。 陕西省考古研究院 供图
[size=+0]中新网西安2月3日电 (记者 田进)记者3日从陕西省考古研究院了解到,目前中国史前时期规模最大的城址“石峁遗址”皇城台附近,集中出土100余片卜骨,专家表示可能暗含了皇城台的信仰和宗教功能。

[size=+0]皇城台出土的骨针。 陕西省考古研究院 供图
[size=+0]石峁遗址位于陕西北部神木县高家堡镇石峁村山梁上,北距长城10公里。皇城台是石峁遗址大型宫殿及高等级建筑基址的核心分布区,台顶有成组分布的宫殿建筑基址。
[size=+0]据介绍,考古人员在皇城台门址的发掘新揭露了内瓮城和主门道。内瓮城里还发现一座“石包土”的平整墩台,主门道是一处封闭空间,墩台与主门道之间设有门塾。专家认为,主门道是通往皇城台台顶的最后“关卡”。同时,还在墩台、门塾、主门道之间形成的“重点防控区域”下端发现有几处刻划符号,图案繁复,琢刻在向上攀爬的石铺路面上。

[size=+0]皇城台出土的玉器。 陕西省考古研究院 供图
[size=+0]对于皇城台东护墙北段墙体规模性揭露,考古人员清理出了气势恢宏的石墙遗迹和数量巨大的各类遗物。出土遗物中以骨器为大宗,多为针、镞、锥等小件工具类器物,伴有大量骨料、砺石、石刀等制骨工具。

[size=+0]图为皇城台主门道入口处。陕西省考古研究院 供图
[size=+0]陕西省考古研究院副研究员邵晶表示,100余片卜骨的集中出土是重要收获,或许暗含了皇城台的信仰和宗教功能。
[size=+0]此外,专家通过对动植物遗存的分析鉴定表明,4000年前石峁遗址周边呈现的是“松林密布、鹿鹤双行”的自然景观。(完)
[size=+0]【编辑:燕武】
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-5-27 10:33 编辑
本人考证过“滇”通“颠(头顶)”通“天”;魋结的发髻很像螺蛳壳的形状,彝族有称其为“天菩萨”。这螺蛳壳如果比拟为人的发髻(一如曹公割发代首),也不愧为天上白玉京呀!十二城五楼,“靡莫之属以什数,滇最大 ...
癯鹤 发表于 2017-6-18 22:36

天人感应每如此,虽然我不爱读书,但爱甚解,一旦揭秘,然后就看到别人把证据送到眼前,我真是诚惶诚恐,文章本天成,哪敢贪天之功:

武陵老君 今天 16:25
白俊奎:越族“贝丘”与濮人石墓--渝东南酉水流域“螺蛳揭顶”研究
白俊奎:越族“贝丘”今犹在,濮人石墓千古存--渝东南酉水流域“螺蛳揭顶”研究 -豆丁网 摘要:渝东南酉水流域保存了古代越人等民族文化与风俗习惯,其“螺蛳揭顶”墓葬更是古代越人的墓葬习俗,在中国水乡蚌壳仙女等民间文学中有体现,是水乡稻作民族葬俗模式在山区的遗留,与历史上的移民文化相关,是中国南方民族丧葬文化的精品,今渝东南民众应当是古代濮人和越人文化的保存者、传承者与创新者。 正文...



癯鹤 发表于 2017-7-26 21:00
由“螺蛳揭顶”想到共工氏流放幽陵,是不是北京的红螺山也与之有关呢?红螺山离共工城、燕落寨不远。“红”通“洪”通“工”(忽然想起了我们武术界流行的“洪拳-红拳”,跟洪门有关,而洪门跟共工有关,作为共工流放地,难怪北京很多地方有“红门”——大红门、小红门、西红门,炎帝蚩尤共工文化之颜色崇拜,五千年不变)。红螺女的传说,或许是江汉一带传播开来的。所以西南夷与东北夷这些三苗九黎后裔,都有跟红螺、货贝、螺蛳、蜗牛、蚌类等等相关的文化传说。这是共工岛夷在远古最容易捕捞采集赖以活命的食物呀,沿海、沿湖、河港那些贝壳堤、贝丘就说明了一切(这些贝壳堆也是无意识的京观,摆特定精怪造型,如西水坡墓地那种有了文化目的的蚌塑,就是更高精神意识形态的体现了)。货贝的壳是远古的硬通货,工人做工,就是为了贝壳呀,蜗壳——work,同源词?我看行!蜗牛是软体动物,除了天下乌贼、有章鱼可循、鱿太鱼这些把海螵蛸包到体内显见有长臂善舞左右逢源左右互博变色拟态尚黑喷墨的种类,大部分软体动物类似蜗牛这样,是典型房奴!房奴工作(work),是为了供养房子,大部分甚至只能住沃沮的蜗居,一步一步往上爬。安得广厦千万间,大批天下蜗牛俱欢颜,风雨不动安如山?卖家卖地呐,色目落性价。黄皮马瓦里,哭丧塔基亚。患得又患失,患寡贫不安!鹏户高飞去,棚户高楼迁。卧牛有圈鸡有架,动物庄园赶着鸭子上架全聚德!房奴都迁到高楼,这高楼,其实也挺像“京观”的意思,按人头入户(home)呢,一层一层排满,一层一层叠加,真就是活体京观呀!上面再来个“日”,就更高了,“景观”,盘古大观!盘古开天辟地以来,人类文明达到的新成就,印证了自古以来京观梦的实现!
旁聚布公,螺旋上升,层城叠叠,云端入梦。红螺梦,红楼梦、黄粱梦、白日梦、尚黑梦、青葱梦、……五颜六色的梦,中国梦,有钱的话,你值得做!没钱的话,于谦他爹
吹法螺,也很可能是共工遗民传播的文化。螺跟佛法有关,无怪乎北方很多地方有红螺寺。这也作为塞人岛夷文化传遍全国。田螺也像亚腰葫芦哦,葫芦岛是不是也与之有关?话说葫芦作为救生用具和容器,是很受共工部落重视的。韩国还有瓠公的传说嘛!
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
由“螺蛳揭顶”想到共工氏流放幽陵,是不是北京的红螺山也与之有关呢?红螺山离共工城、燕落寨不远。“红”通“洪”通“工”(忽然想起了我们武术界流行的“洪拳-红拳”,跟洪门有关,而洪门跟共工有关,作为共工流 ...
癯鹤 发表于 2018-5-27 08:21
work,天人感应每如此,说啥来啥新闻,不过已经是久远的化石了!
蛤蛤蛤!似乎从蛤core开始,开启了今日房政的方针,也算是一代犹道之君!
因为固着蛤生活的区域常伴随着大量珊瑚和藻类,所以地壳变动后,由固着蛤、珊瑚和藻类一起建造大规模的礁体和碳酸盐台地,构成生油的物质来源和良好的储油载体。目前,世界上已经发现的许多大型油田都与白垩纪固着蛤地层有关,如中东和墨西哥湾等地区。
固着蛤,蜗居,不动产!固着蛤数量巨大,层层叠叠,甚至联合珊瑚、硅藻组成大规模台地,这不就是“京观”景观么?呵呵哒,蛤蛤蛤!真是京观的古老渊源,我就知道上帝喜爱的,必然是宇宙常见现象,往古来今不停复现才对!石油正好卡塔尔京观那里,大型油田,能量之源,财富之源,安啦的赏赐!中东武庄园欢乐多,疣猪宸羊奴狗际歌!
然而蛤蛤蛤已经灭绝,全部变成了化石咯!蛤利路亚,蛤犹如此,人何以堪,太伤感了!

1亿年前地球海洋中的奇特带贝壳软体动物——固着蛤



来源: 神秘的地球
  • 时间:2018年5月30日 10:19







固着蛤生存环境和生长状态复原图(Skelton,2003)



固着蛤不同的壳体形态(B-L)及其与常见双壳类(A)的区别(据Schumann &Steuber,1997修改)



仲巴县扎布耶剖面,大块灰岩表面的固着蛤化石


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据中国科学报(袁一雪):在约1亿年前的地球海洋中,生活着一群带贝壳的软体动物。它们虽然也属于双壳动物,但形态上与现代的双壳动物差别巨大,而且,它们不会自由地漂荡在海洋中,而是将双壳中的一半附着在基底上,由另一半自由开启。特殊的生活方式,让科学家将其命名为“固着蛤”。


数量庞大的固着蛤在那时并不起眼,在地球上安然度过了1亿多年后,固着蛤在大约66百万年前全部灭绝。随着地壳的运动,一部分固着蛤与周围的环境融为一体,成为化石。


生命虽然终结,但它们的使命并未结束。反而因为其生活地带的特殊性,成为现代科学家们重点研究的对象。


在不断的发掘工作中,中科院南京地质古生物研究所的研究人员成功地发现了固着蛤的新物种,建立了新属。


一半“禁锢”一半自由


在古动物分类学中,固着蛤是软体动物门双壳纲马尾蛤目的统称。除了生活方式不同于普通双壳类和其他软体动物,它们的壳体外形亦有区别。与现代双壳类动物贝壳对称生长的特点不同,它们的两壳一般不对称,即附着的一面与可开启的一面并不对称。而且,固着蛤的外形也不是扇面,而是有些呈蜗牛状,有些则呈杯状或牛角状。


“固着蛤演化迅速,起源于晚侏罗世牛津期中期,于白垩纪末马斯特里赫特期全部灭绝,在其约1亿年的繁衍历史中共演化出160余属。”中科院南京地质古生物研究所助理研究员饶馨在接受《中国科学报》记者采访时进一步介绍道。


演化迅速,种类繁多,但并不意味着固着蛤具有极强的适应力,相反,它们具有敏感的生态适应性,所以对生存环境有着极高的要求,一般生活在温暖浅水环境。这一特性,让固着蛤成为识别白垩纪中期至晚期特提斯区域的生物地理分区标识物。“这里所说的特提斯,是指在地史时期存在于劳亚大陆和冈瓦纳大陆之间的广阔海洋。在那时,特提斯区域存在几个生物地理分区,固着蛤常被用来识别这些生物地理分区,所以这类双壳类也是重建古地理、划分沉积相和追索大陆漂移的重要标志。”饶馨补充道。


不仅在古生物和古地理领域占据着重要位置,固着蛤还具有重要的能源意义和经济价值,这也是人类寻找固着蛤踪迹的重要原因。因为固着蛤生活的区域常伴随着大量珊瑚和藻类,所以地壳变动后,由固着蛤、珊瑚和藻类一起建造大规模的礁体和碳酸盐台地,构成生油的物质来源和良好的储油载体。目前,世界上已经发现的许多大型油田都与白垩纪固着蛤地层有关,如中东和墨西哥湾等地区。


多年坚守发现新属种


固着蛤身藏诸多秘密,意义重大,但科学家对其化石材料的采集却极其困难。因为在我国,固着蛤化石仅发现于西藏和新疆的海相白垩纪地层中,且“隐藏”在坚硬的大块灰岩中。“要在灰岩中敲出完整的标本非常困难,而且固着蛤的外壳层很容易碎裂,进而与壳体剥离。”饶馨解释说。


化石的发掘困难,导致我国对固着蛤的研究较为薄弱,甚至曾出现近20年的空白期。2009年,在中科院南京地质古生物研究所研究员沙金庚带领下,一支研究队再次踏入西藏,寻找固着蛤化石。那一年,饶馨第一次参加西藏野外考察。这次他们没有无功而返,而是在拉萨地块北部郎山组成功地采集到了一些固着蛤标本。


经过后期的进一步研究,研究人员发现这些化石与其他辐射蛤科化石外壳层呈普遍发育网格状结构不同,其外壳层全部为致密结构,所以他们断定新发现的化石是一种新的属。为了得到确认,他们试着联系了国际固着蛤研究的权威、英国开放大学教授Peter W. Skelton。“令我们受到鼓舞的是,他非常认同我们的观点。”饶馨说。最终,这一新属被命名为黎明射蛤属(Auroradiolites)。


“第一次发现黎明射蛤属化石时,我们非常惊喜,因为我们在若干个剖面都发现了这种化石,而且采集到了较为完整的标本。”饶馨回忆说。而在黎明射蛤属被命名后,世界各国研究人员也陆续在其他地块找到了这种固着蛤的化石。不过,目前资料显示,黎明射蛤属的分布范围局限于特提斯北岸的亚洲西南部,以及太平洋西岸的日本北海道地区,地质时代为晚阿普特至阿尔布期。


在随后几年的发掘工作中,沙金庚与饶馨等人又在拉萨地块南缘的桑祖岗组发现了黎明射蛤属的踪迹。“我们在桑祖岗组发现的黎明射蛤属与2009年发掘的化石属于同一种,均为双凸黎明射蛤,而且地质时代为白垩纪中期。”饶馨说,“这说明,在白垩纪中期时,伊朗、阿富汗、巴基斯坦北部、印度北部、拉萨地块和日本北海道地区均位于特提斯洋东段的北岸和太平洋西岸,因为古纬度相似,古地理环境相似,所以孕育了相同的物种。”


固着蛤研究将集结成册


两次重大发现、两次极具影响力的论文背后,是沙金庚研究组2009年、2013年、2014年和2015年的四次野外工作的辛苦结果。饶馨至今还记得,在寻找固着蛤的道路上,他们曾经遭遇塌方、陷车等危险状况。“我们住的地方一般都没有自来水,而且每晚限时供电一个小时或者两个小时。”


艰苦的条件并没有令他们产生畏难情绪,反而迎难而上。为了克服固着蛤化石易碎的困难,他们在将化石敲下前先将灰岩表面的固着蛤的自然切面进行拍照,留下野外采集的第一手资料;在实际采集过程中,常用的地质锤难以撼动坚硬的灰岩,所以他们考虑使用小型的切割机,以便获取完整的化石。


从20年的空白期到新属的发现,沙金庚研究组付出的艰辛得到了回报。现在,在沙金庚研究员带领下,饶馨等科研人员正在进行中国固着蛤化石的系统总结,编撰《中国的固着蛤化石》一书。


“我们正在将中国已经发表的固着蛤化石研究进行重新厘定,并将前几年野外工作中所采集的全部固着蛤化石进行分类、命名和描述。”饶馨说。

http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
“京观”是娱神愚民的?本人论证过“淹城、崦嵫、安次、阏支、……”包括“燕京”等等都是“亚特兰蒂斯”的衍生词,人头金字塔——“京观”会是亚特兰蒂斯的传统(还是亚特兰蒂斯遗民的新文化?毕竟他们经历了天灾,会更迷信神明)?天命玄鸟,降而生商,跟燕京之戎有紧密关系的商人,很可能跟他们学习了人祭传统。
  The full horror of the Aztec 'skull tower' revealed: Archaeologists say THOUSANDS of human sacrifices had their still-beating hearts cut out before their heads were severed and added to a monument the size of a basketball court
  • Archaeologists previously found 650 skulls in Aztec capital Tenochtitlan, which became Mexico City
  • New research shows find was just a small part of massive array of what was once thousands of skulls
  • New details of the gory rituals have also been revealed, which include turning skulls into masks
ByMark Prigg For Dailymail.com

Published: 22:42 BST, 27 June 2018 | Updated: 02:28 BST, 28 June 2018
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Aztec human sacrifices were far more widespread and grisly that previously thought, archaeologists have revealed.
In 2015 archaeologists from Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) found a gruesome 'trophy rack' near the site of the Templo Mayor, one of the main temples in the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan, which later became Mexico City.
Now, they say the find was just the tip of the iceberg, and that the 'skull tower' was just a small part of a massive display of skulls known as Huey Tzompantli that was the size of a basketball court.
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A stone Tzompantli (skull rack) found during the excavations of Templo Mayor (Great Temple) in Tenochtitlan. New research has found the 'skull towers' which used real human heads were just a small part of a massive display of skulls known as Huey Tzompantli.

The new research is slowly uncovering the vast scale of the human sacrifices, performed to honor the gods.
According to the new research detailed in Science, captives were first taken to the city's Templo Mayor, or great temple, where priests removed their still-beating hearts.
The bodies were then decapitated and priests removed the skin and muscle from the corpses' heads.
Large holes were carved into the sides of the skulls, allowing them to be placed onto a large wooden pole.
They were then placed in Tenochtitlan's tzompantli, an enormous rack of skulls built in front of the Templo Mayor, a pyramid with two temples on top.
After months or years in the sun and rain, the skulls would begin to fall to pieces, losing teeth and even jaws.



At this point, priests would remove it to be fashioned into a mask and placed in an offering, or use mortar to add it to two towers of skulls that flanked the rack.
Some Spanish conquistadors wrote about the tzompantli and its towers, estimating that the rack alone contained 130,000 skulls.

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Ingrid Trejo, an archaeologist from the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH), works at a site where more than 650 skulls caked in lime and thousands of fragments were found in the cylindrical edifice near Templo Mayor, one of the main temples in the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan, which later became Mexico City. Right, skulls, which were found during the excavation work

The skull edifices were mentioned by Andres de Tapia, a Spanish soldier who accompanied Cortes in the 1521 conquest of Mexico..
In his account of the campaign, de Tapia said he counted tens of thousands of skulls at what became known as the Huey Tzompantli.
The skulls were seen by the aztecs as 'the seeds that would ensure the continued existence of humanity' and a sign of life and regeneration, like the first flowers of spring, archaeologists believe.
THE GORY RITUAL THE AZTECS USED TO SACRIFICE HUMANS AT THEIR GREAT TEMPLE
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An illustration of Skull racks or tzompantli is shown

Captives were first taken to the city's Templo Mayor, or great temple.
In a typical ritual, sacrificial victims would be taken to the top of the temple where four priests would lay them down on a stone slab.
The victim's abdomen would be sliced open by a fifth priest using a ceremonial flint knife to cut right through the diaphragm and split open the chest.
The priest would grab the heart and tear it out, still beating.
It would then be placed in a bowl held by a statue of the honoured god, and the body thrown down the temple's stairs landing at a terrace at the base of the pyramid.
The bodies were then decapitated and priests removed the skin and muscle from the corpses' heads.
Large holes were carved into the sides of the skulls, allowing them to be placed onto a large wooden pole.
They were then placed in Tenochtitlan's tzompantli, an enormous rack of skulls built in front of the Templo Mayor, a pyramid with two temples on top.
After months or years in the sun and rain, the skulls would begin to fall to pieces, losing teeth and even jaws.
At this point, priests would remove it to be fashioned into a mask and placed in an offering, or use mortar to add it to two towers of skulls that flanked the rack.


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After months or years in the sun and rain, the skulls would begin to fall to pieces, losing teeth and even jaws. At this point, priests would remove it to be fashioned into a mask and placed in an offering, or use mortar to add it to two towers of skulls that flanked the rack.

Now, archaeologists are beginning to study the skulls in detail, hoping to learn more about Mexican rituals and the postmortem treatment of the bodies of the sacrificed.
'This is a world of information,' said archaeologist Raùl Barrera Rodríguez, director of INAH's Urban Archaeology Program and leader of the team that found the tzompantli, according to Science.
In two seasons of excavations, archaeologists collected 180 mostly complete skulls from the tower and thousands of skull fragments.
Cut marks confirm that they were 'defleshed' after death and the decapitation marks are 'clean and uniform.'
Three quarters of the skulls analyzed belonged to men, mostly aged between 20 and 35. Some 20 percent belonged to women and the remaining 5 percent were children.

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Abel Guzman, Rodrigo Bolanos and Miriam Castaneda from the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) examine skulls at a site where more than 650 of them caked in lime and thousands of fragments were found in the cylindrical edifice near Templo Mayor, one of the main temples in the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan

The researchers say the victims were in 'relatively good health' before they were sacrificed.
The size and spacing of the holes that once contained the wooden posts also allowed the team to estimate the tzompantli's size for the first time.
They say it was 35 meters long and 12 to 14 meters wide, slightly larger than a basketball court, and 4 to 5 meters high.
The researchers have also found skulls apparently stuck together with mortar—remnants of one of the towers flanking the tzompantli.
THE AZTEC CAPITAL OF TENOCHTITLAN

Tourists walk down the Pyramid of the Moon in the ancient city of Teotihuacan, Mexico. Spanish chroniclers may have altered the name of the pre-Hispanic city of Teotihuacan to erase its importance as a place of governance

Tenochtitlan was the capital of the Mexica people, who became rulers of the Aztec empire.
Spanish conquistadors were appalled by the tzompantli when they entered Tenochtitlan in 1519.
The skull edifices were mentioned by Andres de Tapia, a Spanish soldier who accompanied Cortes in the 1521 conquest of Mexico..
In his account of the campaign, de Tapia said he counted tens of thousands of skulls at what became known as the Huey Tzompantli.
Two years later, they destroyed the city and paved over its ruins, leaving the Aztec sacrificial remains below the streets of what became Mexico City.
Spanish chroniclers may have altered the name of the pre-Hispanic city of Teotihuacan to erase its importance as a place of governance, Mexican experts have said.
The Aztecs may have called the city 'Teohuacan' - literally 'the city of the sun.' That contrasts with 'the city of the gods' or 'the place where men become gods' as Teotihuacan is translated.


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The find was made in the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan, which later became Mexico City

At its largest, the tower was nearly 5 meters in diameter and at least 1.7 meters tall.
Combining the two historically documented towers and the rack, INAH archaeologists now estimate that several thousand skulls must have been displayed at a time.
'We were expecting just men, obviously young men, as warriors would be, and the thing about the women and children is that you'd think they wouldn't be going to war,' said Rodrigo Bolanos, a biological anthropologist investigating the original 2015 find.
'Something is happening that we have no record of, and this is really new, a first in the Huey Tzompantli,' he added.
Raul Barrera, one of the archaeologists working at the site alongside the huge Metropolitan Cathedral built over the Templo Mayor, said the skulls would have been set in the tower after they had stood on public display on the tzompantli.
Barrera said 676 skulls had so far been found, and that the number would rise as excavations went on.
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work,天人感应每如此,说啥来啥新闻,不过已经是久远的化石了!
蛤蛤蛤!似乎从蛤core开始,开启了今日房政的方针,也算是一代犹道之君!

固着蛤,蜗居,不动产!固着蛤数量巨大,层层叠叠,甚至联合珊瑚、硅 ...
癯鹤 发表于 2018-5-30 12:19
固着蛤和人头金字塔让人想到了北欧神话死亡神殿——瓦尔蛤蜊拉!瓦剌、乌拉尔、唐努乌梁海!哦,哈利路亚!
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本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-6-29 00:11 编辑

中东的青铜真早!

Tragic skeletons of child sacrifice are uncovered alongside treasures in Turkey: Children as young as 11 were brutally stabbed to death 5,000 years ago in a 'show of power' by Bronze Age leaders

  • Bodies of children were found in the tomb, with human sacrifices buried outside
  • Evidence suggests those sacrificed were killed with sharp objects, like pikes
  • The bodies of the children date back 5118 years and suggest the emergence of a hierarchical society in the region
By Aaron Brown For Mailonline
Published: 10:35 BST, 28 June 2018 | Updated: 15:13 BST, 28 June 2018
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Gruesome evidence of ancient child sacrifice has been unearthed in Turkey.
Almost a dozen children who were brutally killed in a ritual sacrifice have been uncovered in an early Bronze Age cemetery adorned with valuable goods.
The children, aged from 11 to young adults, were buried in the coffin-like stone tomb between 3100 and 2800 BC.
Some of these skeletons reveal evidence of brutal stabbings – deep enough to score the skull.
Researchers claim the condition of the bones, the age of those killed, and the assortment of riches found alongside the bodies, suggest these were not natural deaths — but sacrifices.
One theory is that the children were killed by Bronze Age leaders 'in a show of power' as a way to keep society in check and reinforce its social hierarchies.
The fear that sacrifices inspired at the time allowed the terrifying practice to function as a stepping-stone to help build and maintain power in early societies, researchers claim.
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A large cist tomb discovered at the at Başur Höyük site in southeast Turkey, with the remains of eight skeletons in and around it


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The newly-found evidence of child sacrifice at Başur Höyük throws new light onto the people that gave rise to this civilisation – and pushes back estimates of when sacrificial deaths began in the region by half a century

Dr Brenna Hasset of the Natural History Museum in London led the team of physical anthropologists at the archaeological dig site at Başur Höyük, in Upper Tigris region of southeast Turkey.
The site is located on the edge of the region that would later become Mesopotamia, which is considered by many to be the cradle of western civilisation and culture.
Mesopotamia was also known for human sacrifice, most famously at the Royal Cemetery of Ur.
The evidence of child sacrifice at Başur Höyük throws new light onto the people that gave rise to this civilisation – and pushes back estimates of when sacrificial deaths began in the region by half a century.
‘The burials are remarkable because of the youth of the individuals, the number that were buried and the large wealth of objects that were buried with them,’ study lead author Dr Hasset said.
‘There are various pieces of evidence which suggest that these young people did not die accidentally or naturally - rather they were sacrificed.'
Researchers unearthed the bodies of two children, buried lying down inside the tomb-like chamber.
At their feet, just outside the stone coffin, were eight other young people.
According to Dr Hasset, these bodies had been carefully and deliberately positioned outside of the tomb, with valuable goods spread around them to indicate the social value of the children inside the tomb.
Researchers were unable to find a cause of death for all of the bodies.
However, two of the skeletons found at the Başur Höyük site displayed evidence of sharp force trauma, including stab and cut wounds deep enough to graze the bone.
This suggests an unnatural cause of death for the children at the tomb.
'It is unlikely that these children and young people were killed in a massacre or conflict,’ Dr Hasset noted.
‘The careful positioning of the bodies and the evidence of violent death suggest that these burials fit the same pattern of human sacrifice seen at other sites in the region.’
Researchers believe the evidence of violent deaths, as well as the presence of valuable goods found alongside bodies outside the tomb, point to Başur Höyük being a site of Retainer sacrifice – a practice observed in Mesopotamia.

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Evidence of the sharp force trauma, including stab and cut wounds deep enough to graze the bone, were observed on the head of one of the skeletons (pictured above)

Retainer sacrifice was commonplace in royal tombs of ancient Mesopotamia and saw courtiers, guards, musicians, handmaidens and grooms commit suicide during the burial process of a royal.
Although it was originally thought this was done with poison, evidence uncovered at the cemetery at Ur suggest palace attendants were killed with a sharp instrument – like a pike – speared through their skull.
Some believe these sacrifices were made to demonstrate the sway a particular elite had over his or her flock at the time, while others believe the sacrificial killings were a ritual of fertility to the land.
Researchers were able to date the bodies of children and young people unearthed at Başur Höyük, which are between 4818 and 5118 years-old, by examining dental remains.

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The excavation site in Turkey. The coffin-like tomb unearthed by researchers sits at a crossroads between ancient Bronze Age cultures and Mesopotamia, which spanned a region inhabited by modern-day Iraq, as well as parts of Turkey, Iran, Syria and Kuwait


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The remains of at least 11 people, both male and female, ranging from age 11 to young adults, were uncovered in an excavation of three graves sites at Başur Höyük



Dr Hasset said the bodies were carefully and deliberately positioned outside of the tomb, with valuable goods (pictured) spread around them to indicate social value


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More than 100 bronze spearheads retaining trace textiles from bundling were discovered distributed throughout the internal chamber of the coffin-like tomb


The team, funded by a grant from the British Institute at Ankara, believe the evidence discovered inside the burial tomb at Başur Höyük points to the emergence of a hierarchal society in the region.
‘We see human sacrifice occurring in a number of societies, throughout time and across the globe, as human societies form larger and more stratified societies,’ Dr Hassett said.
‘The finds at Başur Höyük, which sits on the edge of the society that gave rise to the first states in Mesopotamia, give us a unique chance to understand the role human sacrifice plays in the formation of early states.’
HOW DID HUMAN SACRIFICE TAKE PLACE IN MESOPOTAMIA?Human sacrifice was commonplace in ancient Mesopotamia, which is often referred to as the birthplace of western civilisation.
Evidence of the practice was unearthed in the Royal Cemetery of Ur, a lavish series of tombs that formed the resting place of powerful rulers in Mesopotamia.
As well as housing the buried royal statesperson, the tombs are also home to the bodies of courtiers, guards, musicians, handmaidens and grooms.
These palace attendants committed suicide inside the chambers as part of the burial practices.
Known as retainer sacrifice, it was originally thought their deaths were caused by poison.
However, bone evidence uncovered at the cemetery at Ur suggest palace attendants were actually killed with a sharp instrument – like a pike – speared through their skull.
The remains of a female body found at Ur had been exposed to heat before burial and treated with mercury sulphide to delay decomposition, suggesting the palace attendants’ bodies remained unburied for a long time, possible due to lengthy funerary ceremonies for the royal.
It’s unclear whether the human sacrifices were voluntary, or involuntary.
Some believe these sacrifices were made to demonstrate the sway a particular elite had over his or her flock at the time, while others believe the sacrificial killings were a ritual of fertility to the land.

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Başur Höyük sits at a crossroads between ancient Bronze Age cultures and Mesopotamia, which spanned a region inhabited by modern-day Iraq, as well as parts of Turkey, Iran, Syria and Kuwait.
Mesopotamia, which saw the creation of the wheel, the first planted crops and the development of cursive script, mathematics, astronomy and agriculture, is often considered the cradle of western civilisation.
Addressing the significance of the tomb, Dr Hasset said: ‘Previously, the most well-known example of human sacrifice from this area is the monumental discovery of the Royal Cemetery of Ur in Mesopotamia proper, where hundreds of burials were identified as sacrifices.
‘This discovery moves the investigation of human sacrifice in the region 500 years earlier and more than 500 miles to the north, and we can now begin to wonder how it was introduced.’

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Several people had also been buried outside of the tomb and lay surrounded by elaborate ornaments and grave goods, suggesting this was a ‘retainer’ burial – these were commonplace in early Mesopotamia


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Dr Brenna Hasset of the Natural History Museum in London led the team of physical anthropologists at the archaeological dig site at Başur Höyük, in Upper Tigris region of southeast Turkey

The Başur Höyük child burial site is 500 years older than the famous Royal Cemetery of Ur, a lavish series of tombs that formed the resting final place of the most powerful rulers in Mesopotamia.
Evidence of child sacrifice at Başur Höyük now pushes back estimates for when the practice started in the region by almost half a century.
In addition to the evidence of child sacrifice, excavations by Dr Hasset and the team revealed a further series of mysterious burials from the site, including a mass death pit containing at least fifty individuals buried simultaneously.
A new Arts and Humanities Research Council project led by Dr Hassett will bring together an international team including Natural History Museum DNA scientists Professor Ian Barnes and Dr Selina Brace, Dr Suzanne Pilaar Birch of the University of Georgia at Athens, and Dr Haluk Sağlamtimur of Ege University.
The newly-formed team will use modern molecular and bio-archaeological techniques to investigate this mass grave, and uncover how they affected the beginnings of civilisation in the west.
The latest findings were published by in the journal Antiquity on June 28 2018.

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Royal cemetery of Ur, located in modern-day Iraq was one of the pre-eminent cities of Mesopotamia. Most of the tombs in the royal cemetery date from around 2600 BC and show evidence of human sacrifice, with palace attendants stabbed to death and buried alongside riches outside the tomb of the royal


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A gold helmet dating back to 2600BC, unearthed in the Royal Cemetery at Ur. The tomb of Meskalamdug ('hero of the good land') was discovered by English archaeologist Sir Leonard Woolley in the Royal Cemetery of Ur in 1924. It contained dozens of gold artefacts, including the helmet (pictured) with an inscription of the king's name
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为什么大彭氏那个时代,都习惯以妇女儿童做祭品?



Violently bound and thrown in a pit to die: Battered bones of women and children found at a 'German Stonehenge' reveal the grisly details of human sacrifices 4,300 years ago
  • Broken skulls and rib bones were found buried in pits alongside axes, drinking vessels and animal bones
  • They were discovered at an archaeology site near Pömmelte, a village in Germany not far from Berlin
  • The bones belong to children, teenagers and women, at least one of which had their hands bound together
  • Ancient people likely used the henge at Pömmelte from about 2300 BC until 2050 BC for ancient rituals
ByTim Collins For Mailonline
Published: 18:00 BST, 29 June 2018 | Updated: 18:37 BST, 29 June 2018
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Broken skulls and rib bones belonging to women and children who were violently bound and buried have been found in pits at a site in Germany dating back to 2300 BC.
Around 4,300 years ago, at the same time as Neolithic people in Britain were gathering at Stonehenge, people in Europe were building their own monumental structure about 85 miles (136 km) southwest of what is now Berlin.
Made up of a series of circular ditches, complete with pits and rows of posts, experts believe the site held a similar ritualistic importance, aligning with the path of the sun.
They also discovered a more grisly side to the structure, which experts believe may have served as a place of religious worship to a cult of the dead.

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Broken skulls and rib bones belonging to women and children who were violently bound and buried have been found in pits at a site in Germany dating back to 2300 BC. This image shows the sun rise above the site on December 21, 2016, the shortest day of the year

The structure, near Pömmelte, was studied by André Spatzier at the State Office for Cultural Heritage Baden-Württemberg in Esslingen and François Bertemes at Martin Luther University Halle.
The site is scattered with 29 shafts containing the skeletons, some of which had been mutilated, as well as more mundane objects like drinking vessels, axes and butchered animal bones.
Much like Stonehenge, its German counterpart - discovered thanks to aerial photography in 1991, with more in depth excavations happening much more recently - is circular and was constructed from either wood or stones.





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Around 4,300 years ago, at the same time as Neolithic people in Britain were gathering at Stonehenge, people in Europe were building their own monumental structure (pictured)


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Made up of a series of circular ditches, complete with pits and rows of posts, experts believe the site held a similar ritualistic importance, aligning with the path of the sun

It is made up of a series of seven concentric rings of ditches and raised banks, with the outer circle around 375 feet (115 metres) in diameter.
It was used from about 2300 BC until 2050 BC, when it was destroyed, perhaps ritualistically according to the researchers.
'It looks like at the end of the main occupation, around 2050 BC, they extracted the posts, put offerings into the postholes and probably burned all the wood and back-shovelled it into the ditch,' Dr Spatzier told Live Science.
'So, they closed all the features. It was still visible above ground, but only as a shovel depression.'

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They also discovered a more grisly side to the structure (layout pictured) which experts believe may have served as a place of religious worship to a cult of the dead


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The site is scattered with 29 shafts containing the skeletons, some of which had been mutilated. This graphic shows the layers of deposits found in the pits


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The site was used from about 2300 BC until 2050 BC (represented by this graphic), when it was destroyed, perhaps ritualistically according to the researchers. More mundane objects like drinking vessels, axes and butchered animal bones were also found

While it's possible that the dead were the victims of raids or other armed conflict, the fact that no adult male remains were found, this seems unlikely.
Beyond the ritual sacrifices, ancient people living during the transition from the late Neolithic to the early Bronze Age, buried 13 of their dead at the site, even after its destruction.
This included men, aged 17 to 30, who showed no signs of injury and most likely died from natural causes.
Their bodies had been buried in simple graves, without any artefacts, facing east and the rising sun, suggesting they may have been of a high ranking within their tribe.
The full findings of the study were published in the journal Antiquity.

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The structure, near Pömmelte, is around 85 miles (136 km) southwest of what is now Berlin. It was studied by André Spatzier at the State Office for Cultural Heritage Baden-Württemberg in Esslingen and François Bertemes at Martin Luther University Halle
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