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Ethnic derivation of the Ainu inferred from ancient mitochondrial DNA data

Ethnic derivation of the Ainu inferred from ancient mitochondrial DNA data

Abstract

Objectives

The Ainu, the indigenous people living on the northernmost island of Japan, Hokkaido, have long been a focus of anthropological interest because of their cultural, linguistic, and physical identity. A major problem with genetic studies on the Ainu is that the previously published data stemmed almost exclusively from only 51 modern-day individuals living in Biratori Town, central Hokkaido. To clarify the actual genetic characteristics of the Ainu, individuals who are less influenced by mainland Japanese, who started large-scale immigration into Hokkaido about 150 years ago, should be examined. Moreover, the samples should be collected from all over Hokkaido.

Materials and methods

Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups of 94 Ainu individuals from the Edo era were successfully determined by analyzing haplogroup-defining polymorphisms in the hypervariable and coding regions. Thereafter, their frequencies were compared to those of other populations.

Results

Our findings indicate that the Ainu still retain the matrilineage of the Hokkaido Jomon people. However, the Siberian influence on this population is far greater than previously recognized. Moreover, the influence of mainland Japanese is evident, especially in the southwestern part of Hokkaido that is adjacent to Honshu, the main island of Japan.

Discussion

Our results suggest that the Ainu were formed from the Hokkaido Jomon people, but subsequently underwent considerable admixture with adjacent populations. The present study strongly recommends revision of the widely accepted dual-structure model for the population history of the Japanese, in which the Ainu are assumed to be the direct descendants of the Jomon people.

Open Access http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.23338/abstract
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本帖最后由 imvivi001 于 2018-2-28 00:48 编辑

日本阿依努族的母系非常神奇,居然非常接近北满族群,与绳纹人群相差非常大,不像是一个族系(在绳纹人群数据有限的情况下)

江户时期Ainu绳纹北海道鄂霍次克现代Ainu和族
江户时期Ainu0
绳纹北海道0.19660
鄂霍次克0.043480.303750
现代Ainu0.038230.242160.072260
现代和族0.123270.280620.206240.071980
冲绳岛民0.130710.28310.210530.061580.03249
Koreans0.108190.252820.17740.070540.01301
汉族0.125510.257780.181260.089450.05463
尼夫赫0.116150.479650.130050.171440.23996
兀德盖0.099730.165270.166590.123220.17271
乌尔奇0.031970.300770.046660.062260.14082
Negidal0.075650.323170.091060.050150.09565
鄂温克0.149910.343550.222930.117060.07098
科里亚克0.159260.318740.139090.122780.20815
Itel’men0.264670.443520.24280.222340.30487
物格而后知至,知至而后意诚,意诚而后心正,心正而后身修,身修而后家齐,家齐而后国治,国治而后天下平...
从附件里的分型来看,阿伊努人的mtDNA类型是比较单纯的下游分支类型。除了特有的M7a外,其他大部分与远东人群(主要是乌尔奇,乌德盖人)接近,另外A5c是与朝鲜人接近。
NRY: O2a1c1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1(源自粤西云浮)
mtDNA:B4d1(源自浙北慈溪)
百越人的人类学文集 http://blog.sina.com.cn/baiyueren
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