返回列表 回复 发帖

乙肝在千年前就诞生!

本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-5-10 22:24 编辑

乙肝在千年前就诞生!2018-05-10 11:42:53 新浪看点 作者: 老肖的日常点滴作者: 我有话说
[size=+0]本周,丹麦哥本哈根大学的 Eske Willerslev 及同事在《自然》期刊上发表了两篇论文 137 ancient human genomes from across the Eurasian steppes 和 Ancient hepatitis B viruses from the Bronze Age to the Medieval period,其中一篇报道了 137 名约生活在 1,500-4,500 年前的古人类的基因组序列,另一篇分析了这 137 人的基因组和另外 167 名青铜时代人类的基因组,并在其中 25 人体内发现了乙型肝炎病毒(HBV)的证据。以上发现表明欧亚人类感染 HBV 的历史已有数千年之久。

[size=+0]古代样本的文化和地理呈现。
[size=+0]Damgaard et al.
[size=+0]作者测序了来自欧亚大草原的 137 名古人类的基因组,覆盖了长约 4000 年的一段时期 (欧亚大草原 是西起匈牙利,东至中国东北的一片长约 8000 公里的广阔区域)。此外,他们还研究了自我报告为拥有当今中亚、阿尔泰、西伯利亚和高加索血统的 502 名个体的基因组数据。这些发现帮助阐明了该区域的种群历史,表明青铜时代欧亚血统的牧民逐渐过渡至主要为东亚血统的骑兵。
[size=+0]在第二篇论文中,Willerslev 及其共同作者分析了 304 名来自欧亚中部及西部的古人类的 DNA 序列,这些人约生活在 200-7,000 年前。作者在 25 个人的体内发现了 HBV 感染证据,时间跨度近 4000 年。他们恢复了 12 个完整或部分的 HBV 基因组——包括目前已经灭绝的基因型,并把它们和当代人类及非人类灵长类动物的 HBV 基因组放在一起加以分析。结果发现某些古代 HBV 基因组的所在区域与其现今的分布区域不一致,而且至少有一种基因型现已灭绝。

[size=+0]样本和现代基因型的地理分布。
[size=+0]Mühlemann et al.
[size=+0]全球约有 2.57 亿人口长期感染 HBV,2015 年约有 88.7 万人死于相关并发症,但是该病毒的起源和演化一直不甚清楚。发现更古老的病毒序列或可以更加清楚地揭示 HBV 的真正起源和早期历史,并且帮助理解自然及文化变化对疾病负担与死亡率的影响。

人类感染乙肝史仅400年?古人类基因组揭示至少有数千年!
2018-05-10 20:07:04 新浪看点 作者: 澎湃新闻作者: 我有话说



[size=+0]现代医学对乙型肝炎病毒(hepatitis B virus, HBV)的认识始于1960年代,病毒发现者Baruch Samuel Blumberg和其他人共享了1976年诺贝尔生理学和医学奖。然而,全球仍有约2.57亿人口长期感染乙型肝炎病毒,2015年约有88.7万人死于相关的并发症,例如肝硬化、肝癌等疾病。
[size=+0]病毒的起源和演化是科学家在追求扼杀HBV途中的重要方向。北京时间5月10日,丹麦哥本哈根大学、剑桥大学进化遗传学家Eske Willerslev及其同事在《自然》(Nature)期刊上同时发表2篇论文,其中一篇即是他们在200-4500年前的欧亚古人类基因中发现了HBV存在的证据,表明人类感染HBV至少已有数千年历史。
[size=+0]“我们一直认为HBV是一种古老的人类病毒,但之前的证据可以证明的它们最悠久的历史也不过只有400年,但这次研究把历史推到了400年之前。”没有参与此项研究的澳大利亚多尔蒂研究所维多利亚传染病参考实验室高级医学科学家Margaret Littlejohn如此点评,“这无疑是该领域的一次飞跃。”

[size=+0]样本和现代基因型的地理分布。
[size=+0]“废弃”DNA中隐藏线索
[size=+0]该研究始于Eske Willerslev及其同事的一项调查,他们最初想要阐明欧亚大草原上的人类历史。欧亚大草原是西起匈牙利,东至中国东北的一片长约8000公里的广阔区域。
[size=+0]研究团队采用鸟枪法测序。“我们发现得到的绝大部分DNA实际上并非是人类的。”Willerslev表示,“一开始,这些并不是我们重视的东西,它就相当于是我们研究中的某种副产物,但后来我们开始调查这些废弃产物或许是某种病原体。”
[size=+0]研究团队随后意识到这些“废弃”DNA或许能对HBV的起源提供新线索。他们从本次调查研究基因组中采集了137例,及另外167名青铜器时代人类的基因组(Willerslev在2015年发表在《自然》上的成果),来着重研究HBV起源。
[size=+0]Willerslev及其同事分析了上述304名来自欧亚中部及西部的古人类的DNA序列,这些人约生活在200-7000年前。最后,研究团队在25个人的体内发现了HBV感染证据,时间跨度近4000年(生活在800-4500年前),其中一些骨头来源于蒙古国一处乱葬岗中的一名战士。
[size=+0]随后,他们恢复了12个完整或部分的HBV基因组,其中一种基因型目前已经灭绝。
[size=+0]研究团队还把它们和当代人类及非人类灵长类动物的HBV基因组放在一起加以分析。结果发现,其中有3个古老HBV基因组和现代的大猩猩和黑猩猩的HBV基因组最接近。
[size=+0]HBV起源仍旧是个迷
[size=+0]尽管Willerslev及其同事此番将人类HBV的历史往前推进了数千年,但真正起源仍成迷。
[size=+0]Willerslev测序的HBV基因组提供了病毒有重组的证据,以及有一些目前已经灭绝,暗示人类HBV至少存在于4500年前。然而,病毒需要时间来经受这样的进化改变,所有的新发现都指向:HBV起源于更早时候。
[size=+0]维多利亚传染病参考实验室另一名高级医学科学家Lilly Yuen表示,“当科学家试图推断HBV的历史时,最早的数据一般都是倾向于几百年或者几年前以前”。但其他的一些研究已经在古老的鸟类基因组中发现鸟类HBV版本,这表明HBV可能起源于数百万年之前。
[size=+0]实际上,就在5月7日,德国马克斯-普朗克研究所(MPI)进化遗传学家Johannes Krause及其同事在预印本在线期刊 BioRxiv发表了一项研究成果,他们在人类牙齿样本中发现了3个古老的HBV基因组,其中一个有近7000年历史。
[size=+0]Krause对Willerslev等人的最新成果点评,“我们都很兴奋,我们可以将HBV的历史拉回到如此久远的时代。”但Krause同时表示,根据他们自己的工作及Willerslev 团队的研究成果,HBV的历史仍旧是个迷,“它可能会古老很多。”

[size=+0]论文的第一作者、剑桥大学研究生Barbara Mühlemann提到,他们对人类HBV病毒历史研究的下一步将更深入地研究它们的变异情况,以此判断病毒未来可能发生的变化。


Strain of hepatitis B found on a 4,500-year-old skeleton is the oldest human virus ever to be discovered
Strain extracted from a skeleton could provide oldest ever evidence of the virus
  • Scientists say the 'truly remarkable' study was on par with finding the first fossils
  • Study said that it was not previously know that virus could become extinct

ByColin Fernandez Science Correspondent For The Daily Mail
Published: 18:01 BST, 9 May 2018 | Updated: 08:29 BST, 10 May 2018
20shares

7
View
comments

The oldest human virus has been discovered in a 4,500-year old skeleton.
Scientists say the extinct strain of hepatitis B – the potentially lethal liver disease that affects millions – has ‘transformed’ their understanding of the virus.
British scientists said the ‘truly remarkable’ discovery was on a par with finding the first fossils.
Previously the oldest detected human viruses dated back around 450 years.

+3


Scientists took DNA from the skeletons to search for evidence of the Hepatitis B virus

The hepatitis B virus has many mutations that no longer exist – and the information could help us prepare for dangerous new strains, scientists said.
The discovery was made by carrying out DNA sampling on a Bronze Age skeleton in Osterhofen, Germany, as part of a wider study of 300 skeletons from central and western Eurasia, which are between 200 and 7,000 years old.
The hepatitis B skeleton belonged to the ‘Bell Beaker’ culture, so called because of the bell-shaped pottery cups left behind.

+3


The study, published in the journal Nature, said it was not previously known that viruses could become extinct



+3


The hepatitis B virus has many mutations that no longer exist – and the information could help us prepare for dangerous new strains, scientists said

The study, published in the journal Nature, said it was not previously known that viruses could become extinct.
Joint lead author Barbara Muhlemann, a Cambridge University PhD student, said: ‘People have tried to unravel the history of HBV for decades.
'This study transforms our understanding of the virus.’



Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5710373/Oldest-human-virus-discovered-Bronze-Age-bones.html#ixzz5F6num6Kq
Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook
[size=+0]
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
红松鼠让亚洲又摆脱了一项指责:

Leprosy started in Europe NOT Asia and red squirrels were responsible for bringing it to Britain more than 1,000 years ago, DNA study suggests
  • Red squirrels are responsible for bringing the leprosy bacteria to British shores
  • Strand of the disease found in the rodents today was found in ancient skeletons
  • Red squirrels were prized for their meat and fur by people in ancient Britain
  • Leprosy causes severe deformities and affected millions in the Middle Ages
By Tim Collins For Mailonline and Press Association
Published: 19:01 BST, 10 May 2018 | Updated: 23:09 BST, 10 May 2018



2
View
comments

Leprosy had its beginnings in Europe rather than Asia and was brought to Britain more than 1,000 years ago - thanks to the trade in red squirrels.
That's the finding of research which looked at DNA to reveal the strains of the disease circulating in Medieval Europe, in the largest study of its kind.
It revealed more strains of the devastating disease than expected in medieval Europe, calling into question the historical assumption that it began if the East.
Genetic material taken from a fifth-century victim of the disease in Essex also contained the same strain of leprosy bacteria still carried by red squirrels today.
Experts say this suggests the rodents, then prized for their fur and meat, played a crucial role in the spread of the infection.
Scroll down for video

+5


Leprosy had its beginnings in Europe rather than Asia and was brought to Britain more than 1,000 years ago. That's the finding of research which looked at DNA from human remains (pictured) to reveal the strains of the disease circulating in Medieval Europe

An international team of team, including scientists from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History (MPISHH), took samples of leprosy DNA.
These were taken from the remains of 90 European people, who lived between 400 and 1,400 AD, that were selected due to skeletal deformations characteristic of the disease.
Among the selected remains was a skeleton from Great Chesterford, Essex, dated to between 415 and 545 AD.
It was this leprosy genome, the oldest yet constructed, that contained the red squirrel clue.
Researchers used the data they collected to reconstruct 10 new genomes, or complete genetic codes, of the bug that causes leprosy - known as Mycobacterium leprae.


Previous research on the bacterium suggested that it clusters into several strains, only two of which were present in Medieval Europe.
The diversity of the newly uncovered strains suggests the disease may be at least a few thousand years old, experts say.
'We found much more genetic diversity in ancient Europe than expected,' said Professor Johannes Krause, senior author of the study and a director at MPISHH.
'Additionally, we found that all known strains of leprosy are present in Medieval Europe, suggesting that leprosy may already have been widespread throughout Asia and Europe in antiquity or that it might have originated in western Eurasia.'

+5


From the bone fragments, experts reconstructed 10 new genomes of medieval Mycobacterium leprae, the bug that causes leprosy. The 90 individuals that were lepers (pictured) were found to have the same strand of the bacteria as found in red squirrels


+5



The new research suggests that leprosy may have originated in western Europe or Asia. The medieval genomes included strains now found in Asia, Africa and the Americas. Pictured bones found in Essex that once belonged to a leper were used as part of the research


+5


Leprosy causes severe bone deformities (pictured) and was prevalent in Europe until the 16th century and is still endemic in many countries, with more than 200,000 cases reported each year

WHAT IS LEPROSY? Leprosy is a long-term infectious disease which can result in the inflammation of the nerves, respiratory tract, skin, and eyes.
The disease is initially symptom-less and can remain undetected for five to 20 years.
Typically found among those living in poverty, leprosy was common during the Middle Ages and then again in nineteenth century but it can still be found in developed and developing countries today.
In 2012, the number of chronic cases of leprosy was 189,000, down from some 5.2 million in the 1980s, with India accounting for more than half of all cases.


[url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url]

Leprosy was prevalent in Europe until the 16th century and is still endemic in many countries, with more than 200,000 cases reported each year.
The medieval genomes included strains now found in Asia, Africa and the Americas.
Lead researcher Dr Verena Schuenemann, from the University of Zurich, Switzerland, added: 'The dynamics of M. leprae transmission throughout human history are not fully resolved.
'Characterisation and geographic association of the most ancestral strains are crucial for deciphering leprosy’s exact origin.
'While we have some written records of leprosy cases that predate the Common Era, none of these have yet been confirmed on a molecular level.'
The full findings of the study were published in the journal PLOS Pathogens.

+5


Genetic material taken from a fifth-century victim of the disease in Essex also contained the same strain of leprosy bacteria still carried by red squirrels today. Experts say this suggests the rodents (pictured) played a crucial role in the spread of the infection




Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5715105/Red-squirrels-carried-leprosy-UK-study-shows.html#ixzz5F91CwFww
Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
瘟神-鬼方,的确是西方、北方为多。虽然也有很多病原体可能源自东方、南方。因为低纬度地带难以形成大帝国,日照强烈,人口不多,太阳有杀菌之功,人口少免于传染,也是自然选择跟社会选择的结合,即使低纬度产生的病毒,不传播到中高纬度一般危害不大(比如非洲热带雨林的伊博拉病毒,高烈性,若只危害非洲土著,除了博爱和预防的需要,其实对其他地方的人来说,并无影响)。高纬度容易产生幅员辽阔人口众多的大帝国,也便利了传染病(瘟疫)传播。

Ancient Romans are to blame for MILLIONS of deaths worldwide, as research shows their empire spread tuberculosis throughout the world

  • Tuberculosis was first spotted in humans around 5,000 years ago in Africa
  • It spread in the first century AD as the Roman empire quickly expanded
  • Humans are affected by one strain of TB, which is not carried by other animals
  • TB still kills millions of people a year, with a high percentage afflicted with HIV
By Joe Pinkstone For Mailonline

Published: 18:07 BST, 4 July 2018 | Updated: 18:41 BST, 4 July 2018



32 shares

68
View
comments

Millions of deaths from tuberculosis over the course of millennia can be laid at the feet of the Ancient Romans, a new study suggests.
While the ancient civilisation may have invented useful tools, straight roads, public toilets and the calendar – they also spread the devastating disease to the furthest corners of their empire.
Tuberculosis (TB) first appeared around 5,000 years ago in Africa, but spread rapidly around the 1st century AD when the Roman Empire was at its peak, research shows.
The bacteria that causes TB still kills millions of people every year, with a high percentage of those who become infected afflicted with HIV.
Scroll down for video

+3


Roman expansion into Africa and their fashion for group bathing has been pegged as the reason tuberculosis spread throughout the ancient world, after being localised in Africa for thousands of years (stock image of the Roman Spa at Bath)

A study led by researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison found the link between the simultaneous spread of the disease and the Roman Empire.
Researchers took genomic data from more than 550 samples of tuberculosis bacteria gathered from modern day populations across Africa and Eurasia.
By comparing the genetic sequences of the samples, the team of researchers created a timeline showing how the disease spread.




They found the last time all of the strains were located in the same family was between 4,000 and 5,000 years ago.
Of the seven lineages that currently exist, three remained endemic to this region.
The other four, however, soon branched out into further regions.
This coincided almost exactly with the time when the Romans were conquering more land and building strong transport links.
Speaking to New Scientist, population geneticist Caitlin Pepperell said: 'The evolution of the bacterium is inextricably tied to humans.'

+3


Tuberculosis (TB) is a potentially fatal infectious disease that mainly affects your lungs. The bacteria that causes TB still kills millions of people every year, with a high percentage of these people afflicted with HIV and/or excrement

WHAT IS TUBERCULOSIS IN HUMANS?Tuberculosis (TB) is a potentially serious infectious disease that mainly affects your lungs.
The bacteria that cause tuberculosis are spread from one person to another through tiny droplets released into the air via coughs and sneezes.
Although your body may harbor the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, your immune system usually can prevent you from becoming sick.
For this reason, doctors make a distinction between Latent and Active TB
Symptoms of active TB include coughing up blood, weight loss, fatigue, and chest pain, and fever.
Tuberculosis can also affect other parts of your body, including your kidneys, spine or brain.
Source: Mayo Clinic

[url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url]

Humans are only affected by one particular strain of TB, which cannot be carried by any other animal species.
Roman civilisation brought together cultures from all around the world, and provided the perfect environment for the disease to migrate from person to person and, subsequently, spread across the world.
Dr Pepperell said: 'The timing is consistent with the Romans causing an incredible amount of movement and exploration around the Mediterranean.
'There was contact between human populations that had not had contact before.'
While the Romans did not introduce the killer microbe, their civilisation did encourage its rise to prominence.
Jared Eddy of Boston Medical Center has previously argued the Roman Empire would probably have helped disseminate TB, according to the New Scientist.

+3


Tuberculosis (TB) first appeared around 5,000 years ago in Africa, but it spread rapidly around the 1st century AD, when the Roman Empire was around its peak (pictured)

That's because people moved into cities, towns and more enclosed spaces.
'When TB spreads, it spreads in closed spaces,' he added.
'They had these gigantic bath complexes and people sleeping in the same room in military barracks.'
Today, one in four people on the planet are infected with a latent version of the disease.
Although these people exhibit no symptoms, they still harbour the Mycobacterium tuberculosis which can manifest itself into the illness.
TB is spread from person to person through the air. When people with lung TB cough, sneeze or spit, they propel the TB germs into the air.
A person needs to inhale only a few of these germs to become infected.
It often affects the lungs, and gives rise to the bloody cough with which it is most often associated.
It can be kept at bay by a competent immune system, but those with jeopardised immune responses can fall victim to the fatal condition.
WHEN DID THE ROMANS OCCUPY BRITAIN?55BC - Julius Caesar crossed the channel with around 10,000 soldiers. They landed at a beach in Deal and were met by a force of Britons. Caesar was forced to withdraw.
54BC - Caesar crossed the channel with 27,000 infantry and cavalry. Again they landed at deal but were unopposed. They marched inland and after hard battles they defeated the Britons and key tribal leaders surrendered.
However, later that year, Caesar was forced to return to Gaul to deal with problems there and the Romans left.
54BC - 43BC - Although there were no Romans present in Britain during these years, their influence increased due to trade links.
43AD - A Roman force of 40,000 led by Aulus Plautius landed in Kent and took the south east. The emperor Claudius arrived in Colchester with reinforcements. Claudius appointed Plautius as Governor of Britain and returned to Rome.
47AD - Londinium (London) was founded and Britain was declared part of the Roman empire. Networks of roads were built across the country.
75 - 77AD - Romans defeated the last resistant tribes, making all Britain Roman. Many Britons started adopting Roman customs and law.
122AD - Emperor Hadrian ordered that a wall be built between England and Scotland to keep Scottish tribes out.
312AD - Emperor Constantine made Christianity legal throughout the Roman empire.
228AD - The Romans were being attacked by barbarian tribes and soldiers stationed in the country started to be recalled to Rome.
410AD - All Romans were recalled to Rome and Emperor Honorious told Britons they no longer had a connection to Rome.
Source: History on the net

[url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url]

At some point, the bacteria can initiate a conflict with the person's natural defences and then proliferates inside the white blood cells of its host.
In 2016, 10.4 million people fell ill with TB, and 1.7 million died from the disease.
Of these, 400,000 people had HIV and more than 95 per cent occurred in low- and middle-income countries.
Tuberculosis is a leading killer of HIV-positive people, with around 40 per cent of HIV deaths due to TB.
Dr Pepperell apresented the findings at last month's American Society for Microbiology's conference.
Speaking at the event, she added: 'What I wanted to do was to embed the genomic data into a sensible historical context.
A paper outlining the full findings is available on the pre-peer review site bioRxiv.
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler

新换了系统,电脑竟然变成了哑巴,不能发出声音了。查了各种有关声音的设置,都没有发现问题,用2345安全卫士也找不到任何问题、包括IDT声卡什么的一切都看起来很顺利,什么黄三角问号红叉叉什么静音啥的设置都没有,音量都是调到最大,但就是一点声音没有。之前我的笔记本电脑虽然音量比较小,但从来是有声音的,现在想听个单词发音都不行喽。估计应该是新装系统有问题(昨天我还过去质问了维修店,给我装了旧版XP,很多功能都感觉不灵便)。用DxDiag诊断工具发现一个问题“DirectSound测试结果:步骤19(用户验证软件)上有故障:HRESULT=0x00000000(错误码)”。预备先看看自己能不能解决,虽然再去维修店肯定得给我维修,但很可能换装系统,保不齐会不会有别的毛病,我这人有洁癖,每次外出回来电脑都要重新擦拭一番,很麻烦。如果新系统还有别的毛病,再去维修。


好在埃及挖出的这奶酪比小河墓地的略晚一些,差点夺走我们的吉尼斯世界纪录呀!那布氏杆菌不知是法老王时代的,还是后世历史时期侵入奶酪的。想想木乃伊的诅咒,大概率在古代很多病菌隐藏在温湿度恒定的木乃伊里了。



埃及挖出最古老起司 藏有致命的布氏杆菌


来源: 神秘的地球  
  • 时间:2018年8月19日 09:44



埃及挖出最古老起司 藏有致命的布氏杆菌


(神秘的地球uux.cn报道)据ETtoday:埃及近日挖出埋藏在沙漠下方的一个破罐子,里头的白色固态物经过数千年终于能够重见天日,意大利科学家格列科(Enrico Greco)表示,这或许是史上考古发现以来,最古老的固态起司残留物,估计已经有3200年的历史。这块起司被验出疑似含有布氏杆菌(brucellosis),会对人类致命,因此不能食用。


综合外媒报导,考古团队在埃及撒卡拉(Saqqara)大墓地为第19王朝一处坟墓清理沙时,无意中发现这块起司。大墓地埋葬的是古孟菲斯(Memphis)市长塔米斯(Ptahmes),墓早在1885年时就被发现,但后来遭流沙吞噬,直到2010年才再重见天日。


报导更指出,本周发表在分析化学(Analytical Chemistry)的期刊研究指出,2013到2014年间,进行挖掘时除了找到这块白色固态物,还发现一张可能用来包覆罐子保存的布。研究更指出,这块起司已有3200年历史,是由牛奶、山羊或绵羊奶混合制成。


负责此研究报告的科学家葛瑞柯(Enrico Greco)则说,因为雨水与尼罗河的泛滥,白色固态物历经了数千次吸水与脱水过程,加上极度强碱的环境改变了所有的脂肪成分,这不可能是传统技术制作出来的。


葛瑞柯还提到,研究的另一重大发现是找到某种细菌的迹象,细菌可能引发致死的布氏杆菌病(brucellosis),可能会透过未杀菌的动物乳制品传染给人类,若经证实,这将是法老时代存在布氏杆菌病「第一个生物分子」的证据,木乃伊的骨关节效应可确认古埃及存在布氏杆菌病,可能代表埃及人摄取了受污染的起司或牛奶。




http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
折腾了一下午一晚上了,什么驱动人生、显卡驱动、声卡驱动啥的都装了,而且还是操作好几遍,卸载再装新的程序,克服了多次程序不能正常运行的阻碍,面上似乎并无严重问题了,而且各种漏洞也是不停检查,基本全打了补丁,但是电脑还是哑巴。用DxDiag诊断工具发现除了那一个问题“DirectSound测试结果:步骤19(用户验证软件)上有故障:HRESULT=0x00000000(错误码)”。又多了个问题“文件sthda.sys未经数字签名,这说明该文件没有通过…(WHQL)…”。看来还是涉及知识产权的问题,对于我这穷人,没钱买正版,只是另想其他斜径的问题了。

想起来家里穷,几次买的廉价猪肉可能来自非洁食认证的非正常死亡的猪,虽然做的火候大,但是人还是有点昏沉沉,肚子也难受,真是有点后怕。

东武庄园欢乐多,疣猪洋奴狗际歌。两湖两广两河山,衣带夷则路徕特。卖家卖地纳税息,耶路撒冷系泊露。非洲猪瘟吉布提,温州猪宸卡塔尔!

非洲猪瘟下,会出现我们的无良商人吗?
2018年8月5日 - 起生猪非洲猪瘟疫情,这是我国首次发生非洲猪瘟...收购病猪贩卖的利润,那绝对不是一个小数字,...本文由星湖—财经站作者京原创,未经书面授权...
https://baijiahao.baidu.com/s?...[url=]
[/url]

- 百度快照






突发!沈北新区发生非洲猪瘟疫情,913头生猪已被扑杀_房产资讯_房天下2018年8月4日 - 非洲猪瘟是由非洲猪瘟病毒引起的猪的一种急性、热性、高度接触性动物传染...富力·IFC 新希望锦麟河院 金地·颂 沈阳禹洲广场 名仕金融中心...
news.sy.fang.com/open/...[url=]
[/url]

- 百度快照
河南郑州确诊发生非洲猪瘟疫情 潜在威胁引发市场关注_私募..._好买2天前 - 公开资料显示,非洲猪瘟是由非洲猪瘟病毒引起的猪的一种急性、热性、高度接触性动物传染病,猪主要通过接触病毒或者污染物或被感染的蜱叮咬后而感染,潜...
https://www.howbuy.com/news/20...[url=]
[/url]


- 百度快照

连云港非洲猪瘟,上演群猪乱舞_搜狐社会_搜狐网4小时前 - 8月19日农业农村部新闻办公室发布通报称,江苏省连云港市海州区发生一起生猪非洲猪瘟疫情,发病615头,死亡88头。其实在8月15日的时候海州区某养殖场就...
www.sohu.com/a/...[url=]
[/url]

- 百度快照

连云港非洲猪瘟的最新相关信息江苏省连云港发生非洲猪瘟疫情 发病615头死亡88头
摘要:农业农村部新闻办公室8月19日发布,江苏省连云港市海州区发生一起生猪非洲猪瘟疫情。 农业农村部新闻办公室8月19日发布,江苏省连云港市海州区...
解放牛网  8小时前

5小时前连云港非洲猪瘟 上百头猪发病所幸疫情很... 楚秀网
3小时前[东方新闻]江苏连云港发生非洲猪瘟疫情 央视网
8小时前江苏省连云港市海州区发生一起非洲猪瘟疫情 大众网
8小时前江苏连云港发生非洲猪瘟疫情 官方通报:发... 万家热线



非洲猪瘟≠猪瘟 ——重新认识非洲猪瘟病毒病
2018-08-07 08:44流产

非洲猪瘟(African swine fever,ASF)
是一种具有高度传染性和致死性的猪病,可导致猪群发热和出血等症状。目前仍没有对非洲猪瘟具有普遍性保护作用的疫苗。1957年以前,非洲猪瘟仅出现在非洲地区,随后这种传染病不断扩散到葡萄牙、西班牙、法国南部和意大利等地区,目前已经蔓延至俄罗斯、乌克兰和白俄罗斯地区。近日,在沈阳一家小猪场发现非洲猪瘟感染案例,这需要引起我们的高度重视。
病原
非洲猪瘟病毒(ASFV)属于非洲猪瘟病毒科,非洲猪瘟病毒属,双链DNA病毒。它是目前唯一的DNA虫媒病毒。至今还没有发现与ASFV血清学相关的病毒。ASFV是一个很复杂的病毒,已被鉴定的结构蛋白有28种,在被感染的巨噬细胞中,已被鉴定出100种以上的病毒诱导蛋白,其中至少50种能与感染猪或康复猪的血清反应,40种能与病毒粒子相结合。病毒可在实验室的细胞培养液中生长。不过在临床上,该病毒可在猪体内分离到,并在蜱和虱子内繁殖,而在非洲则常在野猪(如疣猪)的血液中分离到。ASFV对乙醚及氯仿等脂溶剂敏感,对热、腐败、干燥的抵抗力较强。病毒可在56℃的环境下存活2小时、4℃下存活6个月、在干燥的室温环境下可存活2年,而在-20℃下几乎可无限期的存活。在PH值范围为3至10的环境下,病毒十分稳定;不过在1%的甲醛溶液内6天可使病毒灭活,而在2%的氢氧化钠溶液内24小时便可灭活病毒。
临床症状
非洲猪瘟的潜伏期平均为1周左右(5至15天),随后有48小时左右的发热期(40至42℃),此时受感染的猪只仍无明显的发病症状,且采食正常。该病的临床症状从体温下降开始,主要包括反应迟钝、厌食、身体蜷缩、动作不协调、呼吸困难和咳嗽(约占30%的病例)、皮肤发绀、偶尔出现呕吐或腹泻,有时会从鼻子和眼睛中流出血液。动物在出现临床症状的7至10天内开始死亡,典型性暴发病例的死亡率可达到95%至100%。而慢性病例会出现精神憔悴、跛行、关节肿胀和皮肤溃烂。病毒感染后5至8天或机体发热后的1至3天,不同阶段的妊娠母猪都有可能发生流产。轻度感染的动物可达到较高的恢复率。
病理变化
动物机体全身都会出现出血。淋巴结严重出血,以致看上去像脾脏的一部分。浆膜上的瘀斑非常严重,尤其是心脏、胸膜和腹膜。此外,在心肌、肺脏、肝脏、肾脏和膀胱处也有可能发现出血。而在一些轻度感染的病例甚至会出现胆囊水肿和肝淋巴结出血,也有可能会出现肺水肿。随着病程的发展,大肠处可能会形成出血性溃疡,不过纽扣状溃疡较为罕见,喉头出现和肾小管坏死及间质性出血(火鸡鸡蛋样肾)也较为少见。在慢性病例中,常见心包炎、胸膜炎、肺炎、关节炎和皮肤溃疡等症状。流产胎儿含有大量的胎盘和广泛的皮肤出血。组织学病变包括脑膜炎、血管增厚、血管壁严重损伤,并伴有出血。淋巴细胞数量降低也较为常见。
流行病学
受感染的猪会产生持续的病毒血症,而且病毒会存在于动物机体的体液、分泌物和排泄物之中。病毒在动物机体发热后7至10天开始脱落,并可形成气溶胶,其中粪便中含有的病毒量最多。病毒可在血液中存活8周,而在淋巴组织中可存活12周以上,最高纪录可达到21周。相关研究已证实,通过聚合酶链反应(PCR)可在保存超过500天的血液中检测到病毒。已康复的猪只对相同病毒的感染具有免疫力,但并不能抵抗其他病毒株的感染。母源免疫力的保护作用可长达7周左右。
上呼吸道是病毒感染家猪的主要途径。病毒可通过以下途径在动物之间进行传播:
  • 直接接触受感染病猪的排泄物(疣猪是非洲猪瘟病毒的携带者,包括无临床症状的疣猪)。
  • 摄入未煮熟的受感染的肉制品。
  • 生物媒介传播:如游走鸟壁虱(Ornithodoros erraticus)、非洲钝缘蜱(O.moubata)的叮咬。蜱在废弃的猪舍中存活5年后仍具有感染性。
  • 机械性载体传播:如血蝇、虱等的叮咬。
  • 非肠道接种可使低滴度的病毒造成感染。
诊断
由于非洲猪瘟具有高度的传染性,除了伴有发热和出血的临床症状以外,可对不同日龄的猪群造成95%至100%的死亡率,因此我们必须慎重对待。轻度感染的病例可能会难以进行诊断。在临床剖检时,发现多处出血、瘀斑肾、淋巴结出血和脾梗塞也表明是其中一种猪瘟。病料检查应包括凝血块、血液、淋巴结、肾、脾和肺。在非洲猪瘟导致流产病例中,通过检验母猪要比胎儿更容易的确诊是否感染病毒。流产病例的胎盘是诊断的最好材料。
目前的检测方法主要如下:
01
验证组织或体液中的抗体;
02
验证组织中的病毒;
03
白膜层白细胞或巨噬细胞的细胞培养物中分离病毒;
04
动物运输过程中的检验,尤其是国外新引进动物的时候,并要与猪瘟相区别。
控制
如果暴发非洲猪瘟疫病必须上报相关政府部门。同时扑杀受感染猪场以及任何直接接触受感染猪场的所有猪只。在从新开放受感染的养猪场之前必须对猪场进行彻底的消毒并引入哨兵猪。禁止从疫区内运输生猪和肉类产品。一些防治措施,如禁止喂食餐余食物和进口受感染的生猪或猪肉产品可有效保障国家的生物安全,而受感染的猪肉产品似乎与格鲁吉亚地区首次暴发非洲猪瘟疫情有着密切的关系。
非洲猪瘟疫苗仍在实验室研究阶段,具有普遍保护性的疫苗还没有上市。此外,非洲猪瘟的遗传抗性仍在探究之中。

黎先伟丨执业兽医师,2013年毕业于华南农业大学预防兽医学专业。现就职于广东永顺生物制药股份有限公司技术服务部,主要从事养殖一线技术服务和实验室检测等相关工作,为养殖客户的生产管理,疫病防控和疫苗使用等提供指导意见和解决方案。
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
返回列表
baidu
互联网 www.ranhaer.org