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阿尔然(Arzhan)墓群是二十世纪最重要的考古发现之一,位于阿勒泰北部俄罗斯的图瓦共和国境内。1970年代初,前苏联考古学家格里雅兹诺夫发现阿尔然1号墓。2001年,考古工作者又发现了阿尔然2号墓。两座大墓年代在公元前650年至前600年,首要特点是体量非常巨大,出土物品众多,其中黄金制品的数量极为庞大。1号墓石围直径达120米,高4米,坟冢下是由松木构筑的帐篷状木构架,一共分隔成70个放射状墓室。被盗较为严重,出土共计殉葬马匹160头。2号墓规模稍小,直径80米、高2米,坟冢下分布着26个土坑。为了防止被盗,木椁没有放在正中,而是放置在西北部的地下3米深、5米见方的土坑中,这个策略取得了成功。椁内发现有一男一女,男性40~45岁,女性30~35岁,均为侧身屈肢葬。身着衣物的装饰品、佩戴的首饰、武器全部都是黄金制作,多呈现栩栩如生的动物形态,数量共计5700余件,堪称考古历史之最。
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武丁攻鬼方:

武丁二十九年(公元前 1296 年)二月,商之方国下旨(地点不详)叛反,武丁遣大将望乘前往征讨,土方与鬼方乘机侵扰沚境,沚告急求援。三月武丁即"登人五千"采取集中优势兵力,分阶段重点打击的办法,先专攻土方和平下旨,至十二月下旨之战结束,接着开始进攻鬼方。

武丁于攻鬼方之际,深恐渭河流域的周人及陇西的羌方伺机行动,特遣蒙侯加以防范,此时鬼方与土方加强联盟共同对抗商军,战事非常激烈,规模日益扩大。武丁三十年七至九月期间,武丁曾七次下令增调援军,每次三千或五千,在不到 40 天的时间内就征调了二万三千人;并遍祭祖先及诸神,祈求福佑,可见战事之紧张。在商军强大的攻势之下,至武丁三十二年底(公元前 1293 年)鬼方终于溃败,商军胜利班师。

此次战争因商王朝与外族扩张势力的矛盾冲突而引发,由征下旨开始,征伐对象除下旨外,还有土方和鬼方,其中以对鬼方作战为主,战事持续达三年之久,动用了大量的军队,堪称为商代规模最大、时间最长的一场战争,即使是在商以后持续如此之久的战争亦不多见。战争的结果以商的胜利而告终,不仅平靖了边患,而且扩大了势力范围。
本帖最后由 hxr7353 于 2018-7-4 08:36 编辑

石峁遗址为黄帝系白狄人(N、O、C南、Q)建立的遗址:
公元前627年,春秋前期白狄主要分布于古雍州北部(今陕北一带)此处即为石峁遗址和诸多类似石砌城堡的核心区。此时,距离周穆王(姬满(?--公元前921年)西游已近过去300年,陕北石峁遗址按位置应当是周穆王时期-河宗氏、愚知之平、崩阝国的地盘。前550年,东迁至今河北省石家庄一带(冀中),前507年其中的鲜虞氏建立中山国。
本帖最后由 hxr7353 于 2018-7-4 08:27 编辑

白狄与秦都在雍州,白狄其最初的分布区域,主要在今陕北(石峁遗址附近)及陕西洛水流域。公元前578年,晋厉公命吕相为使致秦桓公《绝秦书》说:"白狄与君同州,君之仇雠;而我之婚姻也"。

前550年,因受秦国的压迫和晋国和戎政策的诱惑,东迁至今河北省石家庄一带。东迁后的白狄主要由鲜虞氏、肥氏、鼓氏、仇由氏 4个氏族组成。后肥氏、鼓氏、仇由氏为晋所灭。公元前507年鲜虞建立中山国,是为早期鲜虞中山国,白狄所建的诸侯国,其见诸史乘始于公元前506百有余年后,“地方五百里”,兵车千乘,成为一个实力仅次于“七雄”的二等强国。鲜虞中山国姬姓白狄可能是黄帝集团在陕北的一脉子孙。与姬周同宗。
公元前406年为魏文侯所灭。前381年左右,"中山复国",是为后期鲜虞中山国,都灵寿(今河北省平山县),公元前296年为赵国所灭。
本帖最后由 hxr7353 于 2018-7-4 08:23 编辑

顾栋高《春秋大事表•四裔表序》[2]云:“狄之别有三:曰赤狄、曰白狄、曰长狄。长狄兄弟三人,无种类。而赤狄之种有六:曰东山皋落氏、曰廧咎如、曰潞氏、曰甲氏、曰留吁、曰铎辰。潞为上党之潞县,处晋腹心。(鲁)宣(公)十五年(前594)晋灭赤狄潞氏,明年(前593)并灭甲氏、留吁、铎辰。留吁、甲氏俱在今之广平,铎辰在潞安境。白狄之种有三,其先与秦同州,在陕之延安(石峁遗址附近),所谓西河之地。其别种在今之真定、槁城、晋州者,曰鲜虞、曰肥、曰鼓。鲜虞最强,与晋数斗争,而肥、鼓俱为晋所灭。盍春秋时戎狄为中国患甚矣,而狄为最;诸狄之中赤狄为最;赤狄诸种族,潞氏为最。晋之灭潞也,其君臣全力以胜之。…狄之强莫炽于闵、僖之世,残灭邢、卫,侵犯齐、鲁,其时止称狄,未冠以赤、白之号。……,自宣迄昭六七十年,晋灭陆浑兼肥、鼓,刬潞氏、留吁、铎辰,戎狄之在河朔间者稍稍静矣。而鲜虞亦曰中山(国),至战国时为列国,潜号称王,后灭于赵。…潞氏在山西潞安府,落氏则在平阳府垣由县,鲜于在直隶真定府,肥在膏城县西南,鼓在今晋州。”
赤狄 之别种。公元前六世纪末,为 晋 所灭。故城在今 山西省 潞城县 东北四十里。《左传·宣公十五年》:"六月癸卯, 晋 师灭赤 狄 潞氏 。" 杜预 注:" 潞 , 赤狄 之别种。 潞氏 ,国,故称氏。"
《竹书纪年》:“殷王子亥宾于有易而淫焉,有易之君绵臣杀而放之。是故殷主上甲微假师于河伯,以伐有易,克之,遂杀其君绵臣也。”《山海经•大荒东经》:“王亥托于有易、河伯仆牛,有易杀王亥,取仆牛。河念有易,有易潜出”。
《春秋大事表》赤狄之种六之中,甲氏在今广平(今河北省鸡泽县),于前814年被晋所灭。

白狄原在陕西(石峁遗址哦),后渐向东扩展并越过太行山,其属鲜虞之名,最早见于《国语》。公元前774年(周幽王八年),郑桓公问史伯何处才能得到安居,史伯曰:“北有卫、燕、狄鲜虞、潞、洛、泉、徐、蒲”, 所提狄诸部落,除鲜虞属白狄,其余大都属赤狄,史伯所说鲜虞实际上是代表白狄。从地理位置看,当年有易氏被商上甲微灭亡后之遗民,逃往晋冀间和太行山区应可信
本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-7-4 09:09 编辑

思茅——石峁——石门——司马——思摩,也确实似乎相关(“Smith”是铁匠,“Manson”是石匠,感觉Manson就是“门石”,乃“石门”反言尔)。愚以为白狄跟塔吉克有关,乃是商人婚姻部落——虽然经常是抢亲。有苏氏“妲己”(塔吉克、达吉斯坦),殷末飞廉为纣王石北方,其实应该就是联络石峁等大石部落(“大石”作为狄人贵族族号,无怪乎耶律大石西迁能建立西辽帝国),霍太山——葛天——浩特——洪洞——崆峒——滹沱——忽炭——河套——哈达——赫图阿拉——哈代——赫梯,此名神圣,故为拜祭上帝之所(上帝乃西方白帝,也是飞廉始祖少昊也)。雅利安——延安——晏安(曹姓之祖,西域曹国乃昭武九姓之一大姓)——燕然——伊洛——伊犁——雅安——彝良——夜郎——伊朗,西域后世也有“苏伐”姓氏(苏方,昆吾之后,豕韦——松花江——苏温——苏护——苏瓦——苏门答腊——素宛——苏维汇,维吾尔——魁梧——昆吾),当然以色列不早于吾华,而犹太之有我东华影响则似乎必然,有苏——鸡泽——耶稣,苏妲己——甲氏狄——己苏妲(Christ),豕韦忌讳猪,何意此大彭氏远支,竟成了西极小强!像石勒这种羯室渴石,到达石门也算达本还源。只不过,希吉来后对我晋室人民屠戮过甚(不知是不是冤冤相报,毕竟春秋晋国灭了群狄,也算宿仇),后来又招报应。言与神同在,这个倒是很有道理的。
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
味道,舌尖上的埃及!西王母石室大概也跟这差不多?



4,500-year-old 'paramilitary kitchens' used by pyramid builders for brewing and breadmaking found near Giza

  • Archaeologists found two ancient houses near the Giza Pyramid of Menkaure
  • One of these is thought to have been home to a person who oversaw livestock
  • Other was likely home to wadaat priest who may have been in charge of brewing
By Cheyenne Macdonald For Dailymail.com

Published: 21:56 BST, 4 July 2018 | Updated: 23:14 BST, 4 July 2018



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Archaeologists in Egypt have unearthed two ancient houses likely linked to the construction of the famous Giza pyramids.
The 4,500-year-old structures may have been home to kitchen officials and even a priest belonging to an ancient institution known as the ‘wadaat,’ based on the presence of seals found nearby according to Live Science.
Attached to the suspected priest’s residence, the researchers also found an object thought to have been used for brewing and breadmaking.

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Archaeologists in Egypt have unearthed two ancient houses likely linked to the construction of the famous Giza pyramids. The 4,500-year-old structures may have been home to kitchen officials and even a priest belonging to an ancient institution known as the ‘wadaat’

The two homes were found in a region that once served as a major port, and stand near a series of ‘galleries’ that housed upwards of 1,000 people, according to Live Science.
Evidence found alongside the structures indicates they both played a role in food production.
While one may have been home to a person in charge of livestock, the priest figure was likely head of brewing and baking.
Feeding the occupants of the galleries would be a huge undertaking, requiring thousands of pounds of food each day, Live Science notes.
Those living there were likely part of a paramilitary force.





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Attached to the suspected priest’s residence, the researchers also found an object thought to have been used for brewing and breadmaking


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The two homes were found in a region that once served as a major port, and stand near a series of ‘galleries’ that house upwards of 1,000 people, according to Live Science. Digital reconstructions show how these houses may once have operated

Some of the food may also have made its way to the nearby Pyramid of Menkaure, the experts say, which was being built at the time.
Archaeologists have investigated the secrets of the Giza pyramids over several decades, and continue to uncover more and more clues on their construction.
Research publish this past February suggests the Egyptians used shadows cast during the equinox to achieve near-perfect alignment when building the Great Pyramid.
The method, known as the Indian circle method, would have relied on a wooden rod known as gnomon, to track the path of the sun throughout the day, allowing them to draw precise lines running east-west.
'The builders of the Great Pyramid of Khufu aligned the great monument to the cardinal points with an accuracy of better than four minutes of arc, or one-fifteenth of one degree,' Dash wrote in a the paper.







Evidence found alongside the structures indicates they both played a role in food production. While one may have been home to a person in charge of livestock, the priest figure was likely head of brewing and baking.

WHEN DID HUMANS START DRINKING BEER?Humans have had a long history of consuming alcohol.
It is believed the primitive cultures of Mesopotania could have been brewing malted barley scraps as far back as 10,000BC but there are no records of it.
The earliest proof of beer-drinking dates back to Northern China 9,000 years ago.
This ancient brew was made using hawthorn fruit, Chinese wild grapes, rice and honey, and is the oldest known fermented beverage in history - older even than wine.

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The earliest proof of beer-drinking dates back to Northern China 9,000 years ago

To make it the corn was milled and moistened in the maker’s mouth to convert starches in the corn into fermentable sugars - before it was ‘spat’ into the beer.
Throughout history, the consumption of alcohol may have helped people become more creative, advancing the development of language, art and religion.
This is because alcohol lowers inhibitions and makes people feel more spiritual.
It is believed the Egyptians started brewing beer around 5,000BC, according to the papyrus scrolls.
They were brewing things like dates, pomegranates and other indigenous herbs.
At around 3150 BC, the Egyptians used industrial-scale breweries to provide beer for the workers who built the pyramids of Giza.
Eventually beer made its way from the Middle East to Europe where an abundance of barley crops provided lots of raw ingredient for brewers.
Experts have now found evidence of brewing in Greece during the Bronze Age.
Researchers believe that these prehistoric people enjoyed getting merry with alcoholic drinks for feasts all year-round and not just when the grapes were ripe.
Not only was it considered nutritional it was also a safe alternative to drinking water.
It was in the Middle Ages that malted barley became the main source of fermented sugar and beer became the beverage we are familiar with today.


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He added that all three of Egypt's largest pyramids, including another located at Giza, 'Khafre', and the 'Red Pyramid' found at nearby Dahshur, share the same high degree of accuracy in their alignment with the cardinal points.
'All three pyramids exhibit the same manner of error; they are rotated slightly counter-clockwise from the cardinal points,' he wrote.
And last November, researchers revealed the discovery of a massive secret chamber within the Great Pyramid of Giza.
Researchers suggest the 30-meter0long passage could be a 'construction gap' - part of a trench that allowed workers to access the Grand Gallery and King's Chamber while the rest of the pyramid was built.

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Archaeologists have investigated the secrets of the Giza pyramids over several decades, and continue to uncover more and more clues on their construction
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
味道,舌尖上的埃及!西王母石室大概也跟这差不多吗?
在吉萨附近发现有4500年历史的“准军事厨房”,用于建造金字塔建造者用来酿造和制作面包。
考古学家在Menkaure的吉萨金字塔附近发现了两座古老的房子
其中一个被认为是一个人的家谁监管牲畜
另一个可能是wadaat牧师的家,他可能负责酿造
夏安·麦克唐纳为《每日邮报》网站撰稿
发布时间:英国夏令时21:56,2018年7月4日|更新时间:英国夏令时23:14,2018年7月4日
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埃及考古学家发掘出两座可能与著名的吉萨金字塔有关的古宅。
据现场科学报道,这些有4500年历史的建筑可能是厨房官员的家,甚至是属于“瓦达特”(wadaat)古建筑的一位牧师的家。
在被怀疑是牧师的住宅上,研究人员还发现了一个被认为用于酿造和制作面包的物品。

埃及考古学家发掘出了两座可能与著名的吉萨金字塔有关的古建筑。这座有4500年历史的建筑可能是厨房官员的家,甚至是属于一个古老的“瓦达喀特”(wadaat)机构的牧师的家
据现场科学报道,这两处房屋位于一个曾经是主要港口的地区,靠近一系列“画廊”,那里有1000多人居住。
在这些建筑旁边发现的证据表明,它们都在食品生产中发挥了作用。
虽然一个人可能是负责管理牲畜的人的家,但牧师的形象很可能是酿造和烘焙的负责人。
给画廊里的人喂食将是一项艰巨的任务,每天需要数千磅的食物。
居住在那里的人可能是准军事部队的一部分。

研究人员在被怀疑是牧师的住所发现了一个被认为是用来酿造和制作面包的东西

据Live Science网站报道,这两处住宅位于一个曾经是主要港口的地区,靠近一系列“画廊”,那里有1000多人。数字重建显示了这些房屋是如何运作的。
专家们说,有些食物可能也进入了附近的孟卡列金字塔,该金字塔当时正在建造中。
考古学家在过去几十年里一直在研究吉萨金字塔的秘密,并继续发掘出越来越多关于它们建造的线索。
今年2月发表的一项研究表明,埃及人在春分时使用了投射的阴影,以在建造大金字塔时实现近乎完美的对齐。
这种被称为“印度圆法”(Indian circle method)的方法,将依靠一根名为gnomon的木棒,全天跟踪太阳的轨迹,使他们能够绘制出东西向的精确线条。
达什在一份文件中写道,胡夫大金字塔的建造者将大纪念碑对准了基点,精确程度超过了四分钟,也就是一度的十五分之一。

在这些建筑旁边发现的证据表明,它们都在食品生产中发挥了作用。虽然一个人可能是负责管理牲畜的人的家,但牧师的形象很可能是酿造和烘焙的负责人。
人类什么时候开始喝啤酒的?人类饮酒的历史由来已久。
据信,美索不达米亚的原始文化早在公元前1万年前就已经开始酿造麦芽糖的大麦残片,但至今没有记录。
喝啤酒最早的证据可以追溯到9000年前的中国北方。
这种古老的酿造方法是用山楂、中国野生葡萄、大米和蜂蜜酿造的,是历史上已知的最古老的发酵饮料,甚至比葡萄酒还要古老。
早在9000年前,中国北方就有啤酒饮用的最早证据。
为了使玉米在酿造过程中,玉米被碾碎,并将玉米淀粉转化成可发酵的糖,然后再将其“吐”到啤酒中。
纵观历史,饮酒可以帮助人们变得更有创造力,促进语言、艺术和宗教的发展。
这是因为酒精降低了压抑,让人感觉更精神。
据《纸莎草卷宗》报道,据信,埃及人大约在公元前5000年就开始酿造啤酒了。
他们正在酿造枣子、石榴和其他本土草药。
大约在公元前3150年,埃及人使用工业规模的酿酒厂为建造吉萨金字塔的工人提供啤酒。
最后,啤酒从中东传到了欧洲,那里大量的大麦作物为酿酒者提供了许多原材料。
专家们现在已经在希腊的青铜器时代发现了酿酒的证据。
研究人员认为,这些史前人类喜欢在一整年享用酒精饮料作为盛宴,而不仅仅是在葡萄成熟的时候。
它不仅被认为是有营养的,而且是饮用水的安全替代品。
正是在中世纪,麦芽成为发酵糖的主要来源,啤酒成为我们今天所熟悉的饮料。
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他补充说,埃及最大的三座金字塔,包括另一座位于吉萨的“哈夫拉”金字塔,以及附近达舒尔发现的“红色金字塔”,在它们与基准点的排列上都有着同样高的精确度。
“三个金字塔都表现出同样的错误;它们从基点开始,以逆时针方向轻微旋转,”他写道。
去年11月,研究人员发现了吉萨大金字塔内的一个巨大的密室。
研究人员认为,这条30米长的通道可能是一个“建筑缺口”,这是一条沟渠的一部分,工人们可以在金字塔的其他部分建成时进入大画廊和国王的房间。

考古学家在过去几十年里一直在研究吉萨金字塔的秘密,并继续发掘出越来越多关于它们建造的线索
本帖最后由 hxr7353 于 2018-7-5 20:49 编辑

9000年前,中国北方就有啤酒饮用的最早证据。中国科技大学博导、贾湖遗址主要发掘者张居中教授与美国宾夕法尼亚大学著名教授、博士帕特里克·麦克戈温合作,通过对出土陶器上的附着物进行研究证明:9000年前贾湖人已经掌握了酒的酿造方法,所用原料包括大米、蜂蜜、葡萄和山楂等。淮南子一书中记载:清凉美酒,始于耒佀,蘖造醴,曲酿酒。农业出现继而酒出现。最早的人工酿酒称为醴,蘖造醴,曲酿酒。古人嫌醴寡淡随弃之而保留曲酿酒之法。

在中国史籍记载中提到 “糵(指生芽的粟米)造醴(甜酒),就是指用发了芽的粟米制作酒,这种酒也被普遍认为是啤酒的雏形。但“後世厌醴味薄,逐至失传”,就是说在遥远的古代,中国人认为“醴”这种酒味道太过寡淡,于是放弃了这种制酒工艺,以至没有流传于后世。但是保留下来了曲酿酒的方法,也就是今天的黄酒。所以,黄酒是人类酿酒延续至今最古老的酒,是所有酒的鼻祖。

同时也有史料记载:杜康造酒说:东汉《说文解字》中解释“酒”字的条目中有:“杜康作秫酒。”《世本》也有同样的说法。仪狄造酒说:《世本》相传“仪狄始作酒醪”。公元前二世纪《吕氏春秋》云:“仪狄作酒”。汉代刘向的《战国策》说:“昔者,帝女令仪狄作酒而美”。总之,人类发明酿酒技术起源于中国,中国是世界上最早掌握酿酒的国家。

2004年,一个独立的考古团队开始发掘米家崖的两个地下坑,具体位置在陕西省渭河的支流。这些深坑长3.7米,深2.6米,每个里面都有大量陶器,包括广口罐、漏斗和尖底细口瓶。其中很多陶器的内表面上都有黄色残余物。考古学家在每个地下坑里还发现了原始炉灶的遗迹。根据独特的陶器风格,团队推断这些器物很有可能是公元前3500年到公元前2900年仰韶文化晚期的作品。

米家崖遗址可能是人类首批小啤酒厂之一,那里有啤酒酿造各个阶段所需的仪器:糖化和酿制时用的罐子和炉子、过滤时用的漏斗,以及放置成品的贮存罐。

为了验证这一假说,王佳静和团队把陶器内表面上的黄色残余物分离了出来,利用大型数据库和统计分析,根据独特的淀粉和矿物结构来辨别它们到底是何方神圣。

研究结果发表于5月23日的《美国科学院院报》(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)上,他们发现残余物中有不少大麦、小米、薏米(一种古老的热带种仁作物,现在近乎不含麸质),还有丝瓜根、山芋和百合等成分。王佳静说:“这个配方非常有趣,大麦来自西方,不是该地区的原生物种。其他成分(主要是黍、薏米等)则产于中国。

6000年前,居住在美索不达米亚地区的苏美尔人,他们用大麦芽酿制成了原始的啤酒,不过那时的啤酒并没有丰富的泡沫。
大约在3000年前,波斯一带的闪米人学会了制作啤酒,而且他们还把制作啤酒的方法刻在板上,献给农耕女神。
公元前2225年,啤酒在古巴比伦人中得到了普及,他们用啤酒来招待客人。那时候古埃及人和古巴比伦人注意到了啤酒的药用价值,纷纷用啤酒制作药物。
希腊人也非常热爱喝啤酒,他们从埃及人那里学会了酿制啤酒的方法。公元4世纪时,啤酒传遍了整个北欧。啤酒种类开始变得丰富,其中英国人用蜂蜜和水混合酿制而成的蜂蜜酒是比较有名的一种。英国出现的一种黑啤酒也非常有名,与现代的黑啤酒已经很相似。
公元1世纪,爱尔兰人自行酿制出了一种跟现代的淡色啤酒相仿的啤酒。
1516年,巴伐利亚公国大公威廉四世发布《德国啤酒纯酒法》规定啤酒只可以啤酒花,麦子,酵母和水做原料,同时是最早的食品法律19世纪,有了冷冻机,人们开始对啤酒进行低温后熟的处理,就是这一发明使啤酒冒出了泡沫。
1900年,俄罗斯技师首次在中国哈尔滨建立了啤酒作坊,中国人开始喝上了啤酒。1903年,英国人和德国人又在中国建了英德啤酒厂,就是青岛啤酒厂的前身。名称由来  “啤酒”的名称是由外文的谐音译过来的,拿啤酒的“啤”字来说,中国过去的字典里是不存在的。后来,有人根据国外对啤酒的称呼如德国、荷兰称“Bier”;英国称“Beer”;法国称“Biere”;意大利称“Birre”;罗马尼亚称“Berea”等等,这些外文都含有“啤”字的音,于是译成中文“啤”字创造了这个外来语文字,又由于具有一定的酒精,故翻译时用了“啤酒”一词,一直沿用至今。正因为啤酒以大麦芽为主要原料,所以日本人也称啤酒为“麦酒”。

酿酒与粟米、彩陶、狗、鸡从中国传向中亚、西亚苏美尔;中国技术西传参与了苏美尔文明的形成。
本人在《龙华起信论》曾有过推断,西方上帝其实是女性,就是西王母。虽然西方上帝就是少昊,但是也是羲和,生了十个太阳的那位。羲和——少昊——谢赫,本来是女性太阳神(似乎太平洋沿岸日本、满族等还有类似神话传说),但是父权制时代变成了男性形象。这也是“大和(Yamato)——伊玛吐——叶茂台——野马台——亚马孙——亚美尼亚——也门”这些词的关联。
我有述北方游牧民族“送女人”和亲——就是历史记载西王母部落跟华夏的交往,和西方传说的亚马孙女战士。说明历史时期中亚女王部落交通东西、国际公交的历史伟绩不容忽视。而她们,也是犹太人的始祖,我经过深思认为犹太人那秘不见人的上帝其实就是女王(西王母),甚至示巴女王更可以视为母系传统的“上帝”部落的传人,所以犹太人恢复传统时以母系认亲。
吹Y论者在上帝面前应该谦恭,因为是西王母混一欧亚非美澳的!她就是昆仑主神,众神之母。也就是我们习称的“老母”。
当然我也是大男子主义者,我真希望上帝赐我个好妻子!
而当我看到瑞典正本清源,认识到上帝的角色经历了母系-父系的替换,导致了《圣经》的神秘后,终于认识到其实上帝曾是老母,又换为慈父,言与神同在,用什么言语,真得斟酌,所以还是含糊性别比较好,欣慰他们其实在印证我的推论。不过我委实不喜欢瑞典的女权主义。


Is God gender-neutral? Episcopal Church debates altering language in Book of Common Prayer to make it clear 'God is not male'
  • The Book of Common Prayer could soon start using gender-neutral language
  • They are looking to overhaul the religious book for the first time since 1979
  • However, some theologians argue church leaders can use alternative service materials without altering the holy book itself
  • Other proposed additions include the Christian duty to look after the planet
  • Last year the Church of Sweden asked priests to stop using terms 'Lord' and 'He'
By Phoebe Weston For Mailonline

Published: 18:23 BST, 4 July 2018 | Updated: 18:23 BST, 4 July 2018
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The Episcopal Church could change the wording of its prayer books to make it clear that 'God is not male'.
The Book of Common Prayer, which is used in every Episcopal congregation, could soon start using gender-neutral language when referring to the supreme deity.
The proposed changes, which also include adding same-sex marriages to the liturgy, are being debated in Texas this week
However, some theologians argue that church leaders can use alternative service materials without altering the holy book.
This follows news at the end of last year that the Church of Sweden has asked priests to refrain from using terms like 'Lord' and 'He' in favour of the less specific 'God.'
Scroll down for video


The Book of Common Prayer, which is used in every Episcopal congregation, could soon start using gender-neutral language when referring to the supreme deity. Pictured is God (right) in The Creation of Adam by Michelangelo

The leaders of the Episcopal Church and biblical scholars are having their triennial convention in Austin, Texas to discuss whether to make it clear God is not gendered.
They are looking to overhaul the religious book - which is seen by three million people in the US alone - for the first time since 1979.
One of those recommending changing to non-gendered langauge is the Reverent Wil Gafney, professor of the Hebrew Bible at Brite Divinity School in Texas.
'As long as a masculine God remains at the top of the pyramid, nothing else we do matters', Reverend Gafney told the Washington Post.
'We construct a theological framework in which we talk about gender equality… then we say that which is most holy in the universe is only and exclusively male.




'That just undoes some of the key theology that says we are equal in God's sight, we are fully created in God's image', she said.
However, not all religious leaders are keen on such a revision of the text.
Chicago Bishop Jeffrey Lee said he thinks religious leaders should spend more time studying the existing book rather than revising it.
'We can't define God. We can say something profoundly true about God, but the mystery we dare to call God is always bigger than anything we can imagine', he told the Post.
He said church leaders should use the alternative service materials published since 1979 that are more gender neutral without changing the original book.

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The leaders of the Episcopal Church (pictured, stock image) and biblical scholars are having their triennial convention in Austin, Texas to discuss whether to make it clear God is not gendered

HOW IS SWEDEN MAKING THE CHURCH GENDER-NEUTRAL? The Church of Sweden is urging its clergy to use gender-neutral language when referring to the supreme deity.
The national church, which is Evangelical Lutheran, asks priests and other staff to refrain from using terms like 'Lord' and 'He' in favour of the less specific 'God.'
The Lord's Prayer, which in Swedish as in English is commonly called 'Our Father', shall continue to be referred to as such.
The move is one of several taken by the national Evangelical Lutheran church in updating a 31-year-old handbook setting out how services should be conducted in terms of language, liturgy, hymns and other aspects.
The decision was taken at the end of an eight-day meeting of the church's 251-member decision-making body at the end of last year, and took affect in May this year on the Christian holiday of Pentecost.
A former state church, headquartered in Uppsala, some 37 miles north of the capital, has 6.1 million baptized members in a country of 10 million.
As of 2014 it is headed by a woman, Archbishop Antje Jackelen.
The change has been met with some criticism in Sweden.
Christer Pahlmblad, an associate theology professor with Sweden's Lund University, told a Christian newspaper in Denmark that the move was 'undermining the doctrine of the Trinity and the community with the other Christian churches.'
'It really isn't smart if the Church of Sweden becomes known as a church that does not respect the common theology heritage,' he told Kristeligt Dagblad.

[url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url]

Reverend Gafney says she already changes words like 'King' to 'Ruler' or 'Creator' so the gender is not obvious.
She sometimes changes 'He' to 'She' in her services and believes that 'men' and 'God' should not be in the same category.
Some religious leaders want to make other revisions to the book, including making it clear Christians have a duty to protect the Earth.
They are also considering adding same-sex marriage ceremonies to the liturgy as well as a ceremony to celebrate when a transgender person adopts a new name.
At the end of last year the Church of Sweden asked leaders to refrain from using terms like 'Lord' and 'He' in favour of the less specific 'God.'
The Lord's Prayer, which in Swedish as in English is commonly called 'Our Father', shall continue to be referred to as such.
The move is one of several taken by the national Evangelical Lutheran church in updating a 31-year-old handbook setting out how services should be conducted in terms of language, liturgy, hymns and other aspects.
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本帖最后由 历史的天空 于 2018-7-5 20:29 编辑

基本可以不用再猜了,《发现夏朝》都已经给出了答案。有时间可以看看《发现夏朝》。
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本帖最后由 癯鹤 于 2018-7-7 10:17 编辑
味道,舌尖上的埃及!西王母石室大概也跟这差不多?



4,500-year-old 'paramilitary kitchens' used by pyramid builders for brewing and breadmaking found near Giza

Archaeologists found two ancie ...
癯鹤 发表于 2018-7-5 11:05
味道,舌尖上的秘鲁。管子名言“衣食足而知荣辱,仓廪实而知礼节”,道尽了文化进步文明起源的玄机呀!没有君子不养文艺,烟酒都是文明的副产物呀!像我这穷困潦倒者,研究不起文化也!


How feasting formed modern civilization: Researchers say 'bread and wine' were key to human development

  • Experts say civilization arose around world thanks to evolution of cooperation
  • Bread and wine are products of settled society, says researcher Charles Stanish
  • Both products represent the power to control nature and create civilization
By Charles Stanish For The Conversation
Published: 17:01 BST, 6 July 2018 | Updated: 17:02 BST, 6 July 2018



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'The Epic of Gilgamesh' is one of the earliest texts known in the world.
It's the story of a god-king, Gilgamesh, who ruled the city of Uruk in Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium B.C. Within its lines, the epic hints at how the ancients viewed the origins of their civilization.
Gilgamesh's antagonist, Enkidu, is described as a wild man, living with the beasts and eating grasses with the gazelles.
But he's seduced by a beautiful temple priestess who then offers him clothing and food, saying 'Enkidu, eat bread, it is the staff of life; drink the wine, it is the custom of the land.'
And so Enkidu is transformed from a naked wild beast into a 'civilized' man living with other people.
Both bread and wine are products of settled society. They represent the power to control nature and create civilization, converting the wild into the tamed, the raw into the cooked – and their transformation cannot be easily done alone.

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Archaeologists have discovered that the consumption of food and drink in ritually prescribed times and places is one of the cornerstones of heightened cooperation throughout human history. People coming together for a solstice feast in ancient Peru is illustrated above

The very act of transforming the wild into the civilized is a social one, requiring many people to work together.
Over the past few decades, archaeological theory has shifted toward the idea that civilization arose in different regions around the world thanks to the evolution of cooperation.
Archaeologists have discovered that the consumption of food and drink in ritually prescribed times and places — known technically as feasting — is one of the cornerstones of heightened sociality and cooperation throughout human history.
My own research in Peru bears this out. The data from my colleagues' and my work provides yet another detailed case study for theorists to model the evolution of complexity in one of the rare places where a civilization independently developed.
Signs of cooperation in PeruHow does complex society originate out of the hunter-gatherer bands and small settled villages that dominated the globe well into the early Holocene around 9,000 years ago?
And once such social organizations develop, what kinds of mechanisms sustain these new societies sufficiently to develop into the Uruks of the ancient world?
Six years ago, after 30 years of research in the Titicaca Basin in the high Andes, my colleague Henry Tantaleán and I started a long-term archaeological research program in the valley of Chincha in the south coast of Peru.





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The researchers studied one endpoint site, called Cerro del Gentil, to assess its significance in Paracas culture. The site is a large platform mound with three levels. Geoglyphs that modified the landscape are still visible, delineating a path to where the sun sets on the summer solstice

Thanks to work by previous archaeologists and our own new data, we have been able to piece together a comprehensive prehistory of the valley beginning several millennia ago.
One significant time period is known as Paracas; it lasted from roughly 800 to 200 B.C. This is the time when the first complex societies developed in the region, the origin of civilization in this part of the ancient world.
We documented a massive Paracas presence in the valley, ranging from large pyramid structures to modest villages scattered over the landscape.
Across the hyper-arid pampa lands above the valley, the Paracas peoples built linear geoglyphs: designs etched into the desert landscape that they lined with small field stones.
We found five sets of lines that all concentrated on the five major Paracas sites at the edge of the pampa. We also found many small structures built between the lines.
Our research indicated that a number of these small structures and many of the lines pointed to the June solstice sunset.
Previous work by our team and others throughout Peru unequivocally indicates that the pre-Columbian peoples of the Andes used the solstices to mark important events.
We concluded that these sites were the endpoints of ritually significant social events that were timed by the solstices and possibly other astronomical phenomena.
Feasting at ParacasWe chose to intensively study one endpoint site, called Cerro del Gentil, to assess its significance in Paracas culture. The site is a large platform mound with three levels. The base level measures 50 by 120 meters at its maximum.
Each level contains a sunken patio measuring around 12 meters on a side.

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A woven cloth bag stuffed with human hair is shown

Excavations by Tantaleán and his team in one of these patios yielded a rich trove of artifacts, including textiles, food stuffs, pottery, decorated gourds, stone objects, reeds, miscellaneous objects and human offerings.
We found large pottery vessels that held chicha or maize beer, the equivalent to Enkidu's wine. There was evidence of food preparation as well, though we did not find a resident population.
We found large numbers of pottery serving vessels and evidence of termination rituals involving liquid libations poured into the patio at the conclusion of some elaborate feasts.
Cerro del Gentil, in fact, was a classic archaeological example of a very significant feasting place.
No one seemed to live at this well-built location year-round, though there was plenty of evidence that from time to time many people were present to eat, drink and even make human sacrifices together, probably at particular special times of the astronomical calendar.
We used the Cerro del Gentil data to test the following hypotheses about how the earliest cooperative human groups came together: Did people start out small, feasting within their local group and then expanding to incorporate more distant groups?
Or, did the earliest successful groups develop contacts with distant autonomous groups around a large region?

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The team started a long-term archaeological research program in the valley of Chincha in the south coast of Peru. A small geoglyph in the Chincha pampa with the center line defining the June solstice

Our colleague Kelly Knudson from Arizona State University analyzed the strontium ratios in 39 organic objects found in the patios as offerings. The ratio of 87Sr/86Sr in any organic object, including humans, tells us from what geographical zone that object is from.
We discovered that objects in the patio were from a very broad range of ecozones all around the south central Andes. Some objects came from as far as the Titicaca Basin 600 kilometers away, others from the south coast 200 or so kilometers distant.
Feasting rituals build a young civilizationThis case study demonstrates that the earliest successful complex societies in the south coast of Peru circa 400 B.C. involved a wide catchment of people and objects.
At least in Paracas society, the optimal strategy of civilization building involved creating widespread alliances early on and then expanding on this model over centuries.
We know this because people in Cerro del Gentil incorporated objects and even people in their offerings from distant areas.
In contrast, at a later ceremonial site where the catchment was quite small, all of the objects and human remains were from the immediate environs, as evidenced by strontium analysis.

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Far from being quaint and exotic customs of 'primitive peoples,' elaborate rules of behavior, encoded in rich ritual practices, are ingenious means of organizing a society where coercion is absent

The Paracas pattern detected at Cerro del Gentil contrasts with a strategy in which people focused on their local group and then grew incrementally over time.
My colleagues and I plan to use these sorts of comparative cases to try to understand which strategies work better in which environmental and social contexts.
The evidence from Cerro del Gentil supports the theory I wrote about in my recent book 'The Evolution of Human Co-operation' – that cooperation in non-state societies is achieved by 'ritualizing' the economy.
WHEN DID HUMANS START DRINKING BEER?Humans have had a long history of consuming alcohol.
It is believed the primitive cultures of Mesopotania could have been brewing malted barley scraps as far back as 10,000BC but there are no records of it.
The earliest proof of beer-drinking dates back to Northern China 9,000 years ago.
This ancient brew was made using hawthorn fruit, Chinese wild grapes, rice and honey, and is the oldest known fermented beverage in history - older even than wine.

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The earliest proof of beer-drinking dates back to Northern China 9,000 years ago

To make it the corn was milled and moistened in the maker’s mouth to convert starches in the corn into fermentable sugars - before it was ‘spat’ into the beer.
Throughout history, the consumption of alcohol may have helped people become more creative, advancing the development of language, art and religion.
This is because alcohol lowers inhibitions and makes people feel more spiritual.
It is believed the Egyptians started brewing beer around 5,000BC, according to the papyrus scrolls.
They were brewing things like dates, pomegranates and other indigenous herbs.
At around 3150 BC, the Egyptians used industrial-scale breweries to provide beer for the workers who built the pyramids of Giza.
Eventually beer made its way from the Middle East to Europe where an abundance of barley crops provided lots of raw ingredient for brewers.
Experts have now found evidence of brewing in Greece during the Bronze Age.
Researchers believe that these prehistoric people enjoyed getting merry with alcoholic drinks for feasts all year-round and not just when the grapes were ripe.
Not only was it considered nutritional it was also a safe alternative to drinking water.
It was in the Middle Ages that malted barley became the main source of fermented sugar and beer became the beverage we are familiar with today.


[url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url][url=][/url]

People construct norms, rituals and taboos to organize their economic and political life.
Far from being quaint and exotic customs of 'primitive peoples,' elaborate rules of behavior, encoded in rich ritual practices, are ingenious means of organizing a society where coercion is absent.
Ritual practices reward cooperators and punish cheaters.
They therefore promote sustained group behavior toward common goals and solve what is famously known as the 'collective action problem' in human social life – how do you get everyone to work together toward something that's in everyone's long-term self-interest?
Feasting is a key component of this kind of sociality and cooperation. Enkidu's bread and wine is still relevant 5,000 years later.


This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.
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http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
本帖最后由 hxr7353 于 2018-7-13 16:45 编辑

考古上,炎黄年代之前,少典时代庙底沟二期文化由豫西北、晋东南进入关中地区,O系黄帝炎帝二族主要活动于渭水、姬水。黄帝族和炎帝族代表中原少典时代庙底沟二期文化西进,进入关中地区的势力。待炎黄崛起后,又东进北上击败中原、鄂尔多斯地区的土著部族。
黄帝颛顼很可能是Y-N,大电、庆云很像北极光,比如下面这则新闻,石球很像是黄帝发明蹴鞠的灵感来源呢!足球就是O形状,则黄帝跟Y-O关系也匪浅,所以也有很大几率是Y-O。


‘Where the Gods play football’ - the amazing Arctic island fit for Champions as World Cup reaches climax
By The Siberian Times reporter
12 July 2018
Giant natural balls in the Franz Josef archipelago that leave scientists flummoxed.

Visitors to this cosmic landscape named the round rocks ‘footballs of the Gods’. Picture: Russian Arctic

The huge stone balls up to two metres in height are found on appropriately-named Champ island above the polar circle.
Perfectly spherical they are scattered all over this northern uninhabited outpost.
We reveal the latest pictures of this remarkable sight as the final of the FIFA World Cup 2018 is played 2,842 kilometres to the south in Russian capital Moscow.
From the time they were first seen, visitors to this cosmic landscape named the round rocks ‘footballs of the Gods’, and at first it is hard to believe that they are natural and not made by man, or possibly giants.
Yet the barren 374 km2 (144 sq miles) island was never inhabited and scientists are sure they are not artificial, even if they cannot agree how they were formed.



The huge stone balls up to two metres in height are found on appropriately-named Champ island above the polar circle.

Similar but smaller stone balls were found last year on Heiss island in the same archipelago.
Russian polar researcher Viktor Boyarsky said of the extraordinary phenomenon: 'The spheres are made of soft sand stone.
'You can see that many large balls fell apart into two big halves, and the largest stone on the island is breaking down year by year.'
Konstantin Zaikov, of the Arctic Federal University, said: 'They look man-made, but they are in fact stones that were formed thousands years ago by crystallisation and subsequent magnetisation of grains of sand onto the crystal.
'Sand grains harden and create a fairly dense spherical shape.'












We reveal the latest pictures of this remarkable sight as the final of the FIFA World Cup 2018 is played 2,842 kilometres to the south in Russian capital Moscow.

On Heiss island ‘the spherulites look like round bullets or cannon balls. We found balls of different sizes, but none as big as at Champ island.’
Yet Austrian geologist Sepp Fridhubera claimed the rounded shapes of the rocks were formed underwater and they have an organic core in the centre.
As previous reports have noted every geologist seems to have their own theory.
Champ island is named after William S. Champ, a representative of American industrialist William Ziegler who funded a number of pioneering 19th century Arctic explorations.
Heiss is a Germanised version of the name Hayes. Isaac Israel Hayes, also American, was an Arctic explorer.
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
考古上,炎黄年代之前,少典时代庙底沟二期文化由豫西北、晋东南进入关中地区,O系黄帝炎帝二族主要活动于渭水、姬水。黄帝族和炎帝族代表中原少典时代庙底沟二期文化西进,进入关中地区的势力。待炎黄崛起后,又东进 ...
hxr7353 发表于 2018-7-13 16:42
虽然厌恶周色目及其兔子兔狲,但是对于历史和文化,俺还是持客观态度。即使黄帝是苏美尔人、古埃及人、古提人(库尔德人祖先?)、赫梯人、白狄人,不妨碍我们都是文化上的华夏,血缘上我们也肯定都是炎黄子孙(包括外子孙)。这个文化是独特的东方文化,这个民族不是摩登民族,不是朝奉卖家卖地呐,给马瓦里做奴下奴的民族!当然我不介意给回胞找到他们更早的东方之根,知根知底,那就还有啥可恼的?虽然我族不语怪力乱神,史书所记,跟外国神话一样都记录了史前全球化名词。

少典——撒旦——上帝——唆都——绥德——苏鲁锭——苏丹——萨德——山丹——闪电(巧合否?黄帝祂娘感“大电”而有孕,闪电就是少典哟,言与神同在呀)——顺德——沙特——司徒——石头——汕头——粟特——苏涂——塞特——上党——色达——双墩——商都——沙爹(非常有意思,南方人以茶为爹,良有以也,神农采药得茶,死葬茶陵,炎黄同出少典,今马来百越乃炎帝后裔,犹不忘神农氏采草药做美食之谷德,信而好古德,乃有沙爹一词)——赛义德——赡思丁(话说马来之民于今既清而真,也是良有以也,然吾怪其忘华夏族根也,可悲可叹!郑和南下所谓剿匪,不过是把可以跟大明争较华夏文明正统南窜岛夷的华人政权给消灭了,使他们更做西洋的驽犂,呜呼,可恶!)
http://blog.sina.com.cn/aganmu;安德(嗨,前一个无辜被封):
http://blog.sina.com.cn/kilarler
《中国古今地名大辞典》说:【乌氏县】汉置。氏音支。后汉曰乌枝。晋仍曰乌氏。后魏废。故城在今甘肃平凉县西北。《史记匈奴传》泾北有乌氏之戎。又《货殖传》乌氏倮畜牧。畜至用谷量牛马。秦始皇令倮比封君。后魏时徙置。今甘肃泾川县北有乌氏城。②《中国历史地名辞典》说:【乌氏县】战国秦惠王置,治所在今宁夏固原县东南。东汉作乌支县。北魏末徙治今甘肃泾川县东北,后废。③《中国历史地名大辞典》说:乌氏县又作阏氏、焉氏。本乌氏戎地,战国秦惠王置县,属北地郡。治所在今宁夏固原县东南。
春秋时期,今宁夏固原地区是乌氏戎等部落的居牧地。战国时期,乌氏属秦之领地,公元前337年,秦惠文王灭乌氏戎后置乌氏县。秦朝建立后至秦之末,乌氏县始终属于北地郡的辖县。秦朝时期,乌氏县地理位置重要,同时又处秦族和戎族结合部,秦戎杂处,具有民族融合等意义。乌氏县是秦朝时期具有重要地位的县级行政地理单元。乌氏县治所在固原市泾源县城北胭脂川一带,几乎囊括了整个六盘山区,地理范围包括原州、泾源、隆德、彭阳等区县大部分,另有一小部分属于秦北地郡朝那县。因此可以说乌氏县在秦朝时期是固原的代表,其政治、经济、文化基本能够代表固原地区的面貌。乌氏县的名称来源于乌氏戎的族称。乌氏戎生活在乌支水(或称乌水,今清水河)流域。《史记》引《括地志》云:“乌氏故城在泾州安定县东三十里,周之故地,后入戎。秦惠王取之,置乌氏县。[”1](2883)唐颜师古注“乌氏县”云:“氏音支。[”2](2074)乌氏县,班固本注云:“乌水,出西北入河。都卢山在西。莽曰乌亭
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